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Molecular determination of antibiotic resistance properties of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated natural yogurts

Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 28, 86 - 95, 29.07.2022

Öz

Objective: In this study, the detection of phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance for Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated from natural yogurts was aimed. Materials and method: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains were isolated from natural yogurt and kept in the Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Food Engineering Department, Biotechnology laboratory stocks of which characterizations were determined phenotypically (with disc diffusion) and genotypically (with PCR). Discussion and conclusion: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates were found to have the highest resistance against kanamycin (51%), followed by streptomycin (11%), chloramphenicol (10%) and vancomycin (8%). As the result of PCR applications to examine antibiotic resistance genes, aph(3')-IIIa (95%), str (B) (36%), blaZ (100%) and van (E) (67%) genes were found. Utilizing the disc diffusion method, the aph(3')-IIIa region was found in 60% of kanamycin-resistant strains, the str(B) region was found in 36% of streptomycin-resistant strains, the van(E) region was found in 44% of vancomycin-resistant strains, and the BlaZ region was found in all penicillin-resistant strains. Resistance genes were detected in 51% of the isolates examined to be resistant by disc diffusion. With this study, it can be concluded that some foodborne bacteria may be reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes.

Kaynakça

  • Ammor, M. S., Şorez, A.B. and Mayo, B., 2007. Antibiotic Resistance in Nonenterococcal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria. Food Microbiology, 24: 559-570.
  • Ammor, M. S., Flórez, A. B., Van Hoek, A. H., Clara, G., Aarts, H. J., Margolles, A. and Mayo, B. (2008). Molecular characterization of intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Microbial Physiology, 14(1-3), 6-15.
  • Anonim, (2009). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards For Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests. Approved Standard M2–A10. Wayne, Pa: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
  • Aslim, B., Bayatli, Y. and Yuksekdag, Zehranur (2004). Antibiotic resistance and plasmid DNA contents of Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from Turkish yoghurts. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 28, 257-263.
  • Bourdichon, F., Casaregola, S., Farrokh, C., Frisvad, J. C., Gerds, M. L., Hammes, W. P. ... and Hansen, E. B. (2012). Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use. International journal of food microbiology, 154(3), 87-97.
  • Cai, L., Ju, F. and Zhang, T. (2014). Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 98(7), 3317-3326.
  • Campedelli, I., Mathur, H., Salvetti, E., Clarke, S., Rea, M. C., Torriani, S. ... and O’Toole, P. W. (2019). Genus-wide assessment of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(1), e01738-18.
  • Çelik, H., Durak, Y. ve Uysal, A. (2016). Bazı ticari ve ev yapımı yoğurtlardan izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin antibiyotik duyarlılıkları. Selçuk Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Fen Dergisi, 42(2), 149-160.
  • Çetin, T. E. ve Gürler, N. (1989). Bakterilerin antibiyotiklere duyarlılık deneyinin yapılması. Kükem dergisi, 12(2).
  • Durupınar, B. (2001). Antibiyotiklere Dirençlerde Yeni Eğilimler. KlinikDergisi, 14(2): 47-55.
  • Fatahi-Bafghi, M., Naseri, S. and Alizehi, A. (2021). Genome Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Probiotic Bacteria and a Literature Review. Research Square, 1-13.
  • Fluit, A. C. and Schmitz, F. J. (2001). The use of molecular techniques to detect antimicrobial resistance in clinical bacterial isolates. Microbiology Today, 28, 14-15.
  • Galvez, A., Lopez, R. L., Abriouel, H., Valdivia, E. and Omar, N. B. (2008). Application of bacteriocins in the control of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Critical reviews in biotechnology, 28(2), 125-152.
  • Gazzola, S., Fontana, C., Bassi, D. and Cocconcelli, P. S. (2012). Assessment of tetracycline and erythromycin resistance transfer during sausage fermentation by culture-dependent and-independent methods. Food Microbiology, 30(2), 348-354.
  • Gülay Z (2003). Antibiyotik duyarllık testlerinin yorumu, Toraks Dergisi 1, 75–85.
  • Herreros, M. A., Sandoval, H., González, L., Castro, J. M., Fresno, J. M. and Tornadijo, M. E. (2005). Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Armada cheese (a Spanish goats’ milk cheese). Food microbiology, 22(5), 455-459.
  • Hummel, A. S., Hertel, C., Holzapfel, W. H. and Franz, C. M. (2007). Antibiotic resistances of starter and probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(3), 730-739.
