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Variation in Some Soil Properties, Organic Matter and Soil Compaction after Logging Activities

Yıl 2016, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2, 82 - 88, 23.12.2016

Öz



In Turkey, three types of logging methods are widely used in forest
operations; manpower, animal power and mechanical power. In recent years, the
most common method involves skidding with farm tractors. In addition, the use
of skidding through wire drawing is often applied in the most regions. The
objective of this study was to determine the effects of logging activities on
soil properties, organic horizon, and soil compaction. Study area was selected
from Sarıçam Sub-District Directorate in Kastamonu, Turkey. In the study area,
logging activities were carried out by farm tractors and the skidding through
wire drawing at two slope classes (30-60% and 60-100%). Mineral soil samples
(0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm soil depths) were taken from four
micro-ecological sites; skid road, logging residuals subbase, mineral soil
without topsoil, and control (no activity). The soil samples were analyzed for
soil pH, soil texture, permeability, bulk density (BD), water holding capacity
(WHC), organic matter (OM), skeleton volume (SW) and soil compaction. Results
showed that there were significant differences in soil compaction, soil
texture, SW and OM between the four micro-ecological sites. However, the
variation differed according to the soil depths and soil texture. The mineral
soil without topsoil showed the lowest SW, sand and OM, whereas, it had the
highest soil compaction and clay. The deepest soil part had the highest soil
compaction. The results also showed higher dispersion ratios (higher than 15)
which indicated higher erosion risk due to high land slope and low permeability
values.




Kaynakça

  • Aandahl, A.R., 1948. The characterization of slope positions and their influence on total nitrogen content of a few virgin soils of Western Iowa. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 13:449-454.
  • Akay, A.E., Yuksel, A., Reis, M., Tutus, A., 2007. The Impacts of Ground-based Logging Equipment on Forest Soil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 16 (3): 371-376.
  • Balcı, N., 1996. Soil Conservation, Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry, Department of Watershed Management, University Publication No: 3947, Faculty Publication No: 439, ISBN 975- 404-423-6, Istanbul, Turkey, 1996 (in Turkish).
  • Bird, G.A., Chatarpaul, L., 1988. Effect of forest harvest on decomposition and colonization of maple leaf litter by soil microarthropods. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 68:29-40.
  • Bisset, J., Parkinson, D., 1980. Long-term effects of fire on the composition and activity of the soil microflora of a subalpine, coniferous forest. Canadian Journal of Botany, 58:1704-1721.
  • Blake, G.R., Hartge K.H., 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1-Physical and Mineralogical Methods, "14 Particle Densityl." Soil Science Society of America, Book Series 5.1.
  • Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54:464-465.
  • Brubaker, S.C., Jones, A.J., Lewis, D.T., Frank, K., 1993. Soil properties associated with landscape positions and management. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57:235-239.
  • Childs, S.W., Shade S.P, Miles, D.W.R., Shepard, E., Froehlich, H.A., 1989. Soil physical properties: importance to long-term forest productivity. Pages 53–66 in D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C. R. Perry, and R. F. Powers, eds. Maintaining the long-term productivity of Pacific Northwest forest ecosystems, pp.53-66.
  • Conlin, T.S.S., van den Driessche, R., 1996. Short-term effects of soil compaction on growth of Pinuscontorta seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26(5):727-739.
  • Çepel, N., 1988. Soil Science. Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry Publications No: 3416, Istanbul. 288 p.
  • Darcy, H., 1856, Les fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon: Paris, Victor Dalmont.
