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The Potential Ecological Effects of Forest Harvesting on Forest Soil

Yıl 2016, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2, 89 - 97, 22.11.2016

Öz



In the last century, economic
function of the forests was the main goal of forest management and wood raw
material was the primary product that potentially provides the highest economic
income. However, nowadays forests are considered as multipurpose resources that
have ecological, economic, and social functions. Concerning this fact,
ecosystem-based management plan, as a tool of sustainable forest management
approach, widely implemented in both global and regional scale. The extraction
stage of wood raw material may result in serious environmental impacts
especially damages on forest soil if harvesting operations are not properly
planned. Thus, the negative effects of forest harvesting on forest soil should
be carefully considered in planning phase. In this study, the ecological
impacts of forest harvesting were examined in a variety of forest ecosystems.
Soil compaction and
soil quality loss, as the most important indicators of soil disturbance caused
by logging equipment, were assessed based on a literature review. Besides, some
solutions are presented in order to minimize negative effects of forest
harvesting on forest soil.
 




Kaynakça

  • Akay, A.E., Yılmaz, M., Tonguç, F., 2006. Impact of Mechanized Harvesting Machines on Forest Ecosystem: Residual Stand Damage. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(11): 2414-2419.
  • Akay, A.E., Yuksel, A., Reis, M., Tutus, A., 2007. The Impacts of Ground-based Logging Equipment on Forest Soil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 16 (3): 371-376.
  • Alameda, D., Villar, R., 2012. Linking root traits to plant physiology and growth in Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. seedlings under soil compaction conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 79: 49-57.
  • Allan, D.L., Adriano, D.C., Bezdicek, D.F., Cline, R.G., Coleman, D.C., Doran, J., Haberern, J., Harris, R.G., Juo, A.S.R., Mausbach, M.J., Peterson, G.A., Schuman, G.E., Singer, M.J., Karlen, D.L., 1995. SSSA Statement on Soil Quality. In: Agronomy News, p.7. ASA, Madison.
  • Andrews, J.A., Johnson, J.E., Torbert, J.L., Burger, J.A., Kelting, D.L. 1998. Mine soil and site properties associated with early height growth of eastern white pine. J. Environ. Qual., 27: 192-199.
  • Aubertin, G.M., Kardos, L.T., 1965. Root growth through porous media under controlled conditions. Soil Science of America Proceedings, 29: 290-293.
  • Aust, W.M., Tippett, M.D., Burger, S.A., McKee, W.H., 1995. Compaction and rutting during harvesting affect better drained soils more than poorly drained soils on wet pine flats, South. J. Appl. For., 19: 72-77.
  • Brais, S., Camire, C., 1998. Soil compaction induced by careful logging in the clay belt region of Northwestern Quebec (Canada), Can. J. Soil Sci., 78: 197-206.
  • Burger, J.A., Gray, G., Andrew Scott, D., 2010. Using Soil Quality Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Forest Management. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-59, Washington, DC.
  • Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., Anderson, D.W., Doran, J.W., Janzen, H.H., Pierce, F.J., 1997. Concepts of soil quality and their significance. In: Gregorich, E.G., Carter, M.R. (Eds.), Developments in Soil Science. (Chapter 1). Elsevier. pp. 1-19.
  • Coder, K.D., 2000. Soil Compaction and trees: Causes, symptoms and effects. University of Georgia School of Forest Resources, Athens, GA. pp: 1-37.
  • Conlin, T.S.S., Van den Driessche, R., 2000. Response of soil CO2 and O2 concentrations to forest soil compaction at the long-term soil productivity sites in central British Columbia, Can. J. Soil Sci, 80: 625-632.
  • Corn, I.G.W., Maynard, D.G., 1998. Effects of soil compaction and chipped aspen residue on aspen regeneration and soil nutrients, Can. J. Soil Sci, 78: 85-92.
