Year 2014, Volume 14, Issue 27, Pages 304 - 326 2014-06-01

OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM
THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISES OF THE OTTOMAN’S LATE PERIOD AND FINANCIAL IMPERIALISM

Ali Yasin KALABAK [1]

199 11639

Bu çalışmada yayılan Kapitalizmin Osmanlı Devletine etkileri ve yaşadığı savaşlardan dolayı Osmanlı Devleti’nin son dönemlerinde içerisinde bulunduğu sosyo-ekonomik buhranlar incelenecektir. İncelememiz sırasında kullanacağımız veriler İktisat Tarihi ile alakalı yazılı kaynaklardan elde edilecektir. Osmanlı Devletinin son dönemlerinde sahip olduğu eğitim ve sağlık sisteminin analiziyle başlayacak olan çalışmamız Osmanlı Devleti’nin son dönem nüfus yapısıyla devam edecektir. Çalışmanın ilerleyen bölümlerinde azınlıkların Osmanlı Ekonomisindeki yeri incelendikten sonra Osmanlı dış ticaret verilerine yine çalışmamızda yer verilecektir. Çalışmamızın sonlarına doğru Osmanlı Devletine önemli etkileri olan Mali Emperyalizm ve Osmanlı Devleti’nde Milli İktisat Düşüncesinin doğuşu gibi sosyo-ekonomik olaylar incelenecektir. Mali Emperyalizm çalışmamız boyunca sermaye ihracı ve Osmanlı Devleti ve onun uzantısı olan Türkiye Cumhuriyeti gibi Geç Kapitalistleşmiş ülkelerin borçlandırılması anlamlarında kullanılacaktır. Çalışmamızın sonucunda Osmanlı Devleti’nin yaşadığı sıkıntılardan sonra genç Türkiye’ye nasıl bir miras bıraktığı daha iyi anlaşılmış olacaktır.
In this study, the effect of Capitalism on Otoman Empire and socio-economic depression of the Otoman Empire in its last period as a result of wars that it get involved will be analyzed. The data from written resources related to the history of Economics will be used during this analyzes. The socio-economic life in Ottoman Empire, in its last period, suffered from both the wars it get involved and the lack of well-educated executives contrary to its early periods. Moreover, increase of malfunctioning in educational system results in decrease of qualified labor force, therefore, increase of economic troubles. This study will initially focus on the Ottoman Empire‟s last period educational and medical structures. In the last period of the Ottoman Empire, typhus, cholera, epidemics such as malaria and trachoma is known to be experienced. In this study, after a description of the causes of these outbreaks, the educational structure of the Ottoman Empire will be mentioned. Educational System in the Ottoman Empire has deteriorated for various reasons as time progresses. First of all, the Ottomans were unable to follow the scientific and technological developments in the West. Second, people who are not proficient in the education system has found a place for themselves. After realizing this deterioration, the Ottoman Empire introduced some reforms regarding the educational issues but these reforms brought along with dichotomy. The Modern Schools functioning on the basis of western Educational system and the traditional Ottoman Madrassahs were the poles of this dichotomy. In the Ottoman society, both common health problems and underdeveloped educational system lead to lack of qualified labor force. The problems in education and health sectors of Ottoman Empire directly affected its economy. To demonstrate this effect, education and health sectors will be described. Throughout this study, the population structure of the Ottoman Empire, Population censuses conducted in the Ottoman Empire and its foundations will be mentioned, and then the data obtained from these censuses will be used to describe the nature of the labor force of the Ottoman Empire. Wars that the Ottoman Empire get involved in its last period, and the outcomes on the labor force affected the production power of the Ottomans. But the following should be noted, labor force of Ottoman Empire impacted on by health problems. In addition to these existing problems, the entrance of Capitalism which is progressive and should spread to live, into the Ottoman lands transformed the Empire to a semi-colonial state. Due to Ottoman public debt administration, Western Countries achieved the Economic management of the Ottomans and manipulated the Ottoman economy as they wish. This situation shows that Imperialism can be established not only by military interventions but also economic achievements. Furthermore, treaties signed with Western Europe in the last period of the Ottoman Empire and the reforms applied on the favor of Western Capitalism adversely affected the Ottomans economy. The process of European integration began with these reforms and treaties, resulted in a growing foreign trade rate against to Ottoman Empire. Particularly by 1838 trade treaty privileges provided to the United Kingdom were also provided to other European countries within a short time. Thus western capitalism which started to spread from Europe, started to have a grip on the Ottoman Empire‟s Economy. An excessive accumulation of capital occurred in Western countries as a result of trade with countries whose dominant economic system is not capitalism. There are also other factors affecting accumulation of capital for sure, but rather than analyzing the dynamics of capital accumulation, this study will analyze the followings; trade, which is the Capitalism‟s main tool to spread, the accumulated capital as a result of trade, and capital export through giving the debt to the countries. In this context, In the specific example of the Ottoman Empire and Europe will be selected. This study will analyze why Ottomans borrowed dept and where they used them. The relationship between the Ottoman Empire and the spread of capitalism will be analyzed with the philosophy of heterodox economics. Elements of the Muslim- Turks did not take place in trade in the Ottoman Empire. After Western capitalist countries began to assume an important role in the economic life of the Ottomans, the place of non-Muslims, currently forming the bourgeois part of the Ottoman Economy, has gradually strengthened. Recognition of this situation by the Unionists and then their efforts to create Muslim-Turkish bourgeois against the non-Muslim bourgeois became the most remarkable event during the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. the ideological prime movers of the National Economy like Yusuf Akçura and Ziya Gökalp and their opinions will be mentioned under the title of „The Rise of the Idea of National Economy. As for title of „Ottoman Empire‟s Wealth‟, the economical structure of the State, shares of the private sectors and government, sectoral structure of production sector, analysis of the agricultural sector in the Ottomans, and national income and revenue of the Ottoman Empire will be mentioned in this study. Ottoman Empire‟s income was based on agriculture. But not using of technology that was in Ottoman‟s agriculture, reduced it‟s efficiency. Also people did not product for the market or in other words people‟s production was for their subsistence. Subsistence production was due to lack of infrastructure in the Ottoman Empire as well as sociological reasons. That situation had prevented accumulation of capital in the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the social and economic developments during the last period of the Ottoman Empire and the Ottoman Economy was based on agriculture will be emphasis in the last part of the study. Also why not provide the accumulation of capital will be seen in the Ottoman Empire. In addition by referring to the causes of financial crises experienced in recent years of the Ottoman Empire, will be understood how did Ottoman Empire come to be semi-colony. How did semi colonial status of Ottoman Empire‟s Economy bequeath to the young Republic of Turkey, will be understood as a result of our work.
Other ID JA88AM77KT
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Ali Yasin KALABAK

