Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı , Sayfalar 0 - 0 2021-01-06

Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective

Andrea GİAMPİCCOLİ [1] , David GLASSOM [2]

Community-based ecotourism (CBET) shares many of the values and challenges of community-based tourism (CBT) but must also consider the interaction of local communities and the environment, often in areas of controlled or restricted use. Although CBT and CBET have been part of South Africa’s economic strategy, governance, and social structures and hierarchies may constrain opportunities for entry. This article reviews the relevant literature with specific reference to South African CBT and CBET enterprises and uses the iSimangaliso Wetland Park as a case study to build a general framework for CBT around conservation areas. In particular, the framework describes a pathway for CBET ventures to move from an internal partnership model to an external model and ultimately complete self-sufficiency and independence if desired. We show that despite numerous challenges, CBET can be viable in conservation areas, provided all parties involved in the venture make a concerted effort to ensure that the main objectives of poverty alleviation and improved environmental management are met.
community-based tourism, development, conservation, national parks, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, World Heritage Sites
  • Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216-224.
  • Ashley, C., & Jones, B. (2001). Joint ventures between communities and tourism investors: Experience in South Africa. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(5), 407-423.
  • Asker, S., Boronyak, L., Carrard, N., & Paddon, M. (2010). Effective community based tourism: a best practice manual. APEC Tourism Working Group. Griffith University: Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre.
  • Baktygulov, S., & Raeva, R. (2010). Creating value for all: Community-based tourism. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  • Bennett, N. J., & Dearden, P. (2014). Why local people do not support conservation: Community perceptions of marine protected area livelihood impacts, governance and management in Thailand. Marine Policy, 44, 107-116.
  • Blackstock, K. (2005). A critical look at community based tourism. Community Development Journal, 40(1), 39-49.
  • Boonzaier C., & Wilson, D. (2011). Institutionalisation of community involvement in nature conservation: The case of the Masebe Nature Reserve, South Africa. In R. van der Duim, D. Meyer, J. Saarinen, & K. Zellmer (Eds.), New Alliances for Tourism, Conservation and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa (pp. 165-184). Delft, Eburon.
  • Borges, M. A., Carbone, G., Bushell, R., & Jaeger, T. (2011). Sustainable tourism and natural world heritage – priorities for action. Gland, IUCN.
  • Braat, L. C., & Steetskamp, I. (1991). Ecological economic analysis for regional sustainable development. In R. Costanza (Ed.), Ecological Economics: The science and management of sustainability (pp 269-288). New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Burgos, A., & Mertens, F. (2017). Participatory management of community-based tourism: A network perspective. Community Development, 48(4), 546-565.
  • Calanog, L. A., Reyes, D. P. T., & Eugenio, V. F. (2012). Making ecotourism work. A manual on establishing community-based ecotourism enterprise (CBEE) in the Philippines. Makati City, Japan International Cooperation Agency.
  • Chiutsi, S., & Saarinen, J. (2017). Local participation in transfrontier tourism: Case of Sengwe community in Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area, Zimbabwe. Development Southern Africa, 34(3), 260-275.
  • Dahlberg, A. C., & Burlando, C. (2009). Addressing trade-offs: Experiences from conservation and development initiatives in the Mkuze Wetlands, South Africa. Ecology and Society, 14(2), 37.
  • Dangi, T. B., & Jamal, T. (2016). An integrated approach to “sustainable community-based tourism”. Sustainability, 8(475), 1-32.
  • Deegan, N. (2012). The local-global nexus in the politics of World Heritage: space for community development? In M.-T. Albert, M. Richon, M. J. Viñals & A. Witcomb (Eds.), Community Development through World Heritage (pp. 77-83). Paris: UNESCO.
  • Denman, R. (2001). Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development. Gland, WWF International.