  • Cullen, S.J., Montagne, C., Ferguson, H., 1991. Timber harvest trafficking and soil compaction in western Montana, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 55: 1416-1421.
  • Dahlgren, R.A., Driscoll, C.T., 1994. The effects of whole-tree clear-cutting on soil processes at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Plant & Soil, v. 158, no. 2, p. 239-262. New Hampshire, USA.
  • Da Silva, A.P., Kay, B.D., Perfect, E., 1994. Characterization of the least limiting water range of soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 58: 1775-1781.
  • Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B., 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality, in Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment, WI, p. 3-21. Doran, J.W. et al., Eds., Spec. Publ. 35, Soil Science Society of America, Madison.
  • Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B., 1996. Quantitative indicators of soil quality: a minimum data set, in Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, WI, p. 25-37. Doran, J.W. and Jones, A.J., Eds., Spec. Publ. 49, Soil Science Society of America, Madison.
  • FAO, 2015. http://www.fao.org/forestry/en/. (last visited on 20 August, 2016).
  • Entry, J.A., Rygiewicz, P.T., Watrud, L.S., Donnelly, P.K., 2002. Influence of adverse soil conditions on the formation and function of Arbuscular mycorrhizas. Advances in Environmental Research, 7:123-138.
  • Erdaş O., Acar, H.H., Eker, M., 2014. Transportation of forest products. KTU Faculty of Forestry Pub. No: 233/39, Trabzon, Turkey. 504 p.
  • Fisher, R.F., Binkley, D., 2000. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Froehlich, H.A., McNabb, D.H., 1984. Minimizing soil compaction in Pacific Northwest forests, in Forest Soils and Treatment Impacts. Stone, E.L., Ed., University of Tennessee Press, pp: 159-192. Knoxville.
  • Ford, D.E., 1983. What do we need to know about forest productivity and how can we measure it? In: Ballard, R., Gessel, S.P. (Eds.), IUFRO Symposium on Forest Site and Continuous Productivity. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report, PNW-163, pp. 2-12.
  • Fox, T.R., 2000. Sustained productivity in intensively managed forest plantations, For. Ecol. Manage, 138: 187-202.
  • Gebauer, R., Neruda, J., Ulrich, R., Martinková, M., 2012. Soil Compaction - Impact of Harvesters' and Forwarders' Passages on Plant Growth, Sustainable Forest Management - Current Research, Dr. Julio J. Diez (Ed.). Mendel University in Brno, Brno. pp.179-196.
  • Geist, J.M., Hazard, J.W., Seidel, K.W. 1989. Assessing physical conditions of some Pacific Northwest ash soils after forest harvest, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 53: 946-950.
  • Ghuman, B.S., Lal, R., Shearer, W., 1991. Land clearing and use in the humid Nigerian tropics: I. Soil physical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55:178-183.
  • Ghuman, B.S. Lal, R., 1992. Effects of soil wetness at the time of land clearing on physical properties and crop response on an Ultisol in southern Nigeria, Soil Tillage Res., 5: 1-12.
  • Grigal, D.F., 2000. Effects of extensive forest management on soil productivity, For. Ecol. Manage, 138: 167-185.
  • Holdenrieder, O., Pautasso, M., Weisberg, P.J., Lonsdale, D., 2004. Tree Diseases and Landscape Processes: the Challenge of Landscape Pathology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19-8.
  • Hornbeck, J.W., Kropelin, W., 1982. Nutrient removal and leaching from a whole-tree harvest of northern hardwoods New Hampshire: Journal of Environmental Quality, 11(2): 309-316.
  • Hu, Z., He, Z., Huang, Z., Fan, S., Yu , Z., Wang, M., Zhou, X., Fang, C., 2014. Effects of harvest residue management on soil carbon and nitrogen processes in a Chinese fir plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 326: 163-170.
  • Kara, O., Babur, E., Altun, L., Seyis, M., 2016. Effects of afforestation on microbial biomass C and respiration in eroded soils of Turkey, J. Sustain. Forest, 35 (6): 385-396.