Dates

Publication Date: June 1, 2014

Bibtex @ { susead302229, journal = {Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi}, issn = {2148-3043}, eissn = {2148-3043}, address = {Selcuk University}, year = {2014}, volume = {14}, pages = {304 - 326}, doi = {10.30976/susead.302229}, title = {OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM}, key = {cite}, author = {KALABAK, Ali Yasin} }
APA KALABAK, A . (2014). OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM. Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 14 (27), 304-326. DOI: 10.30976/susead.302229
MLA KALABAK, A . "OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM". Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi 14 (2014): 304-326 <http://dergipark.org.tr/susead/issue/28406/302229>
Chicago KALABAK, A . "OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM". Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi 14 (2014): 304-326
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM AU - Ali Yasin KALABAK Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - doi: 10.30976/susead.302229 DO - 10.30976/susead.302229 T2 - Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 304 EP - 326 VL - 14 IS - 27 SN - 2148-3043-2148-3043 M3 - doi: 10.30976/susead.302229 UR - https://doi.org/10.30976/susead.302229 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Social Economic Research OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM %A Ali Yasin KALABAK %T OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM %D 2014 %J Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi %P 2148-3043-2148-3043 %V 14 %N 27 %R doi: 10.30976/susead.302229 %U 10.30976/susead.302229
ISNAD KALABAK, Ali Yasin . "OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM". Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi 14 / 27 (June 2014): 304-326. https://doi.org/10.30976/susead.302229
AMA KALABAK A . OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM. Sos. ekon. araşt. derg.. 2014; 14(27): 304-326.
Vancouver KALABAK A . OSMANLI’NIN SON DÖNEMİNİN SOSYO EKONOMİK BUHRANLARI VE MALİ EMPERYALİZM. Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi. 2014; 14(27): 326-304.