  • Dewi, N. I. K., Astawa, I. P., Siwantara, I. W., & Mataram, I. G. A. B. (2017). Exploring the potential of cultural villages as a model of community based tourism. The 2nd International Joint Conference on Science and Technology (IJCST). IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 953 012072. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012072
  • Dluzewska, A., & Rodzos, J. (2018). Sustainable tourism supranational policies and the wellbe¬ing — gaps and challenges from the hosts’ and the guests’ perspective. Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes, 5, 250-268.
  • Dodds, R., Ali. A., & Galaski, K. (2016). Mobilizing knowledge: determining key elements for success and pitfalls in developing community-based tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(13), 1547-1568.
  • Dubazane, M., & Nel, V. (2016). The relationship of traditional leaders and the municipal council concerning land use management in the Nkandla local municipality. Indilinga – African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, 15(3), 222-238.
  • Dube, C. N. (2018). Community participation in the management of South Africa’s protected areas. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(2), 1-18.
  • Farid, S. (2015). Tourism in world heritage sites and its impact on economic development: some African countries case studies. Proceedings of the II International Conference on Best Practices in World Heritage: People and Communities. Retrieved August 31, 2020, from https://eprints.ucm.es/41699/1/TourismWorldHeritageSites.pdf
  • Forstner, K. (2004). Community ventures and access to markets: the role of intermediaries in marketing rural tourism products. Development Policy Review, 22(5), 497-514.
  • Giampiccoli, A. (2015). Community-based tourism: Origins and present trends. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(2), 675-687.
  • Giampiccoli, A., & Mtapuri, O. (2012). Community-based tourism: An exploration of the concept(s) from a political perspective. Tourism Review International, 16(1), 29-43.
  • Giampiccoli, A., Jugmohan, S., & Mtapuri, O. (2014). International cooperation, community-based tourism and capacity building: Results from a Mpondoland Village in South Africa. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 657-667.
  • Giampiccoli, A., Jugmohan, S., & Mtapuri, O. (2015). Community-based tourism in rich and poor countries: Towards a framework for comparison. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(4:1), 1200-1216.
  • Giampiccoli, A., & Saayman, M. (2017). Community-based tourism, responsible tourism, and infrastructure development and poverty. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(2), 1-28.
  • Giampiccoli, A., Saayman, M., & Jugmohan, S. (2014). Developing community-based tourism in South Africa: Addressing the missing link. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 20(3:2), 1139-1161.
  • Gilson, L. L., & Goldberg, C. B. (2015). So, what is a conceptual paper? Group & Organization Management, 40(2), 127-130.
  • Govender, N. (2013). The recent shifts in tourism in iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
  • Green, H. E. (2014). Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. Nurse researcher, 21(6), 4-8.
  • Hamzah, A., & Khalifah, Z. (2009). Handbook on community based tourism: How to develop and sustain CBT. Kuala Lumpur, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat.
  • Hansen, M. (2013). New geographies of conservation and globalisation: the spatiality of development for conservation in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 31(3), 481-502.
  • Häusler, N., & Strasdas, W. (2003). Training manual for community-based tourism. Capacity Building International. Zschortau: Went.
  • He, S., Yang, L., & Min, Q. (2020). Community participation in nature conservation: The Chinese experience and its implication to national park management. Sustainability, 12(4760), 1-17.
  • iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority (n.d.). iSimangaliso Wetland Park Integrated Management Plan (2017 – 2021). Draft. iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority.
  • iSimangaliso Wetland Park Annual Report (2019). Annual Report 2018/2019. Making Headlines. iSimangaliso Wetland Park.
  • Ivanovic, M. (2015). The role of tribal authorities in rural tourism development in South Africa: The case of the Kingdom of the Rain Queen. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, Supplement, 1, 37-54.
  • Jealous, V. (1998). CBST: The Philippine perspective, criteria & goal for each NGO/PO/Community. In C. T. Urquico (Ed.), Community based sustainable tourism. A handbook (pp 8-12). Accessing Support Service and Entrepreneurial Technology, Quezon City.