  • Kantarcı, M.D., 2000. Soil Science. İ.Ü. Faculty of Forestry, Pub. No: 462, İstanbul. 296 p.
  • Karlen, D.L., Mausbach, M.J., Doran, J.W., Cline, R.G., Harris, R.F., Schuman, G.E., 1997. Soil quality: a concept, definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61: 4-10.
  • Kelting, D.L., Burger, J.A., Patterson, S.C., Aust, W.M., Miwa, M., Trettin, C.C., 1999. Soil quality assessment in domesticated forests a southern pine example, For. Ecol. Manage, 122: 167-185.
  • Krzic, M., Newman, R.F., Broersma, K., Bomke, A.A., 1999. Soil compaction of forest plantations of interior British Columbia, J. Range Manage, 52: 671-677.
  • Kimble, J.M., Heath, L.S., Birdsey, R.A., Lal, R. 2003. The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. In: Kimble, M.J., Heath, L.S., Birdsay, L.A., Lal, R. (Eds). Chapman & Hall/CRC CRC Press LLC, New York, pp.243-260.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., 1968. Soil water and tree growth, in The Ecology of Southern Forest, Seventeenth Annual Forestry Symposium, Linnartz, N.E., Ed., Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, pp. 30-57.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., Pallardy, S.G., 1997. Physiology of Woody Plants, 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., 1999. Soil Compaction and Growth of Woody Plants. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 14 (6): 596-619.
  • Larson, W.E., Pierce, F.J., 1994. The dynamics of soil quality as a measure of sustainable management. In: Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment. Soil Science Society of America, 35:37-51.
  • Leininger, T.D., 1998. Effects of temperature and drought stress on physiological processes associated with oak decline, in The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment, Mickler, R.A. and Fox, S., Eds., Springer, New York, pp. 647-662.
  • Lousier, J.D., 1990. Impacts of Forest Harvesting and Regeneration on Forest Sites. Land Management. Report Number 67. British Columbia.
  • Lull, H.W., 1959. Soil Compaction on Forest and Range Lands, Misc. Publ. 768, USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
  • Miller, R.E. Scott, W., Hazard, J.W., 1996. Soil compaction and conifer growth after tractor yarding at three coastal Washington locations. Can. J. For. Res. 26: 225-236.
  • Neruda, J., Čermák, J., Naděždina, N., Ulrich, R., Gebauer, R., Vavříček, D., Martinková, M., Knott, R., Prax, A., Pokornı, E., Aubrecht, L., Staněk, Z., Koller, J., Hruška J., 2008. Determination of damage to soil and root systems of forest trees by the operation of logging machines. Mendel University in Brno, Brně, 138 p.
  • Nortcliff, S., 2002. Standardisation of soil quality attributes. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 88: 161-168.
  • Osman, K.T., 2013. Forest Soils: Properties and Management. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
  • Page-Dunroese, D. Jurgensen, M., Elliot, W., Rice, T., Nesser, J., Collins, T., Meurisse, R., 2000. Soil quality standards and guidelines for forest sustainability in northwestern North America. For. Ecol. Manage, 138: 445-462.
  • Pennock, D.J., Van Kessel, C., 1997. Clear-cut forest harvest impacts on soil quality indicators in the mixed wood forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. Geoderma, 75: 13-32.
  • Pierce, F.J., Larson, W.E., Dowdy, R.H., Graham, W.A.P:, 1983. Productivity of soils: assessing long-term changes due to erosion. J. Soil Water Conserv, 38: 39-44.
  • Powers, R.F., Tiarks, A.E., Boyle, J.R., 1998. Assessing soil quality: Practicable standards for sustainable forest productivity in the U.S., in The Contribution of Soil Science to the Development and Implementation of Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management.In: Adams, M.B., Ramakrishman, K., and Davidson, E.A., (Eds)., Spec. Publ. 53, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp. 53-80.