  • Jorgensen, J. H., Ferrano, M. J. and Turnidge, J. D. (2003). Susceptibility tests methods: Dilution and disk diffusion methods. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Yolken RH (Eds). Manual of Clinical Microbiology 8th ed. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology Press: 1108-1127.
  • Jorgensen, J. H. and Turnidge, J. D. (2015). Susceptibility test methods: dilution and disk diffusion methods. Manual of clinical microbiology, 1253-1273.
  • Kirtzalidou, E., Pramateftaki, P., Kotsou, M. and Kyriacou, A. (2011). Screening for lactobacilli with probiotic properties in the infant gut microbiota. Anaerobe, 17(6), 440-443.
  • Ledeboer, N. A. and Hodinka, R. L. (2011). Molecular detection of resistance determinants. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49(9_Supplement), S20-S24.
  • Liu, C., Zhang, Z., Dong, K., Yuan, J. and Guop, X. 2009. Antibiotic resistance of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from marketed foods and drugs. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 22: 401-412.
  • Makarova, K., Slesarev, A., Wolf, Y., Sorokin, A., Mirkin, B., Koonin, E. ... and Mills, D. (2006). Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(42), 15611-15616.
  • Manaia, C. M. (2017). Assessing the risk of antibiotic resistance transmission from theenvironment to humans: non-direct proportionality between abundance and risk. Trends in microbiology, 25(3), 173-181.
  • Mathur, S. and Singh, R. (2005). Antibiotic resistance in food lactic acid bacteria-a review.International journal of food microbiology, 105(3), 281-295.
  • Mayrhofer, S., Domig, K. J., Mair, C., Zitz, U., Huys, G. and Kneifel, W. (2008). Comparison of broth microdilution, Etest, and agar disk diffusion methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Lactobacillus acidophilus group members. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(12), 3745-3748.
  • Morandi, S., Silvetti, T., Miranda Lopez, J. M. and Brasca, M. (2015). Antimicrobial Activity, Antibiotic Resistance and the Safety of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Raw Milk Valtellina Casera Cheese. Journal of Food Safety, 35(2), 193-205.
  • Nawaz, M., Wang, J., Zhou, A., Ma, C., Wu, X., Moore, J. E., ... and Xu, J. (2011). Characterization and transfer of antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria from fermentedfoodproducts. Current microbiology, 62(3), 1081-1089.
  • Özteber, M. (2013). Fermente süt ürünlerinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin antibiyotik dirençliliklerinin fenotipik ve genotipik yöntemlerle belirlenmesi (Master's thesis, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü).
  • Richter, S. and Ferraro M., (2007). Susceptibility Testing Instrumentation and Computerized Expert Systems For Data Analysis and Interpretation. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 9th Edition. Washington Dc: American Society For Microbiology. s. 245-256.
  • Ross, R. P., Morgan, S. and Hill, C. (2002). Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future. International journal of food microbiology, 79(1-2), 3-16.
  • Settanni, L. and Corsetti, A. (2008). Application of bacteriocins in vegetable food biopreservation. International journal of food microbiology, 121(2), 123-138.
  • Sharma, P., Tomar, S. K., Goswami, P., Sangwan, V. and Singh, R. (2014). Antibiotic resistance among commercially available probiotics. Food Research International, 57, 176-195.
  • Soomro, A. H., Masud, T. and Anwaar, K. (2002). Role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in food preservation and human health-a review. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 1(1), 20-24.
  • Tatlı, D. (2009). Geleneksel süt ürünlerinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin antibyotik dirençlerinin belirlenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Adana, Türkiye, 81s.
  • Tavşanlı, H., Mus, T. E., Cetinkaya, F., Aynaoglu, E. and Cibik, R. (2021). Isolation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from nature: Technological characterisation and antibiotic resistance. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 39(4), 305-311.
  • Terkuran, M., Turhan, E. Ü. and Erginkaya, Z. (2019). The risk of vancomycin resistant enterococci infections from food industry. In Health and Safety Aspects of Food Processing Technologies (pp. 513-535). Springer, Cham.
  • Wang, K., Zhang, H., Feng, J., Ma, L., de la Fuente-Núñez, C., Wang, S. and Lu, X. (2019). Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy products in Tianjin, China. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 1, 100006.
  • Yerlikaya, O., Saygili, D. and Akpinar, A. (2020). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from commercial yoghurt starter cultures. Food Science and Technology, 41, 418-425.
  • Zarzecka, U., Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, W. and Zadernowska, A. (2022). Microorganisms from starter and protective cultures-Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and conjugal transfer of tet genes in vitro and during food fermentation. LWT, 153, 112490.