  • Jugmohan, S., & Steyn, J. N. (2015). A pre-condition and evaluation and management model for community-based tourism. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(3: 2), 1065-1084.
  • Kade Sutawa, G. (2012). Issues on Bali tourism development and community empowerment to support sustainable tourism development. Procedia Economics and Finance, (4), 413-422.
  • Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5), 232-237.
  • Koster, R. (2007). An evaluation of community-based tourism development: How theory intersects with practice. Prairie Perspectives, 10(1), 67-88.
  • Lekaota, L. (2018). Impacts of world heritage sites on local communities in the Indian Ocean Region. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(3), 1-10.
  • Leksakundilok, A. (2004). Ecotourism and community-based ecotourism in the Mekong Region. Australian Mekong Resource Centre, University of Sydney, Working Paper Series, Working Paper No. 10. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from http://sydney.edu.au/mekong/documents/wp10.pdf
  • Liu, J., Qu, H., Huang, D., Chen, G., Yue, X., Zhao, X., & Liang, Z. (2014). The role of social capital in encouraging residents’ pro-environmental behaviors in community-based ecotourism. Tourism Management, 41, 190-201.
  • Manyisa Ahebwaa, W., René Van der Duim, V., & Sandbrook, C. G. (2012). Private-community partnerships: Investigating a new approach to conservation and development in Uganda. Conservation and Society, 10(4), 305-317.
  • Mensah, I. (2017). Benefits and challenges of community-based ecotourism in park-frine communities? The case of Mesomagor of Akum National Park, Ghana. Tourism Review International, 21, 81-98.
  • Mitchell, J., & Muckosy, P. (2008). A misguided quest: Community-based tourism in Latin America. Opinion, 102. Overseas Development Institute.
  • Mnguni, E. (2014). The role of traditional leaders in the promotion of cultural tourism in the south coast of Kwazulu- Natal: a case study of Umzumbe Municipality. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(6), 265-269.
  • Mtapuri, O., & Giampiccoli, A. (2013). Interrogating the role of the state and nonstate actors in community-based tourism ventures: Toward a model for spreading the benefits to the wider community. South African Geographical Journal, 95(1), 1–15.
  • Mtapuri, O., & Giampiccoli, A. (2016). Towards a comprehensive model of community-based tourism development. South African Geographical Journal, 98(1), 154-168.
  • Mtapuri, O., & Giampiccoli, A. (2019). Tourism, community-based tourism and ecotourism: a definitional problematic. South African Geographical Journal, 101(1), 22-35.
  • Nagarjuna, G. (2015). Local community involvement in tourism: a content analysis of websites of wildlife resorts. Atna Journal of Tourism Studies, 10(1), 13-21.
  • Naguran, R. (1999). Community based tourism in Kwazulu Natal: Some conceptual issues. In D. Ried (Ed.), Ecotourism Development in Eastern and Southern Africa (pp. 39-57). University of Guelph, Canada.
  • Naik, S. (2014). Community based tourism approach – a review. Compass, 1(2), 42-47. National Department of Tourism (2016). Operational guidelines for community-based tourism in South Africa. National Department of Tourism Pretoria.
  • Novelli, M., & Gebhardt, K. (2007). Community based tourism in Namibia: “reality show” or “window dressing”. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(5), 443-479.
  • Novelli, M. & Scarth, A. (2007). Tourism in protected areas: Integrating conservation and community development in Liwonde National Park (Malawi). Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 4(1), 47-73.
  • Nugroho, P., & Numata, S. (2020). Resident support of community-based tourism development: Evidence from Gunung Ciremai National Park, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-16. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1755675
  • Porter, S., Ferrer, S., & Aylward, B., (2003). The profitability of nature tourism in Zululand: A survey of private reserves and public protected areas. In B. Aylward, E. Lutz (Eds.), Nature tourism, conservation, and development in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (pp. 287-324). Washington, DC.: The World Bank.
