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Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions

Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 11 - 15, 21.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.51539/biotech.1033326

Öz

In this study, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was cultivated under laboratory conditions at 30 ± 1 °C and 80 µmol.m-²s-1 illumination. Intensive cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was carried out in 250 mL, 500 mL and 2 L flasks, and 10 L and 20 L carboys. Zarrouk Medium was used as a nutrient medium. Constant aeration also applied in the 2 L flasks and the carboys. According to the optical density results, continually increase in the biomass yields of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis observed until the 24th day of the cultivation period. During the experiment, water temperature was recorded as 29.89 ± 0.45 °C, PH 10.88 ± 0.87, oxygen level of 10.18 ± 2.67 mg/L. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis has a wide range of pigments, including chlorophyll a, total carotenoids and phycobiliproteins (protein-rich phycocyanin and phycoerythrin). The primary potential of these pigments seems to be their use as natural dyes, but a growing number of studies have also shown that the functional properties of these pigments related to health benefits and wide pharmaceutical applications. During the cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, chlorophyll a, total carotene, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin production were determined daily by using spectrophotometric methods. The study results showed that the amount of chlorophyll a increased until the 29th day when the amount of β carotene increased until the 14th day. The highest chlorophyll a was 5.46 ± 0.57 mg/gon the 22nd day, the highest total carotene was 1.82 ± 0.25 mg/g on the 7th day. On the 14th day of the experiment, the amount of phycocyanin was 172.85 ± 7.35 mg/g and the amount of phycoerythrin was 75.54 ± 4.98 mg/g.