Doğal yoğurtlardan izole edilmiş Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus suşlarının antibiyotik direnç özelliklerinin moleküler olarak belirlenmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 28, 86 - 95, 29.07.2022

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışmada, doğal yoğurtlardan izole edilmiş Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus suşlarının antibiyotik dirençliliklerinin fenotipik ve genotipik olarak belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.

Materyal ve yöntem: Çalışmada doğal yoğurtlardan izole edilen ve tanımlamaları yapılan Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesi Gıda Mühendisliği Bölümü Biyoteknoloji Laboratuvarı stoklarında muhafaza edilen Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus suşlarının antibiyotik dirençlilikleri fenotipik (disk difüzyon) ve genotipik (PCR ile) olarak belirlenmiştir.

Tartışma ve sonuç: Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus izolatlarında en yüksek direnç kanamisin (%51) antibiyotiğine karşı bulunmuştur. Bunu streptomisin (%11), kloramfenikol (%10) ve vankomisin (%8) antibiyotikleri izlemektedir. Antibiyotik direnç genlerini incelemek için yapılan PCR uygulamaları sonucunda, aph(3')-IIIa (%95), str (B) (%36), blaZ (%100) ve van (E) (%67) genleri bulunmuştur. Disk difüzyon yöntemi ile kanamisine direnç gösterdiği tespit edilen suşların %60’ında aph(3')-IIIa bölgesi, streptomisine direnç gösterdiği tespit edilen suşların %36’sında str(B) bölgesi, vankomisine direnç gösterdiği tespit edilen suşların %44’ünde van (E) bölgesi, penisiline direnç gösterdiği tespit edilen suşların tamamında BlaZ bölgesi saptanmıştır. Disk difüzyon yöntemi ile dirençli bulunan izolatların %51’inde direnç genleri tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışma ile gıda kaynaklı bazı bakterilerin antibiyotik direnç genleri için rezervuar olabileceği sonucuna varılabilir.