  • Pretty, J. (1995). The many interpretations of participation. Focus, 16, 4-5.
  • Ramsa, Y. A., & Mohd, A. (2004). Community-based ecotourism: A new proposition for sustainable development and environmental conservation in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science, 4(4), 583–589.
  • Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Jaafar, M. (2016). Community participation toward tourism development and conservation program in rural world heritage sites. In L. Butowski (Ed.), Tourism – from Empirical Research towards Practical Application (pp. 1-14). InTech, London.
  • Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Jaafar, M., Ahmad, A. G., & Barghi, R. (2017). Community participation in World Heritage Site conservation and tourism development. Tourism Management, 58, 142-153.
  • Regional Tourism Organization of Southern Africa [RETOSA] (n.d.). Southern Africa community-based tourism. Retrieved December 13, 2009, from http://www.community-tourism- africa.com/
  • Rocharungsat, P. (2004). Community-based tourism: the perspectives of three stakeholder groups. In K. A. Smith & C. Schott (Eds.), Proceedings of the New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference 2004 (335-347). Wellington, 8-10 December.
  • Roe, D., Nelson, F., & Sandbrook, C. (Eds.) (2009). Community management of natural resources in Africa: Impacts, experiences and future directions. Natural Resource Issues No. 18, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK.
  • Rogerson, C. M. (2017). The economic geography of South Africa’s international tourism industry. Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica, 13(2). Retrieved April 16, 2018, from http://www.journals.univ-danubius.ro/index.php/oeconomica/article/view/3869/3981#sdfootnote1sym
  • Saayman, M., & Giampiccoli, A. (2016). Community-based and pro-poor tourism: Initial assessment of their relation to community development. European Journal of Tourism Research, 12, 145-190.
  • Sakata, H., & Prideaux, B. (2013). An alternative approach to community-based ecotourism: a bottom-up locally initiated non-monetised project in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(6), 880-899.
  • Salleh, N. H. M., Shukor, M. S., Othman, R., Samsudin, M., & Idris, S. H. M. (2016). Factors of local community participation in tourism-related business: Case of Langkawi Island. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6(8), 565-571.
  • Scott, D., James, B., & Govender, N. (2012). Aligning national priorities and world heritage conservation: iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. In A. Galla (Ed.), World Heritage: Benefits beyond borders (pp 203-216). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Scowsill, D. (2017). Foreword. In WTTC, Travel & Tourism. Economic Impact 2017. South Africa. World Travel & Tourism Council, London.
  • Snyman, S. L. (2012). The role of tourism employment in poverty reduction and community perceptions of conservation and tourism in southern Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(3), 395-416.
  • South African Tourism (2017). South African Tourism annual report 2016/2017. Johannesburg: South African Tourism.
  • Sproule, K. W. (1995). Community based ecotourism development: Identifying partners in the process. Bulletin Series, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 99, 233-250.
  • Suansri, P. (2003). Community based tourism handbook. Bangkok: Responsible Ecological Social Tour-REST.
  • Stone, M., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2018). Protected areas, wildlife-based community tourism and community livelihoods dynamics: spiraling up and down of community capitals. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(2), 307-324.
  • Tasci, A, Semrad, K., & Yilmaz, S. (2013). Community based tourism finding the equilibrium in COMCEC context: Setting the Pathway for the Future. Ankara: COMCEC Coordination Office.
  • Theerapappisit, P. (2012). The bottom-up approach of community-based ethnic tourism: A case study in Chiang Rai. In R. Kasimoglu (Ed.), Strategies for Tourism Industry - Micro and Macro Perspectives (pp. 267-294). Rijeka: InTech.
  • Tolkach, D., & King, B. (2015). Strengthening community-based tourism in a new resource-based island nation: Why and how?. Tourism Management, 48, 386-398.
  • Tosun, C. (2000). Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries. Tourism management, 21(6), 613-633.