Kaynakça

  • Akbarnezhad M, Shamsaie Mehrgan M, Kamali A, Javaheri Baboli M (2020) Effects of microelements (Fe, Cu, Zn) on growth and pigment contents of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Iran. J Fish Sci 19(2):653-668
  • Anderson DW, Tang CS, Ross E (1991) The Xantophylls of Spirulina and Their Effect. Poult Sci J 70:115 p
  • Brown MR, Jeffrey SW, Garland CD (1989) Nutritional aspects of microalgae used in mariculture: a literature review. CSIRO Mar Lab Rep 205:44
  • Chen F, Zhang Y (1997) High Cell Density Mixotrophic Culture of Spirulina platensis on Glucose for Phycocyanin Production Using a Fed-Batch System.Elsevier Science Inc. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 20:221-224
  • Ciferri O (1983) Spirulina, The Edible Microorganism, Microbiol Rev 47:551
  • Cirik S (1989) Zengin Bir Bitkisel Gıda Spirulina. Tübitak Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, Sayı: Nisan, s. 9-20
  • Cirik Ş, Cirik S (1999) Su Bitkileri (Deniz Bitkilerinin Biyolojisi, Ekolojisi, Yetiştirme Teknikleri). E.Ü. Su Ürünleri Yayınları, No: 58, s.135-155, Bornova-İzmir
  • Cirik S, Conk-Dalay M (2001) Spirulina platensis’ in Açık Hava ve Sera Koşullarında Üretimi. Su Ürünleri Dergisi Cilt No:18/1, s. 117-127, Bornova-İzmir
  • Cirik S, Gökpınar Ş (1999) Plankton Bilgisi ve Kültürü. E. Ü. Su Ürünleri Fak. Yayınları, No:47, Ders Kitabı 2. Baskı, s. 274, Bornova-İzmir
  • Cohen Z (1997) The Chemicals of Spirulina, 175-204, Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Vonshak A (Ed.) Taylor and Francis, London, 226 p
  • El-Sheekh MM, Hassan LHS, Morsi HH (2021) Growth Enhancement of Spirulina platensis through Optimization of Media and Nitrogen Sources. Egypt. J Bot 61:61-69
  • Fox RD (1983) Spirulina Production & Potential. Sarl Edisud, La Calade, Rn 7, 3120, 232 p, France
  • Furmaniak, MA, Misztak AE, Franczuk MD, Wilmotte A, Walero M, Waleron KF (2017) Edible Cyanobacterial Genus Arthrospira: Actual State of the Art in Cultivation Methods, Genetics, and Application in Medicine. Front Microbiol 8:2541
  • Jensen A (1978) Chlorophylls and Carotenoids. In: Handbook of Phycological Methods, Eds: Hellebust, J.A., and Craigie, J.S. Cambridge University Press, pp: 59-70
  • Kaplan D, Richmond A, Dubunsky Z, Aaronson S (1986) Algal nutrition. In: Richmond A (Ed), Handbook of Microalgal Mass Culture. CRC Press, FL, pp:147-198
  • Kilimtzidi E, Bermudez SC, Markou G, Goiris K, Vandammed D, Muylaerta K (2019) Enhanced phycocyanin and protein content of Arthrospira by applying neutral density and red light shading filters: a small-scale pilot experiment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 94:2047–2054
  • Koru E, Cirik S (2003) Spirulina platensis (Cyanophycea) Mikroalg’inin Büyümesine Ve Bazı Biyokimyasal Özelliklerine Sıcaklığın Etkisi. E.U. J Fish Aquat Sci (3-4):419-422
  • Leema JTM, Kirubagaran R, Vinithkumar NV, Dheenan PS, Karthikayulu S (2010) High value pigment production from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultured in seawater. Bioresour Technol 101:9221-9227
  • Lubian LM, Montero O, Moreno-Garrido I, Huertas IE, Sobrino C, Gonzales-Del Vale M, Pares G (2000) Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae) as source of commercially valuable pigments. J Appl Phycol 12:249-255
  • Miki W, Yamaguchi S, Konosu S (1986) Carotenoid Composition of Spirulina maxima, Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 7:1225
  • Molina-Grima E, Fernadez-Sevilla JM, Sanchez-Perz JA, Garcia Camacho F (1996) A study on simultaneous photolimitation and photoinhibition in dense microalgal cultures taking in to account incident and averaged irradiances. J Biotechnol 45:59-69
  • Özdamar K (2009) Paket programlar ve İstatistiksel veri analizleri 1. Kaan Kitapevi, Eskişehir
  • Richmond A (2000) Microalgal biotechnology at the turn of the millennium: A personal view. J Appl Phyco 12:441-451
  • Rizzo RF, Santos BNC, Castro, GFPS, Passos TS, Nascimento MA, Guerra HD, Silva CG, Dias DS, Domingues JR, Lima-Arauj KG (2015) Production of phycobiliproteins by Arthrospira platensis under different lightconditions for application in food products. Food Science and Technology, Campinas, 35(2): 247-252, Abr.-Jun. 2015 247
  • Smayda TJ (1957) Limnol. Oceanogr. 2:342-359, 1969. J. Phycol. S.150-157, 1970. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 8:353-414
  • Vonshak A (1997) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell biology and Biotechnology. Taylor and Francis, London, Great Britain, pp, 213-226
  • Zarrouk C (1966) Contribution à l’étuded’unecyanophycée. Influence de Divers Facteurs Physiques et Chimiques Sur la Croissance et la Photosynthèse de Spirulina maxima. Retrieved December 18, 2020, from https://www.scirp.org/(S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1332043
  • Ziegler RG, Cloavio EA, Hartge P, McAdams MJ, Schenberg JB, Mason TJ, Fraumeni JFJ (1996) Importance of a-carotene, b- carotene and other phytochemicals in the etiology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:612-615

Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 11 - 15, 21.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.51539/biotech.1033326

