Yıl 2019, Cilt 7 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 1 - 12 2019-06-30

Measuring Digital Divide by Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and MANOVA : A Case of Turkey
Dijital Bölünmenin Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi ve MANOVA ile Ölçülmesi: Türkiye Örneği

Çiğdem Arıcıgil Çilan [1]


The aim of the study is to determine the factors of individuals’ skills with regard to internet usage in Turkey by Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and to analyze the factor indicators in order to clarify if they vary by gender, age and education level, i.e. if a digital divide is in question, by Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) method. For that purpose, the data on “IT Usage – 2016” of Turkish Statistical Institute was selected as baseline. All data used in this study is categorical. Though, since Confirmatory Factor Analysis and MANOVA are methods using continuous variables, firstly, the variables were transferred to quantified variables by Optimal Scaling method, and before employing Confirmatory Factor Analysis and MANOVA methods, the validity of both multivariate normality and equality of variance-covariance matrices hypotheses was checked. The results obtained showed that the skill with regard to internet usage consists of four factors: personal intended internet activities, e-learning, e-government services, and software related activities. According to the MANOVA results, these factors significantly vary by gender, age, and education level, and thus, there’s a second and a third level digital divide between individuals in Turkey.
Bu çalışmanın amacı Türkiyede’ki bireylerin Internet kullanım yetkinliklerinin kaç faktörde tanımlanabileceğini Confirmatory Factor Analysis ile araştırmak ve bu faktörleri belirleyen indikatörlerin bireylerin cinsiyet, yaş ve eğitim düzeylerine göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını yani bir digital divide olup olmadığını Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) yöntemi ile analiz etmektir. Bu amaçla Türkiye İstatistik kurumunun IT Usage 2016 verileri kullanılmıştır. Anketin tüm verileri kategoriktir. Ancak Confirmatory Faktor Analysis ve MANOVA continous variables uygulanan yöntemler olduğundan öncelikle değişkenler Optimal Scaling yöntemi ile quantified variable lara dönüştürülmüştür. Confirmatory Factor Analysis ve MANOVA uygulanmadan önce multivariate normality ve equality of variance-covariance matrices varsayımlarının geçerliliği araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre İnternet kulllanım yetkinliklerinin; Kişisel Amaçla İnternette Yapılan Faaliyetler, E-Learning Kullanımı, E-Devlet Kullanımı ve Yazılım ile İlgili Faaliyetler olmak üzere dört faktörden oluştuğu görülmüştür. MANOVA sonuçlarına göre bu faktörler cinsiyete, yaşa ve eğitime bağlı olarak anlamlı bir şekilde farklılaşmaktadır. Buna göre Türkiye’deki bireyler arasında 2. ve 3. düzeyde digital dividenin olduğu saptanmıştır.
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Orcid: 0000-0002-7862-7028
Yazar: Çiğdem Arıcıgil Çilan (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 6 Eylül 2018
Kabul Tarihi : 20 Mart 2019
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Haziran 2019

APA Arıcıgil Çilan, Ç . (2019). Measuring Digital Divide by Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and MANOVA : A Case of Turkey. Alphanumeric Journal , 7 (1) , 1-12 . DOI: 10.17093/alphanumeric.457758