Year 2019, Volume , Issue 15, Pages 31 - 53 2019-02-04

Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları

Serkan İnal [1]

52 95

Günümüz Dünyasında küresel ısınmanın en önemli sebebi olarak görülen sera gazı salınımı sebebiyle kömür kullanımı tartışmalı hale gelse de ekonomik kaygıların çevre kaygılarının önüne geçmesi sebebiyle kömürün yoğun kullanımının uzun yıllar devam edeceği düşünülmektedir. Bu sebeple orman yangınları, yıldırım düşmesi vb. gibi etmenlerin yanı sıra kömür yangınlarının sıklıkla sebebi olan kömürün kendiliğinden yanması ile engellenememesi durumunda kömür yangınları küresel bir problem olmaya devam edecektir. Kömür yangınları, toksik gazlar ve elementler ile polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbonlar salınımına sebep olarak insan sağlığını ve doğal yaşamı ciddi şekilde tehdit etmektedir. Ayrıca bu yangınları söndürme çalışmaları ciddi harcamalara sebep olur ve önemli rezervler kaybedilir. Bununla birlikte asit yağmurları oluşur, yerüstü göçükleri meydana gelir ve bölge insanlarının yaşanmaz hale gelen evlerinden ayrılmaları ile hayalet şehirler ortaya çıkar. Hepsinden kötüsü ise özellikle yeraltı kömür madenlerinde kömür yangınları sebebiyle birçok çalışan hayatını kaybeder. Tüm bu sebeplerle senozoik dönemdeki örnekleri tespit edilen, hatta devonik ve karbonifer döneme kadar uzandığı düşünülen kömürün kendiliğinden yanması ve kömür yangınları insanoğlu için oldukça ciddi bir problemdir. Dolayısıyla bu konudaki çalışmaların artarak engelleme yollarının geliştirilmesi insanlığın ve doğal yaşamın faydasına olacaktır.

Kömür yangınları, Kendiliğinden yanma, Kömür yangın kazaları, Kömür yangınlarının çevresel etkileri, Kömür yangınlarının ekonomik etkileri
  • Adamus, A., Sancer, J., Guranova, P. ve Zubicek, V., 2011, An Investigation of The Factors Associated with Interpretation of Mine Atmosphere for Spontaneous Combustion In Coal Mines, Fuel Processing Technology, 92, 663-670. Arısoy, A. ve Akgün, F., 2000, Effect of Pile Height on Spontaneous Heating of Coal Stockpiles, Combustion Science and Technology, 153, 157-168. Beamish, B.B., Lau, A.G., Moodie, A.L. ve Vallance, T.A., 2002, Assessing the Self-Heating Behaviour of Callide Coal Using a 2- Metre Column, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 15, 385-390. Beauchamp, C., 2010. Double Disaster: Lithgow Valley Colliery, New South Wales, 1886. Journal of Australaasian Mining History, 8, 106-118. Bell, F. G. ve Donnelly, L.J., 2006, Mining and Its Impact on the Environment, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 547. Bell, F. G., 1996, Dereliction: Colliery Spoil Heaps and Their Rehabilitation, Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. 2, No. 1, 85-96. Bell, F.G:, Bullock, S.E.T., Halbich, T.F.J. ve Lindsay, P., 2001, Environmental Impacts Associated with an Abandoned Mine in the Witbank Coalfield, South Africa, International Journal of Coal Geology, 45, 195-216. Belle, B. ve Biffi, M., 2018, Cooling Pathways for Deep Australian Longwall Coal Mines of the Future, International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, xxxxx Bjureby, E., Britten, M, Cheng, I., Kazmierka, M, Mezak, E., Munnik, V., Nandi, J., Pennington, S., Rochon, E., Schulz, N., Shahab, N., Vincent, J., Wei, M. ve Atıcı, H., 2009, Kömürün Gerçek Maaliyeti, 1. Baskı (2008), Greenpeace International, Editor: Rebecca Short ve yazarlar, Türkçe Basım: Greenpeace Akdeniz, İstanbul, 2009. British Petrol (B.P.), 2017. BP Energy Outlook 2017 Edition, https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/energy-outlook-2017/bp-energy-outlook-2017.pdf 16 Şubat 2018. Bullock, S.E.T. ve Bell, F.G., 1997, Some Problems Associated with Past Mining at a Mine in the Witbank Coalfield, South Africa, Environmental Geology, 33, 61-71. Cheng, W., Xin, L., Wang, G., Liu, Z. ve Nie, W., 2015, Analytical Research on Dynamic Temperature Field of Overburden in Goaf Fire-Area Under Piecewise-Linear Third Boundary Condition, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 90, 812-824. Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Hower, J. C. ve Fabianska, M. J., 2014, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Coal Wastes from the Starzykowiec Coal-Waste Dump (Upper Silesia, Poland), International Journal of Coal Geology, 127, 42-55. Cliff, D., 2009, Spontaneous Combustion Management – Linking Experiment With Reality, 2009 Coal Operators' Conference, University of Wollongong & the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 281-286. Colaizzi, G. J., 2004, Prevention, Control and/or Extinguishment of Coal Seam Fires Using Cellular Grout, International Journal of Coal Geology, 59, 75-81. Deng, C., Wang, J., Wang, X. ve Deng, H., 2010, Spontaneous Coal Combustion Producing Carbon Dioxide and Water, Mining Science and Technology, 20, 0082–0087. Dias, C. L., Oliveria, M. L. S., Hower, J. C., Taffarel, S. R., Kautzmann, R. M. ve Silva, L. F. O., 2014, Nanominerals and Ultrafine Particles from Coal Fires from Santa Catarina, South Brazil, International Journal of Coal Geology, 122, 50-60. Discover, 1999, China’s on Fire, http://discovermagazine.com/1999/oct/chinasonfire1697 19 Şubat 2018. Donnelly, L. J. ve Bell, F. G., Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective: Chapter 5 – Geotechnical and Environmental Problems, Editörler: Stracher, G.B., Prakash, A. Ve Sokol, E. V., Elsevier B.V., 2011. Engle, M.A., Radke, L.F., Heffern, E.L., O’Keefe, M.K.,Hower, J.C., Smeltzer, C.D., Hower, J.M., Olea, R.A., Eatwell, R.J., Blake, D.R., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D:, Sout, S.A., Queen, G., Aggen, K.L., Kolker, A., Prakash, A., Henke, K.R., Stracher, G.B., Shroeder, P.A., Roman-Colon, Y. ve Ter Shure, A., 2012, Gas Emissions, Minerals, and Tars Associated with Three Coal Fires, Powder River Basin, USA, Science of the Total Environment, 420, 146-159. Ersoy, M., 2010, Sürdürülebilir Kalkınmada Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye Kömür Madenciliği, Türkiye 17. Kömür Kongresi, Haziran 2010, 459-469. Garrison, T., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Henke, K.R., Copley, G.C., Blake, D.R. ve Hower, J.C., 2017, Gaseous Emissions from the Lotts Creek Coal Mine Fire: Perry County, Kentucky, International Journal of Coal Geology, doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2017.06.009, xxx. Güncüoğlu, S., 2014, The Centralia Tragedy: Coal Burning Underground, Türkiye 19. Kömür Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, Mayıs 2014, Zonguldak, 353-362. Heffern, E. L. ve Coates, D. A., 2004, Geologic History of Natural Coal-bed Fires, Powder River Basin, USA, International Journal of Coal Geology, 59, 25-47. Jiang, M., Qiu, J., Zhou, M., He, X., Cui, H., Lerro, C., Lv, L., Lin, X., Zhang, C., Zhang, H., Xu, R., Zhu, D., Dang, Y., Han, X., Zhang, H., Bai, H., Chen, Y., Tang, Z., Lin, R., Yao, T., Su, J., Xu, X., Liu, X., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Ma, B., Qiu, W., Zhu, C., Wang, S., Huang, H., Zhao, N., Li, X., Liu, Q. ve Zhang, Y., 2015, Exposure to Cooking Fuels and Birth Weight in Lanzhou, China: A Birth Cohort Study, BMC Public Health, 15:712. Kılıç, A., 2017, Kömür Yangınları, Yangın ve Güvenlik Dergisi, 195, 8-9. Klica, Z. ve Martinec, P., 2013, Czech Republic Coal Fires and Waste Piles, Chapter 6 – Geotechnical and Environmental Problems, Editörler: Stracher, G.B., Prakash, A. Ve Sokol, E. V., Elsevier B.V., 2013. Kroonenberg, S.B., and Zhang, X., 1997, Pleistocene coal fires in northwestern China; Energy for early man, in van Hinte, J.E., ed., One million years of anthropogenic global environmental change: Proceedings of the ARA Symposium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Art & Sciences (KNAW), Project ID: 2-74690, p. 39–44. Kuenzer, C. Ve Stracher, G. B., 2012, Geomorphology of Coal Seam