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akbarnezhad M, Shamsaie Mehrgan M, Kamali A, Javaheri Baboli M (2020) Effects of microelements (Fe, Cu, Zn) on growth and pigment contents of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Iran. J Fish Sci 19(2):653-668
  • Anderson DW, Tang CS, Ross E (1991) The Xantophylls of Spirulina and Their Effect. Poult Sci J 70:115 p
  • Brown MR, Jeffrey SW, Garland CD (1989) Nutritional aspects of microalgae used in mariculture: a literature review. CSIRO Mar Lab Rep 205:44
  • Chen F, Zhang Y (1997) High Cell Density Mixotrophic Culture of Spirulina platensis on Glucose for Phycocyanin Production Using a Fed-Batch System.Elsevier Science Inc. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 20:221-224
  • Ciferri O (1983) Spirulina, The Edible Microorganism, Microbiol Rev 47:551
  • Cirik S (1989) Zengin Bir Bitkisel Gıda Spirulina. Tübitak Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, Sayı: Nisan, s. 9-20
  • Cirik Ş, Cirik S (1999) Su Bitkileri (Deniz Bitkilerinin Biyolojisi, Ekolojisi, Yetiştirme Teknikleri). E.Ü. Su Ürünleri Yayınları, No: 58, s.135-155, Bornova-İzmir
  • Cirik S, Conk-Dalay M (2001) Spirulina platensis’ in Açık Hava ve Sera Koşullarında Üretimi. Su Ürünleri Dergisi Cilt No:18/1, s. 117-127, Bornova-İzmir
  • Cirik S, Gökpınar Ş (1999) Plankton Bilgisi ve Kültürü. E. Ü. Su Ürünleri Fak. Yayınları, No:47, Ders Kitabı 2. Baskı, s. 274, Bornova-İzmir
  • Cohen Z (1997) The Chemicals of Spirulina, 175-204, Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Vonshak A (Ed.) Taylor and Francis, London, 226 p
  • El-Sheekh MM, Hassan LHS, Morsi HH (2021) Growth Enhancement of Spirulina platensis through Optimization of Media and Nitrogen Sources. Egypt. J Bot 61:61-69
  • Fox RD (1983) Spirulina Production & Potential. Sarl Edisud, La Calade, Rn 7, 3120, 232 p, France
  • Furmaniak, MA, Misztak AE, Franczuk MD, Wilmotte A, Walero M, Waleron KF (2017) Edible Cyanobacterial Genus Arthrospira: Actual State of the Art in Cultivation Methods, Genetics, and Application in Medicine. Front Microbiol 8:2541
  • Jensen A (1978) Chlorophylls and Carotenoids. In: Handbook of Phycological Methods, Eds: Hellebust, J.A., and Craigie, J.S. Cambridge University Press, pp: 59-70
  • Kaplan D, Richmond A, Dubunsky Z, Aaronson S (1986) Algal nutrition. In: Richmond A (Ed), Handbook of Microalgal Mass Culture. CRC Press, FL, pp:147-198
  • Kilimtzidi E, Bermudez SC, Markou G, Goiris K, Vandammed D, Muylaerta K (2019) Enhanced phycocyanin and protein content of Arthrospira by applying neutral density and red light shading filters: a small-scale pilot experiment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 94:2047–2054
  • Koru E, Cirik S (2003) Spirulina platensis (Cyanophycea) Mikroalg’inin Büyümesine Ve Bazı Biyokimyasal Özelliklerine Sıcaklığın Etkisi. E.U. J Fish Aquat Sci (3-4):419-422
  • Leema JTM, Kirubagaran R, Vinithkumar NV, Dheenan PS, Karthikayulu S (2010) High value pigment production from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultured in seawater. Bioresour Technol 101:9221-9227
  • Lubian LM, Montero O, Moreno-Garrido I, Huertas IE, Sobrino C, Gonzales-Del Vale M, Pares G (2000) Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae) as source of commercially valuable pigments. J Appl Phycol 12:249-255
  • Miki W, Yamaguchi S, Konosu S (1986) Carotenoid Composition of Spirulina maxima, Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 7:1225
  • Molina-Grima E, Fernadez-Sevilla JM, Sanchez-Perz JA, Garcia Camacho F (1996) A study on simultaneous photolimitation and photoinhibition in dense microalgal cultures taking in to account incident and averaged irradiances. J Biotechnol 45:59-69
  • Özdamar K (2009) Paket programlar ve İstatistiksel veri analizleri 1. Kaan Kitapevi, Eskişehir
  • Richmond A (2000) Microalgal biotechnology at the turn of the millennium: A personal view. J Appl Phyco 12:441-451
  • Rizzo RF, Santos BNC, Castro, GFPS, Passos TS, Nascimento MA, Guerra HD, Silva CG, Dias DS, Domingues JR, Lima-Arauj KG (2015) Production of phycobiliproteins by Arthrospira platensis under different lightconditions for application in food products. Food Science and Technology, Campinas, 35(2): 247-252, Abr.-Jun. 2015 247
  • Smayda TJ (1957) Limnol. Oceanogr. 2:342-359, 1969. J. Phycol. S.150-157, 1970. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 8:353-414
  • Vonshak A (1997) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell biology and Biotechnology. Taylor and Francis, London, Great Britain, pp, 213-226
  • Zarrouk C (1966) Contribution à l’étuded’unecyanophycée. Influence de Divers Facteurs Physiques et Chimiques Sur la Croissance et la Photosynthèse de Spirulina maxima. Retrieved December 18, 2020, from https://www.scirp.org/(S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1332043
  • Ziegler RG, Cloavio EA, Hartge P, McAdams MJ, Schenberg JB, Mason TJ, Fraumeni JFJ (1996) Importance of a-carotene, b- carotene and other phytochemicals in the etiology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:612-615