  • Rapport, D.J., Costanza, R., McMichael, A.J., 1998. Assessing ecosystem health. Trends Ecol Evol., 13 (10): 397-402.
  • Reisinger, T.W., Pope, P.E., Hammond, S.C., 1992. Natural recovery of compacted soils in an upland hardwood forest in Indiana, North. J. Appl. For., 9: 138-141.
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Yıl 2016, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2, 89 - 97, 22.11.2016

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akay, A.E., Yılmaz, M., Tonguç, F., 2006. Impact of Mechanized Harvesting Machines on Forest Ecosystem: Residual Stand Damage. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(11): 2414-2419.
  • Akay, A.E., Yuksel, A., Reis, M., Tutus, A., 2007. The Impacts of Ground-based Logging Equipment on Forest Soil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 16 (3): 371-376.
  • Alameda, D., Villar, R., 2012. Linking root traits to plant physiology and growth in Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. seedlings under soil compaction conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 79: 49-57.
  • Allan, D.L., Adriano, D.C., Bezdicek, D.F., Cline, R.G., Coleman, D.C., Doran, J., Haberern, J., Harris, R.G., Juo, A.S.R., Mausbach, M.J., Peterson, G.A., Schuman, G.E., Singer, M.J., Karlen, D.L., 1995. SSSA Statement on Soil Quality. In: Agronomy News, p.7. ASA, Madison.
  • Andrews, J.A., Johnson, J.E., Torbert, J.L., Burger, J.A., Kelting, D.L. 1998. Mine soil and site properties associated with early height growth of eastern white pine. J. Environ. Qual., 27: 192-199.
  • Aubertin, G.M., Kardos, L.T., 1965. Root growth through porous media under controlled conditions. Soil Science of America Proceedings, 29: 290-293.
  • Aust, W.M., Tippett, M.D., Burger, S.A., McKee, W.H., 1995. Compaction and rutting during harvesting affect better drained soils more than poorly drained soils on wet pine flats, South. J. Appl. For., 19: 72-77.
  • Brais, S., Camire, C., 1998. Soil compaction induced by careful logging in the clay belt region of Northwestern Quebec (Canada), Can. J. Soil Sci., 78: 197-206.
  • Burger, J.A., Gray, G., Andrew Scott, D., 2010. Using Soil Quality Indicators for Monitoring Sustainable Forest Management. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-59, Washington, DC.
  • Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., Anderson, D.W., Doran, J.W., Janzen, H.H., Pierce, F.J., 1997. Concepts of soil quality and their significance. In: Gregorich, E.G., Carter, M.R. (Eds.), Developments in Soil Science. (Chapter 1). Elsevier. pp. 1-19.
  • Coder, K.D., 2000. Soil Compaction and trees: Causes, symptoms and effects. University of Georgia School of Forest Resources, Athens, GA. pp: 1-37.
  • Conlin, T.S.S., Van den Driessche, R., 2000. Response of soil CO2 and O2 concentrations to forest soil compaction at the long-term soil productivity sites in central British Columbia, Can. J. Soil Sci, 80: 625-632.
  • Corn, I.G.W., Maynard, D.G., 1998. Effects of soil compaction and chipped aspen residue on aspen regeneration and soil nutrients, Can. J. Soil Sci, 78: 85-92.
  • Cullen, S.J., Montagne, C., Ferguson, H., 1991. Timber harvest trafficking and soil compaction in western Montana, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 55: 1416-1421.
  • Dahlgren, R.A., Driscoll, C.T., 1994. The effects of whole-tree clear-cutting on soil processes at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Plant & Soil, v. 158, no. 2, p. 239-262. New Hampshire, USA.
  • Da Silva, A.P., Kay, B.D., Perfect, E., 1994. Characterization of the least limiting water range of soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 58: 1775-1781.
  • Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B., 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality, in Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment, WI, p. 3-21. Doran, J.W. et al., Eds., Spec. Publ. 35, Soil Science Society of America, Madison.