Fires, Geomorphology, 138, 209-222. Kuenzer, C., 2005. Demarcating Coal Fire Risk Areas Based on Spectral Test Sequences and Partial Un-Mixing Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data. Ph.D. thesis, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria. Kuenzer, C., Zhang, J., Sun, Y., jia, Y. ve Dech, S., 2012, Coal fires revisited: The Wuda Coal Field in the Aftermath of Extensive Coal Fire Research and Accelerating Extinguishing Activities, International Journal of Coal Geology, 102, 75-86. Lyons, P. C., Darrah, W. C., Morey, E. D. ve Wagner, R. H., Historical Perspective of Early Twentieth Century Carboniferous Paleobotany in North America, First Edition, Geological Society of Amer, Colorado, 1995. Malley, C.S., Kuylenstiema, J.C.I., Vallack, H.W., Henze, D.K., Blencowe, H. ve Ashmore, M.R., 2017, Pretermbirth Associated with Maternal Fine Particulate Matter Exposure: A Global, Regional and National Assessment, Environment International, 101, 173-182. Martha, T.R., Guha, A, Kumar, K.V., Kamaraju, M.V.V. ve Raju, E.V.R., 2010, Recent Coal-Fire and Land-Use Status of Jharia Coalfield, India from Satellite Data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 12, 3243-3262. Melody, S.M. ve Johnston, F.H., 2015, Coal Mine Fires and Human Health:What Do We Know?, International Journal of Coal Geology, 152, 1-14. Michalski, S.R., Custer, E.S., Ph.D. Jr. ve Munshi, P.L., 1997, Investigation of the Jharia Coalfield Mine Fires – India, Proceedings America Society of Mining and Reclamation, 211-223. Novikova, S., Sokol, E. ve Khvorov, P., 2016, Multiple Combustion Metamorphic Events In The Goose Lake Coal Basin, Transbaikalia, Russia: First Dating Results, Quaternary Geochronology, 36, 38-54. Novikova, S., Sokol, E. ve Khvorov, P., 2016, Multiple Combustion Metamorphic Events In The Goose Lake Coal Basin, Transbaikalia, Russia: First Dating Results, Quaternary Geochronology, 36, 38-54. O’Keefe, J. M. K., Henke, K. R., Hower, J. C., Engle, M. A., Stracher, G. B., Stucker, J. D., Drew, J. W., Staggs, W. D., Murray, T. M., Hammon III, M. L., Adkins, K. D., Mullins, B. J. ve Lemley, E. W., 2010, CO2, CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins Coal Fires, Eastern Kentucky, USA, Science of the Total Environment, 408, 1628-1633. O-Keefe, J.M.K., Neace, E.R:, Hammond III, M.L., Hower, J.C., Engle, M.A., East, J., Geboy, N.J., Olea, R.A., Henke, K.R., Copley, G.C., Lemley, E., Nally, R.S.H., Hansen, A.E., R,chardson, A.R:, Satterwhite, A.B., Stracher, G.B:, Radke, L.F:, Smeltzer, C., Romanek, C., Blake, D.R., Shroder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., Stout, S.A., 2018, Gas Emissions, Tars, and Secondary Minerals at the Ruth Mullins and Tiptop Coal Mine Fires, International Journal of Coal Geology, 195, 304-316. Oliveira, M. L. S., Boit, K., Pacheco, F., Teixeira, E. C., Schneider, I. L., Crissien, T. J., Pinto, D. C., Oyaga, R. M. ve Silva, L. F. O., 2018, Multifaceted Processes Controlling the Distribution of Hazardous Compounds in the Spontaneous Combustion of Coal and The Effect of These Compounds on Human Health, Environmental Research, 160, 562-567. Onifade, M. ve Genç, B., 2018, A Review of Spontaneous Combustion Studies - South African Context, International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, doi: 10.1080/17480930.2018.1466402. Ören, Ö. Ve Şensöğüt, C., 2007, Kütahya Bölgesi Linyitlerinin Kendiliğinden Yanmaya Yatkınlıklarının Araştırılması, Madencilik Dergisi, Cilt 46 Sayı 1, Sayfa 15-23. Özdeniz, A. E., 2003, Kömür Stoklarındaki Kendiliğinden Yanma Olayının İncelenmesi- Garp Linyitleri İşletmesi (GLİ) Örneği, Doktora Tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 185 s. Özdeniz, A. H., 2010. Determination of Spontaneous Combustion in Industrial-Scale Coal Stockpiles. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 32, 665-673. Parliamentary Debates, 1966, Official Report, Council of States Secretariat, 58 (9-17), India Pone, J.D.N., Hein, K.A.A., Stracher, G.B., Annegarn, H.J., Finkelman, R.B., Blake, D.R., McCormack, J.K., Schroeder, P., 2007. The Spontaneous Combustion of Coal and Its by-Products in the Witbank and Sasolburg Coald Fields of South Africa, Int. J. Coal Geology, 72, 124-140. Putra, T. A. R., 2016, Thermal Characteristics and Evolution Model of Coal Fire at Surface and Underground Coal Mine, Procedia Chemistry, 19, 687-693. Qi, X., Wang, D., Zhong, X., Gu, J., ve Xu, T., 2010, Characteristics of oxygen consumption of coal at programmed temperatures, Mining Science and Technology, 20, 372–377. Qiang, C., Zhong-jun, S., Xin-quan, Z. ve Hai-yan, W., 2011, Multi-field Coupling Laws of Mixed Gas in Goaf, Procedia Engineering, 26, 204-210. Qiang, Z., Jingxuan, D. ve Longhui, Z., 2018, Investigation of the Potential Risk of Coal Fire to Local Environment: A Case Study of Daquanhu Coal Fire, Xinjiang Region, China, Science of the Total Environment, 640-641, 1478-1488. Querol, X., Zhuang, X., Font, O., Izquierdo, M., Alastuey, A., Castro, I., Van Drooge, B.L., Grimalt, J.O., Elvira, J., Cabanas, M., Bartroli, R., Hower, J.C., Ayora, C., Plana, F. ve Lopez-Soler, A., 2011, Influence of Soil Cover on Reducing The Environmental Impact of Spontaneous Coal Combustion in Coal Waste Gobs: A Review and New Experimental Data, International Journal of Coal Geology, 85, 2-22. Rao, Z., Zhoa, Y., Huang, C., Duan, C. ve He, J., 2015, Recent Developments in Drying and Dewatering for Low Rank Coals, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 46, 1-11. Reisen, F., Gillet, R., Choi, J., Fisher, G. ve Torre, P., 2017, Characteristics of an Open-Cut Coal Mine Fire Pollution Event, Atmospheric Environment, 151, 140-151. Rogers, T.A., 1960. Underground Fire at Auchengeich Colliery Lanarkshire. Parliament by the Minister of Power Report, London. Şakul, K., 2016. Osmanlıların İlk Maden Kömürcülüğü Girişimi: Yedikumlar Kömür Madeni Mukataası, Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları XVII/1, 39-52 Şensöğüt, C. Ve Özdeniz, A. H., 2008, Decrease of Calorific Value and Particle Size in Coal Stockpiles, Energy Sources, Part A, 30:11, 988-993. Sing, A.K., Sing, R.V.K., Sing, M.P., Chandra, H. ve Shukla, N.K., 2007, Mine Fire Gas Indices and Their Application to Indian Underground Coal Mine Fires, International Journal of Coal Geology, 69, 192-204. Singh, R. V. K., 2013, Spontaneous Heating and Fire in Coal Mines, Procedia Engineering, 62, 78 – 90. Sokol, E.V., Novikova, S.A., Alekseev, D.V. ve Travin, A.V., 2014, Natural coal fires in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin: geologic causes, climate, and age, Russian Geology and Geophysics, 55, 1043-1064. Song, Z. ve Kuenzer, C., 2014, Coal Fires in China over the Last Decade: A Comprehensive Review, International Journal of Coal Geology, 133, 72-99. Song, Z., Kuenzer, C., Zhu, H., Zhang, Z., Jia, Y., Sun, Y. ve Zhang, J., 2015, Analysis of Coal Fire Dynamics in the Wuda Syncline Impacted by Fire-fighting Activities Based on in-situ Observations and Landsat-8 Remote Sensing Data, International Journal of Coal Geology, 141–142, 91-102. Stracher, G. B. ve Taylor, T. P., 2004, Coal Fires Burning out of Control Around The World: Thermodynamic Recipe for Environmental Catastrophe, International Journal of Coal Geology, 59, 7-17. Stracher, G., Prakash, A., Sokol, E., 2011. Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective. vol. 1. Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom. Stracher, G.B., 2007, Coal Fires Burning around the World: Opportunity for Innovative and Interdisciplinary Research, GSA Today: v. 17, no. 11, 36-37. TMMOB, 2014. Soma Maden Kazası Raporu, Eylül 2014, Türkiye Uludağ, S. ve PhMips, H.R., Assessing Spontaneous Combustion Risk in South African Coal Mines Using a GIS Tool, 17th International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Turkey, IMCET 2001. United India Periodical, 1973, 15 (3), p16 United State Geological Survey (U.S.G.S), 2009, Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment, U.S. Geological Survey Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, Reston, VA. United States Energy Information Administration (E.I.A.), 2017, International Energy Outlook, https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/ieo/pdf/0484(2017).pdf 16 Şubat 2018. URL-1, 2008, Pensilvanya- Underground Fires that Burn For Decades - Annalee Newitz, https://io9.gizmodo.com/375485/underground-fires-that-burn-for-decades 20 Şubat 2018. URL-2, 2010, Centralia, Pensilvanya, The rising global interest in coal fires – Glenn B. Stracher, Foto: Janet L. Stracher, https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/rising-global-interest-coal-fires 20 Şubat 2018. URL-3, 2018, TKİ Kurumu S.S. Garp Linyitleri İşletmesi Müdürlüğü, Kömür Satış Fiyatları, http://www.gli.gov.tr/fiyatlar.html 20 Şubat 2018 URL-4, 2015, India's Quandary: Climate Change And Coal, Julie Mccarthy, https://www.npr.org/2015/11/27/456716184/indias-quandary-climate-change-and-coal 07.04.2018 URL-5, 2014, Morwell-Avustralya, Great walls of fire: Staggering pictures of towering flames from coalmine blaze which has been burning for three weeks – Sarah Michael ve Donna Sawyer, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2569820/Blaze-rages-coal-smokey-disaster-causes-major-health-risk-entire-town.html 20 Şubat 2018. URL-6, 2013, http://mentalfloss.com/article/52869/5-places-are-still-fire, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-7, 2004, http://danny.oz.au/travel/walks/20040221.burning-mountain/, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-8, 2015, https://www.globaldashboard.org/2015/11/17/life-in-a-town-called-coal/, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-9, 2016, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3565312/Underground-fire-burning-YEAR-disused-experts-no-idea-stop.html, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-10, 2013, https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/statistics/content/coaldisasters.html, Erişim: 26.07.2018 URL-11, 1902, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/14460263, The Sydney Morning Herald, July 30, 1902, Erişim: 30.07.2018 URL-12, 2006, https://web.archive.org/web/20061111142316/http://www.emporis.com/en/bu/nc/ne/?id=101627, Erişim: 31.07.2018
  • URL-13, 2010, http://www.wikizero.co/index.php?q=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvSG9sZGl0Y2hfQ29sbGllcnlfZGlzYXN0ZXI, Erişim: 26.07.2018 URL-14, 2007, https://usminedisasters.miningquiz.com/chinatable.htm, Erişim: 27.07.2018 URL-15, 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-11-21/coal-mine-fire-in-north-east-china-kills-21-says-state-media/6961346, Erişim: 26.07.2018 URL-16, 2018, https://vaaju.com/czechrepubliceng/the-burning-hell-in-the-dukla-mine-absorbed-108-miners-they-have-also-been-killed-to-meet-the-standard-and-leadership-ability/, Erişim: 01.08.2018 URL-17, 2014, https://www.mining-technology.com/features/feature-world-worst-coal-mining-disasters-china/, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-18, 2014, http://www.mineralscouncil.org.za/industry-news/we-care-we-remember/326-we-remember-gloria, Erişim: 01.08.2018 URL-19, 2010, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining_accident#20th_century, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-20, 1889, http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/28.html, Glasgow Herald, 6 September 1889, Erişim: 01.08.2018 URL-21, 2018, https://novascotia.ca/archives/meninmines/disasters.asp?Language=English#drummond, Erişim: 31.07.2018 URL-22, 2016, https://www.ttb.org.tr/haber_goster.php?Guid=67ac5b6a-9232-11e7-b66d-1540034f819c&1534-D83A_1933715A=10daeb72f3f305e5b95b794697e278fbc362ee7d, Erişim: 01/08/2018 Ünalan, G., Kömür Jeolojisi, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Müdürlüğü, 1. Baskı, Ankara, 2013. Vaish, J. ve Pal, S.K., 2015, Subsurface Coal Fire Mapping using Magnetic Survey at East Basuria Colliery, Jharkhand, Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.86, 438-444. Voigt, S., Tetzlaffa, A., Zhang, J.Z., Kuenzer, C., Zhukov, B., Strunz, G., Oertela, D., Roth, A., Dijk, P.V., Mehl, H., 2004. Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing Techniques for Detection and Analysis of Uncontrolled Coal Seam Fires in North China. International Journal of Coal Geology 59, 121–136. Wen, H., Yu, Z., Deng, J. ve Zhai, X., 2017. Spontaneous İgnition Characteristics Of Coal İn A Large-Scale Furnace: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation, Applied Thermal Engineering. 114,583–592. World Health Organization (W.H.O.), 2017, World Health Statistics, Monitoring Health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization. Wrigley, E. A., Energy and the English Industrial Revolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010. Wu, J. ve Liu, X., 2011, Risk Assessment of Underground Coal Fire Development At Regional Scale, International Journal of Coal Geology, 86, 87-94. Xia, W. ve Xie, G., 2014, Changes in the Hydrophobicity of Anthracite Coals Before and After High Temperature Heating Process, Powder Technology, 264, 31-35. Yangdong, O., Liwen, G. ve Hongcui, M., 2012, Research on the Influence of Oxygen-containing Functional Group and Gas Emission by Coal Seams, Energy Procedia, 17, 1901-1906. Yaşar, S., İnal, S., Yaşar, Ö. ve Kaya, S., 2015, Geçmişten Günümüze Maden Kazaları, Madencilik, Cilt 54, Sayı 2, 33-43. Zhang, D., Nie, B., Wang, C., Zhao, F., Guo, J., Liu, X., Li, Q., Li, H. ve Zhang, C., 2011a, Preliminary Research on Porous Foam Ceramics against Gas Explosions in Goaf, Procedia Engineering, 26, 1330-1336. Zhang, Y., Bao, N., Huang, Z., Xue, B. ve Gao, Y., 2012, Research on Relationship Between Porosity of Coal, Amount of Air Leakage and Gradient of Wind Pressure, Procedia Engineering, 45, 774-779. Zhang, Y., Lai, Y., Huang, Z. ve Gao, Y., 2011b, Study on Small Simulation Device of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Process, Procedia Engineering, 26, 922-927.
Primary Language tr
Journal Section Collection
Authors

Author: Serkan İnal

Dates

Publication Date: February 4, 2019

Bibtex @review { mtb521689, journal = {MT Bilimsel}, issn = {2146-9431}, address = {Mayeb Basın Yayın İnsan Kaynakları Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2019}, volume = {}, pages = {31 - 53}, doi = {}, title = {Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları}, key = {cite}, author = {İnal, Serkan} }
APA İnal, S . (2019). Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları. MT Bilimsel, (15), 31-53. Retrieved from http://dergipark.org.tr/mtb/issue/43064/521689
MLA İnal, S . "Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları". MT Bilimsel (2019): 31-53 <http://dergipark.org.tr/mtb/issue/43064/521689>
Chicago İnal, S . "Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları". MT Bilimsel (2019): 31-53
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları AU - Serkan İnal Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - MT Bilimsel JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 31 EP - 53 VL - IS - 15 SN - 2146-9431- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Underground Resources Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları %A Serkan İnal %T Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları %D 2019 %J MT Bilimsel %P 2146-9431- %V %N 15 %R %U
ISNAD İnal, Serkan . "Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları". MT Bilimsel / 15 (February 2019): 31-53.
AMA İnal S . Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları. MT Bilimsel. 2019; (15): 31-53.
Vancouver İnal S . Geçmişten Günümüze Kömürün Kendiliğinden Yanması ve Kömür Yangınları. MT Bilimsel. 2019; (15): 53-31.