  • Demir, M., Makineci, E., Yilmaz, E., 2007. Invest igation of timber harvesting impacts on herbaceous cover, forest floor and surface soil properties on skid road in an oak (Quercuspetrea L.) stand. Building and Environment, 42:1194–1199.
  • Foth, H.D., 1990. Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
  • Gomez, A., Powers, R.F., Singer, M.J., Horwath, W.R., 2002. Soil compaction effects on growth of young ponderosa pine following litter removal in California's Sierra Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66(4):1334-1343.
  • Gülçur, F., 1974. Physical and chemical analysis methods of soil. Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry Publications No: 201, Istanbul.
  • Günal, H., Özgöz, E., 2015. Soil compaction. Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokat. 2 p.
  • Huang, S.W., Frankel, E.N., Schwarz, K., German, J.B., 1996. Effect of pH on antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol and trolox in oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 44(9):2496-2502.
  • Jurgensen, M.F., Harvey, A.E., Graham, R.T., Page-Dumroese, D.S., Tonn, J.R., Larsen, M.J., Jain, T.B., 1997.
  • Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests. Forest Science, 43(2):234–251.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., 1999. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 14(6):596-619.
  • Kranabetter, J.M, Chapman, B.K., 1999. Effects of forest soil compaction and organic matter removal on leaf litter decomposition in central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 79(4):543-550.
  • Li, Q., Allen, H.L., Wilson, C.A., 2003. Nitrogen mineralization dynamics following the establishment of a loblolly pine plantation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33:364-374.
  • Li, Q., Allen, H.L., Wollum II, A.G., 2004. Microbial biomass and bacterial functional diversity in forest soils: effects of organic matter removal, compaction, and vegetation control. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36:571–579.
  • Li, Q., Chen, J., Moorhead, D.L., DeForest, J.L., Jensen, R. and Henderson, R., 2007. Effects of timber harvest on carbon pools in Ozark forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37(11):2337-2348.
  • Makineci, E., Demir, M., Comez, A., Yilmaz, E. 2007. Long-term harvesting effects on skid road in a fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) plantation forest. Building and Environment, 44:1538-1543.
  • Petri, H., Wagner, A., 1978. “Forstliche standortsaufnahme”, Landwirtschaftsverlag Gmbtl., Munster Hiltrup.
  • Powers, R.F., Scott, D.A., Sanchez, F.G., Voldseth, R.A., Page-Dumroese, D., Elioff, J.D., Stone, D.M., 2005. The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research. Forest Ecology and Management, 220(1):31-50.
  • Prescott, C.E., 1997 Effects of clearcutting and alternative silvicultural systems on rates of decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in a coastal montane coniferous forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 95:253–260.
  • Savacı, G., Sariyildiz, T., 2015. The effects of timber extraction activity on soil compaction: Daday-Kastamonu Prodcution Forest Sample. Precision Forestry in Forest Harvesting Activities, 4-6 June 2015, Ilgaz, Turkey. pp. 379-390.
  • Tan,X., Chang, S.X., Kabzems, R., 2005. Effects of soil compaction and forest floor removal on soil microbial properties and N transformations in a boreal forest long-term soil productivity study. Forest Ecology and Management, 217(2):158-170.
  • Turgut, B. 2012. Soil compaction in forest soils. SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal, 13:66-73.
  • Yin, X., Perry, J.A., 1989 Influence of canopy removal on oak forest floor decomposition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 19, 204–214.
  • Young, I. M., K. Ritz., 2000. Tillage, habitat space and function of soil microbes. Soil and Tillage Research, 53(3): 201-213.
Yıl 2016, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2, 82 - 88, 23.12.2016