  • Doran, J.W., Parkin, T.B., 1996. Quantitative indicators of soil quality: a minimum data set, in Methods for Assessing Soil Quality, WI, p. 25-37. Doran, J.W. and Jones, A.J., Eds., Spec. Publ. 49, Soil Science Society of America, Madison.
  • FAO, 2015. http://www.fao.org/forestry/en/. (last visited on 20 August, 2016).
  • Entry, J.A., Rygiewicz, P.T., Watrud, L.S., Donnelly, P.K., 2002. Influence of adverse soil conditions on the formation and function of Arbuscular mycorrhizas. Advances in Environmental Research, 7:123-138.
  • Erdaş O., Acar, H.H., Eker, M., 2014. Transportation of forest products. KTU Faculty of Forestry Pub. No: 233/39, Trabzon, Turkey. 504 p.
  • Fisher, R.F., Binkley, D., 2000. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Froehlich, H.A., McNabb, D.H., 1984. Minimizing soil compaction in Pacific Northwest forests, in Forest Soils and Treatment Impacts. Stone, E.L., Ed., University of Tennessee Press, pp: 159-192. Knoxville.
  • Ford, D.E., 1983. What do we need to know about forest productivity and how can we measure it? In: Ballard, R., Gessel, S.P. (Eds.), IUFRO Symposium on Forest Site and Continuous Productivity. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report, PNW-163, pp. 2-12.
  • Fox, T.R., 2000. Sustained productivity in intensively managed forest plantations, For. Ecol. Manage, 138: 187-202.
  • Gebauer, R., Neruda, J., Ulrich, R., Martinková, M., 2012. Soil Compaction - Impact of Harvesters' and Forwarders' Passages on Plant Growth, Sustainable Forest Management - Current Research, Dr. Julio J. Diez (Ed.). Mendel University in Brno, Brno. pp.179-196.
  • Geist, J.M., Hazard, J.W., Seidel, K.W. 1989. Assessing physical conditions of some Pacific Northwest ash soils after forest harvest, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 53: 946-950.
  • Ghuman, B.S., Lal, R., Shearer, W., 1991. Land clearing and use in the humid Nigerian tropics: I. Soil physical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55:178-183.
  • Ghuman, B.S. Lal, R., 1992. Effects of soil wetness at the time of land clearing on physical properties and crop response on an Ultisol in southern Nigeria, Soil Tillage Res., 5: 1-12.
  • Grigal, D.F., 2000. Effects of extensive forest management on soil productivity, For. Ecol. Manage, 138: 167-185.
  • Holdenrieder, O., Pautasso, M., Weisberg, P.J., Lonsdale, D., 2004. Tree Diseases and Landscape Processes: the Challenge of Landscape Pathology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19-8.
  • Hornbeck, J.W., Kropelin, W., 1982. Nutrient removal and leaching from a whole-tree harvest of northern hardwoods New Hampshire: Journal of Environmental Quality, 11(2): 309-316.
  • Hu, Z., He, Z., Huang, Z., Fan, S., Yu , Z., Wang, M., Zhou, X., Fang, C., 2014. Effects of harvest residue management on soil carbon and nitrogen processes in a Chinese fir plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 326: 163-170.
  • Kara, O., Babur, E., Altun, L., Seyis, M., 2016. Effects of afforestation on microbial biomass C and respiration in eroded soils of Turkey, J. Sustain. Forest, 35 (6): 385-396.
  • Kantarcı, M.D., 2000. Soil Science. İ.Ü. Faculty of Forestry, Pub. No: 462, İstanbul. 296 p.
  • Karlen, D.L., Mausbach, M.J., Doran, J.W., Cline, R.G., Harris, R.F., Schuman, G.E., 1997. Soil quality: a concept, definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61: 4-10.