Kaynakça

  • Ammor, M. S., Şorez, A.B. and Mayo, B., 2007. Antibiotic Resistance in Nonenterococcal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria. Food Microbiology, 24: 559-570.
  • Ammor, M. S., Flórez, A. B., Van Hoek, A. H., Clara, G., Aarts, H. J., Margolles, A. and Mayo, B. (2008). Molecular characterization of intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Microbial Physiology, 14(1-3), 6-15.
  • Anonim, (2009). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards For Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests. Approved Standard M2–A10. Wayne, Pa: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
  • Aslim, B., Bayatli, Y. and Yuksekdag, Zehranur (2004). Antibiotic resistance and plasmid DNA contents of Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from Turkish yoghurts. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 28, 257-263.
  • Bourdichon, F., Casaregola, S., Farrokh, C., Frisvad, J. C., Gerds, M. L., Hammes, W. P. ... and Hansen, E. B. (2012). Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use. International journal of food microbiology, 154(3), 87-97.
  • Cai, L., Ju, F. and Zhang, T. (2014). Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 98(7), 3317-3326.
  • Campedelli, I., Mathur, H., Salvetti, E., Clarke, S., Rea, M. C., Torriani, S. ... and O’Toole, P. W. (2019). Genus-wide assessment of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(1), e01738-18.
  • Çelik, H., Durak, Y. ve Uysal, A. (2016). Bazı ticari ve ev yapımı yoğurtlardan izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin antibiyotik duyarlılıkları. Selçuk Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Fen Dergisi, 42(2), 149-160.
  • Çetin, T. E. ve Gürler, N. (1989). Bakterilerin antibiyotiklere duyarlılık deneyinin yapılması. Kükem dergisi, 12(2).
  • Durupınar, B. (2001). Antibiyotiklere Dirençlerde Yeni Eğilimler. KlinikDergisi, 14(2): 47-55.
  • Fatahi-Bafghi, M., Naseri, S. and Alizehi, A. (2021). Genome Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Probiotic Bacteria and a Literature Review. Research Square, 1-13.
  • Fluit, A. C. and Schmitz, F. J. (2001). The use of molecular techniques to detect antimicrobial resistance in clinical bacterial isolates. Microbiology Today, 28, 14-15.
  • Galvez, A., Lopez, R. L., Abriouel, H., Valdivia, E. and Omar, N. B. (2008). Application of bacteriocins in the control of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Critical reviews in biotechnology, 28(2), 125-152.
  • Gazzola, S., Fontana, C., Bassi, D. and Cocconcelli, P. S. (2012). Assessment of tetracycline and erythromycin resistance transfer during sausage fermentation by culture-dependent and-independent methods. Food Microbiology, 30(2), 348-354.
  • Gülay Z (2003). Antibiyotik duyarllık testlerinin yorumu, Toraks Dergisi 1, 75–85.
  • Herreros, M. A., Sandoval, H., González, L., Castro, J. M., Fresno, J. M. and Tornadijo, M. E. (2005). Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Armada cheese (a Spanish goats’ milk cheese). Food microbiology, 22(5), 455-459.
  • Hummel, A. S., Hertel, C., Holzapfel, W. H. and Franz, C. M. (2007). Antibiotic resistances of starter and probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(3), 730-739.
  • Jorgensen, J. H., Ferrano, M. J. and Turnidge, J. D. (2003). Susceptibility tests methods: Dilution and disk diffusion methods. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Yolken RH (Eds). Manual of Clinical Microbiology 8th ed. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology Press: 1108-1127.
  • Jorgensen, J. H. and Turnidge, J. D. (2015). Susceptibility test methods: dilution and disk diffusion methods. Manual of clinical microbiology, 1253-1273.
  • Kirtzalidou, E., Pramateftaki, P., Kotsou, M. and Kyriacou, A. (2011). Screening for lactobacilli with probiotic properties in the infant gut microbiota. Anaerobe, 17(6), 440-443.
  • Ledeboer, N. A. and Hodinka, R. L. (2011). Molecular detection of resistance determinants. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49(9_Supplement), S20-S24.
  • Liu, C., Zhang, Z., Dong, K., Yuan, J. and Guop, X. 2009. Antibiotic resistance of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from marketed foods and drugs. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 22: 401-412.
  • Makarova, K., Slesarev, A., Wolf, Y., Sorokin, A., Mirkin, B., Koonin, E. ... and Mills, D. (2006). Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(42), 15611-15616.
  • Manaia, C. M. (2017). Assessing the risk of antibiotic resistance transmission from theenvironment to humans: non-direct proportionality between abundance and risk. Trends in microbiology, 25(3), 173-181.