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Bitki Bilimleri
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Mesude İSAR Bu kişi benim
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-9039-0959
Türkiye


Semra CİRİK Bu kişi benim
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2670-6282
Türkiye


Gamze TURAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, SU ÜRÜNLERİ YETİŞTİRİCİLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3610-6347
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Ege University Scientific Research Projects Programme
Proje Numarası BAP- Project number-12-SÜF-022
Teşekkür Authors thank to Ege University Scientific Research Projects Programme (BAP- Project number-12-SÜF-022) for providing funding for this study which is a part of thesis study of Bachelor of Science through a grant for Mesude İSAR to pursue her Bachelor of Science Degree at Ege University, Fisheries Faculty, Aquaculture Department, İzmir, Turkey.
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 4 Haziran 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { biotech1033326, journal = {Bulletin of Biotechnology}, eissn = {2717-8323}, address = {Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi, Kamil Özdağ Fen Fakültesi, Biyoloji Bölümü, Merkez/Karaman}, publisher = {Avrasya Araştırma Geliştirme Bilim ve Teknoloji Merkezi Limited Şirketi}, year = {2022}, volume = {3}, number = {1}, pages = {11 - 15}, doi = {10.51539/biotech.1033326}, title = {Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions}, key = {cite}, author = {İsar, Mesude and Cirik, Semra and Turan, Gamze} }
APA İsar, M. , Cirik, S. & Turan, G. (2022). Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions . Bulletin of Biotechnology , 3 (1) , 11-15 . DOI: 10.51539/biotech.1033326
MLA İsar, M. , Cirik, S. , Turan, G. "Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions" . Bulletin of Biotechnology 3 (2022 ): 11-15 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/biotech/issue/70169/1033326>
Chicago İsar, M. , Cirik, S. , Turan, G. "Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions". Bulletin of Biotechnology 3 (2022 ): 11-15
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions AU - Mesudeİsar, SemraCirik, GamzeTuran Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.51539/biotech.1033326 DO - 10.51539/biotech.1033326 T2 - Bulletin of Biotechnology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 11 EP - 15 VL - 3 IS - 1 SN - -2717-8323 M3 - doi: 10.51539/biotech.1033326 UR - https://doi.org/10.51539/biotech.1033326 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Bulletin of Biotechnology Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions %A Mesude İsar , Semra Cirik , Gamze Turan %T Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions %D 2022 %J Bulletin of Biotechnology %P -2717-8323 %V 3 %N 1 %R doi: 10.51539/biotech.1033326 %U 10.51539/biotech.1033326
ISNAD İsar, Mesude , Cirik, Semra , Turan, Gamze . "Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions". Bulletin of Biotechnology 3 / 1 (Haziran 2022): 11-15 . https://doi.org/10.51539/biotech.1033326
AMA İsar M. , Cirik S. , Turan G. Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions. Bull. Biotechnol.. 2022; 3(1): 11-15.
Vancouver İsar M. , Cirik S. , Turan G. Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions. Bulletin of Biotechnology. 2022; 3(1): 11-15.
IEEE M. İsar , S. Cirik ve G. Turan , "Production of Natural and Functional Pigments in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in Laboratory Conditions", Bulletin of Biotechnology, c. 3, sayı. 1, ss. 11-15, Haz. 2022, doi:10.51539/biotech.1033326