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Aandahl, A.R., 1948. The characterization of slope positions and their influence on total nitrogen content of a few virgin soils of Western Iowa. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 13:449-454.
  • Akay, A.E., Yuksel, A., Reis, M., Tutus, A., 2007. The Impacts of Ground-based Logging Equipment on Forest Soil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 16 (3): 371-376.
  • Balcı, N., 1996. Soil Conservation, Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry, Department of Watershed Management, University Publication No: 3947, Faculty Publication No: 439, ISBN 975- 404-423-6, Istanbul, Turkey, 1996 (in Turkish).
  • Bird, G.A., Chatarpaul, L., 1988. Effect of forest harvest on decomposition and colonization of maple leaf litter by soil microarthropods. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 68:29-40.
  • Bisset, J., Parkinson, D., 1980. Long-term effects of fire on the composition and activity of the soil microflora of a subalpine, coniferous forest. Canadian Journal of Botany, 58:1704-1721.
  • Blake, G.R., Hartge K.H., 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1-Physical and Mineralogical Methods, "14 Particle Densityl." Soil Science Society of America, Book Series 5.1.
  • Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54:464-465.
  • Brubaker, S.C., Jones, A.J., Lewis, D.T., Frank, K., 1993. Soil properties associated with landscape positions and management. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57:235-239.
  • Childs, S.W., Shade S.P, Miles, D.W.R., Shepard, E., Froehlich, H.A., 1989. Soil physical properties: importance to long-term forest productivity. Pages 53–66 in D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R. Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C. R. Perry, and R. F. Powers, eds. Maintaining the long-term productivity of Pacific Northwest forest ecosystems, pp.53-66.
  • Conlin, T.S.S., van den Driessche, R., 1996. Short-term effects of soil compaction on growth of Pinuscontorta seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26(5):727-739.
  • Çepel, N., 1988. Soil Science. Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry Publications No: 3416, Istanbul. 288 p.
  • Darcy, H., 1856, Les fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon: Paris, Victor Dalmont.
  • Demir, M., Makineci, E., Yilmaz, E., 2007. Invest igation of timber harvesting impacts on herbaceous cover, forest floor and surface soil properties on skid road in an oak (Quercuspetrea L.) stand. Building and Environment, 42:1194–1199.
  • Foth, H.D., 1990. Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
  • Gomez, A., Powers, R.F., Singer, M.J., Horwath, W.R., 2002. Soil compaction effects on growth of young ponderosa pine following litter removal in California's Sierra Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66(4):1334-1343.
  • Gülçur, F., 1974. Physical and chemical analysis methods of soil. Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry Publications No: 201, Istanbul.
  • Günal, H., Özgöz, E., 2015. Soil compaction. Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokat. 2 p.
  • Huang, S.W., Frankel, E.N., Schwarz, K., German, J.B., 1996. Effect of pH on antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol and trolox in oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 44(9):2496-2502.
  • Jurgensen, M.F., Harvey, A.E., Graham, R.T., Page-Dumroese, D.S., Tonn, J.R., Larsen, M.J., Jain, T.B., 1997.
  • Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland northwest forests. Forest Science, 43(2):234–251.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., 1999. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 14(6):596-619.
  • Kranabetter, J.M, Chapman, B.K., 1999. Effects of forest soil compaction and organic matter removal on leaf litter decomposition in central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 79(4):543-550.
  • Li, Q., Allen, H.L., Wilson, C.A., 2003. Nitrogen mineralization dynamics following the establishment of a loblolly pine plantation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33:364-374.
  • Li, Q., Allen, H.L., Wollum II, A.G., 2004. Microbial biomass and bacterial functional diversity in forest soils: effects of organic matter removal, compaction, and vegetation control. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36:571–579.
  • Li, Q., Chen, J., Moorhead, D.L., DeForest, J.L., Jensen, R. and Henderson, R., 2007. Effects of timber harvest on carbon pools in Ozark forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37(11):2337-2348.
  • Makineci, E., Demir, M., Comez, A., Yilmaz, E. 2007. Long-term harvesting effects on skid road in a fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) plantation forest. Building and Environment, 44:1538-1543.
  • Petri, H., Wagner, A., 1978. “Forstliche standortsaufnahme”, Landwirtschaftsverlag Gmbtl., Munster Hiltrup.
  • Powers, R.F., Scott, D.A., Sanchez, F.G., Voldseth, R.A., Page-Dumroese, D., Elioff, J.D., Stone, D.M., 2005. The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research. Forest Ecology and Management, 220(1):31-50.
  • Prescott, C.E., 1997 Effects of clearcutting and alternative silvicultural systems on rates of decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in a coastal montane coniferous forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 95:253–260.
  • Savacı, G., Sariyildiz, T., 2015. The effects of timber extraction activity on soil compaction: Daday-Kastamonu Prodcution Forest Sample. Precision Forestry in Forest Harvesting Activities, 4-6 June 2015, Ilgaz, Turkey. pp. 379-390.
  • Tan,X., Chang, S.X., Kabzems, R., 2005. Effects of soil compaction and forest floor removal on soil microbial properties and N transformations in a boreal forest long-term soil productivity study. Forest Ecology and Management, 217(2):158-170.
  • Turgut, B. 2012. Soil compaction in forest soils. SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal, 13:66-73.
  • Yin, X., Perry, J.A., 1989 Influence of canopy removal on oak forest floor decomposition. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 19, 204–214.
  • Young, I. M., K. Ritz., 2000. Tillage, habitat space and function of soil microbes. Soil and Tillage Research, 53(3): 201-213.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Korhan Enez

Temel Sariyildiz

Gamze Savaci

Burak Aricak

Yayımlanma Tarihi 23 Aralık 2016
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016 Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Enez, K., Sariyildiz, T., Savaci, G., Aricak, B. (2016). Variation in Some Soil Properties, Organic Matter and Soil Compaction after Logging Activities. European Journal of Forest Engineering, 2(2), 82-88.

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The works published in European Journal of Forest Engineering (EJFE) are licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.