  • Mathur, S. and Singh, R. (2005). Antibiotic resistance in food lactic acid bacteria-a review.International journal of food microbiology, 105(3), 281-295.
  • Mayrhofer, S., Domig, K. J., Mair, C., Zitz, U., Huys, G. and Kneifel, W. (2008). Comparison of broth microdilution, Etest, and agar disk diffusion methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Lactobacillus acidophilus group members. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(12), 3745-3748.
  • Morandi, S., Silvetti, T., Miranda Lopez, J. M. and Brasca, M. (2015). Antimicrobial Activity, Antibiotic Resistance and the Safety of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Raw Milk Valtellina Casera Cheese. Journal of Food Safety, 35(2), 193-205.
  • Nawaz, M., Wang, J., Zhou, A., Ma, C., Wu, X., Moore, J. E., ... and Xu, J. (2011). Characterization and transfer of antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria from fermentedfoodproducts. Current microbiology, 62(3), 1081-1089.
  • Özteber, M. (2013). Fermente süt ürünlerinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin antibiyotik dirençliliklerinin fenotipik ve genotipik yöntemlerle belirlenmesi (Master's thesis, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü).
  • Richter, S. and Ferraro M., (2007). Susceptibility Testing Instrumentation and Computerized Expert Systems For Data Analysis and Interpretation. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 9th Edition. Washington Dc: American Society For Microbiology. s. 245-256.
  • Ross, R. P., Morgan, S. and Hill, C. (2002). Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future. International journal of food microbiology, 79(1-2), 3-16.
  • Settanni, L. and Corsetti, A. (2008). Application of bacteriocins in vegetable food biopreservation. International journal of food microbiology, 121(2), 123-138.
  • Sharma, P., Tomar, S. K., Goswami, P., Sangwan, V. and Singh, R. (2014). Antibiotic resistance among commercially available probiotics. Food Research International, 57, 176-195.
  • Soomro, A. H., Masud, T. and Anwaar, K. (2002). Role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in food preservation and human health-a review. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 1(1), 20-24.
  • Tatlı, D. (2009). Geleneksel süt ürünlerinden izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin antibyotik dirençlerinin belirlenmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Adana, Türkiye, 81s.
  • Tavşanlı, H., Mus, T. E., Cetinkaya, F., Aynaoglu, E. and Cibik, R. (2021). Isolation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from nature: Technological characterisation and antibiotic resistance. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 39(4), 305-311.
  • Terkuran, M., Turhan, E. Ü. and Erginkaya, Z. (2019). The risk of vancomycin resistant enterococci infections from food industry. In Health and Safety Aspects of Food Processing Technologies (pp. 513-535). Springer, Cham.
  • Wang, K., Zhang, H., Feng, J., Ma, L., de la Fuente-Núñez, C., Wang, S. and Lu, X. (2019). Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy products in Tianjin, China. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 1, 100006.
  • Yerlikaya, O., Saygili, D. and Akpinar, A. (2020). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from commercial yoghurt starter cultures. Food Science and Technology, 41, 418-425.
  • Zarzecka, U., Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, W. and Zadernowska, A. (2022). Microorganisms from starter and protective cultures-Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and conjugal transfer of tet genes in vitro and during food fermentation. LWT, 153, 112490.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Fen
Bölüm Özgün Araştırmalar
Yazarlar

Filiz DOĞAN Bu kişi benim
KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK-MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-7902-2274
Türkiye


Yekta GEZGİNÇ Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK-MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3230-2850
Türkiye


Şerife Nur AKYAR YAVAŞ Bu kişi benim
KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK-MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-7869-491X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Temmuz 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 28

Kaynak Göster

APA Doğan, F. , Gezginç, Y. & Akyar Yavaş, Ş. N. (2022). Molecular determination of antibiotic resistance properties of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated natural yogurts . Gıda ve Yem Bilimi Teknolojisi Dergisi , 0 (28) , 86-95 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/bursagida/issue/71456/1150289