  • Tosun, C. (2006). Expected nature of community participation in tourism development. Tourism Management, 27, 493-504.
  • UN (2013). Sustainable tourism: Contribution to economic growth and sustainable development. Issues note prepared by the UNCTAD secretariat. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. New York: United Nations.
  • UNEP-UNWTO (2005). Making tourism more sustainable-a guide for policy makers. Madrid, UNWTO.
  • UNESCO (2012). Managing natural world heritage. Paris: UNESCO.
  • UNWTO (1994). Agenda 21 for Travel and Tourism: Towards Environmentally Sustainable Tourism. London, WTO, WTTC and the Earth Council.
  • UNWTO (2016). Beijing declaration on sustainable tourism as a driver of development and peace. Retrieved June 16, 2016, from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---sector/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_542921.pdf’
  • Victurine, R. (2000). Building tourism excellence at the community level: Capacity building for community-based entrepreneurs in Uganda. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 221-229.
  • World Bank (2018). Supporting sustainable livelihoods through wildlife tourism. Washington: World Bank.
  • WTTC (2017). Travel & Tourism. Economic Impact 2017. South Africa. London: World Travel & Tourism Council.
  • Xin, S., Tribe, J., & Chambers, D. (2013). Conceptual research in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 61, 66-88.
  • Zapata, M. J., Hall, M. C., Lindo, P., & Vanderschaeghe, M. (2011). Can community-based tourism contribute to development and poverty alleviation? Lessons from Nicaragua. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(8), 725-749.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Otelcilik, Konaklama, Spor ve Turizm
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi

Orcid: 0000-0002-2963-2031
Yazar: Andrea GİAMPİCCOLİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Durban University of Technology
Ülke: South Africa

Orcid: 0000-0003-2028-3573
Yazar: David GLASSOM
Kurum: University of KwaZulu-Natal
Ülke: South Africa

Teşekkür The authors thank Nerosha Govender for comments on a draft manuscript.

Başvuru Tarihi : 23 Mayıs 2020
Kabul Tarihi : 6 Aralık 2020
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 6 Ocak 2021

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ahtr741805, journal = {Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR)}, issn = {2147-9100}, eissn = {2148-7316}, address = {Akdeniz University, Tourism Faculty Dumlupınar Boulevard Post Code: 07058 Campus ANTALYA, TURKEY}, publisher = {Akdeniz Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {0 - 0}, doi = {10.30519/ahtr.741805}, title = {Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective}, key = {cite}, author = {Giampiccoli, Andrea and Glassom, David} }
APA Giampiccoli, A , Glassom, D . (2021). Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) , , 0-0 . DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.741805
MLA Giampiccoli, A , Glassom, D . "Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective" . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) (2021 ): 0-0 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ahtr/issue/59492/741805>
Chicago Giampiccoli, A , Glassom, D . "Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) (2021 ): 0-0
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective AU - Andrea Giampiccoli , David Glassom Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.741805 DO - 10.30519/ahtr.741805 T2 - Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 0 EP - 0 VL - IS - SN - 2147-9100-2148-7316 M3 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.741805 UR - https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.741805 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective %A Andrea Giampiccoli , David Glassom %T Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective %D 2021 %J Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) %P 2147-9100-2148-7316 %V %N %R doi: 10.30519/ahtr.741805 %U 10.30519/ahtr.741805
ISNAD Giampiccoli, Andrea , Glassom, David . "Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) / (Ocak 2021): 0-0 . https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.741805
AMA Giampiccoli A , Glassom D . Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR). 2021; 0-0.
Vancouver Giampiccoli A , Glassom D . Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR). 2021; 0-0.
IEEE A. Giampiccoli ve D. Glassom , "Community-Based Tourism in Protected Areas: Elaborating A Model from A South African Perspective", Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), ss. 0-0, Oca. 2021, doi:10.30519/ahtr.741805