  • Kelting, D.L., Burger, J.A., Patterson, S.C., Aust, W.M., Miwa, M., Trettin, C.C., 1999. Soil quality assessment in domesticated forests a southern pine example, For. Ecol. Manage, 122: 167-185.
  • Krzic, M., Newman, R.F., Broersma, K., Bomke, A.A., 1999. Soil compaction of forest plantations of interior British Columbia, J. Range Manage, 52: 671-677.
  • Kimble, J.M., Heath, L.S., Birdsey, R.A., Lal, R. 2003. The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. In: Kimble, M.J., Heath, L.S., Birdsay, L.A., Lal, R. (Eds). Chapman & Hall/CRC CRC Press LLC, New York, pp.243-260.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., 1968. Soil water and tree growth, in The Ecology of Southern Forest, Seventeenth Annual Forestry Symposium, Linnartz, N.E., Ed., Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, pp. 30-57.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., Pallardy, S.G., 1997. Physiology of Woody Plants, 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Kozlowski, T.T., 1999. Soil Compaction and Growth of Woody Plants. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 14 (6): 596-619.
  • Larson, W.E., Pierce, F.J., 1994. The dynamics of soil quality as a measure of sustainable management. In: Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment. Soil Science Society of America, 35:37-51.
  • Leininger, T.D., 1998. Effects of temperature and drought stress on physiological processes associated with oak decline, in The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment, Mickler, R.A. and Fox, S., Eds., Springer, New York, pp. 647-662.
  • Lousier, J.D., 1990. Impacts of Forest Harvesting and Regeneration on Forest Sites. Land Management. Report Number 67. British Columbia.
  • Lull, H.W., 1959. Soil Compaction on Forest and Range Lands, Misc. Publ. 768, USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
  • Miller, R.E. Scott, W., Hazard, J.W., 1996. Soil compaction and conifer growth after tractor yarding at three coastal Washington locations. Can. J. For. Res. 26: 225-236.
  • Neruda, J., Čermák, J., Naděždina, N., Ulrich, R., Gebauer, R., Vavříček, D., Martinková, M., Knott, R., Prax, A., Pokornı, E., Aubrecht, L., Staněk, Z., Koller, J., Hruška J., 2008. Determination of damage to soil and root systems of forest trees by the operation of logging machines. Mendel University in Brno, Brně, 138 p.
  • Nortcliff, S., 2002. Standardisation of soil quality attributes. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 88: 161-168.
  • Osman, K.T., 2013. Forest Soils: Properties and Management. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland.
  • Page-Dunroese, D. Jurgensen, M., Elliot, W., Rice, T., Nesser, J., Collins, T., Meurisse, R., 2000. Soil quality standards and guidelines for forest sustainability in northwestern North America. For. Ecol. Manage, 138: 445-462.
  • Pennock, D.J., Van Kessel, C., 1997. Clear-cut forest harvest impacts on soil quality indicators in the mixed wood forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. Geoderma, 75: 13-32.
  • Pierce, F.J., Larson, W.E., Dowdy, R.H., Graham, W.A.P:, 1983. Productivity of soils: assessing long-term changes due to erosion. J. Soil Water Conserv, 38: 39-44.
  • Powers, R.F., Tiarks, A.E., Boyle, J.R., 1998. Assessing soil quality: Practicable standards for sustainable forest productivity in the U.S., in The Contribution of Soil Science to the Development and Implementation of Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management.In: Adams, M.B., Ramakrishman, K., and Davidson, E.A., (Eds)., Spec. Publ. 53, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp. 53-80.
  • Rapport, D.J., Costanza, R., McMichael, A.J., 1998. Assessing ecosystem health. Trends Ecol Evol., 13 (10): 397-402.
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Ayrıntılar

Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Review Article
Yazarlar

Uğur Kezik Bu kişi benim

H.Hulusi Acar

Yayımlanma Tarihi 22 Kasım 2016
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016 Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Kezik, U., & Acar, H. (2016). The Potential Ecological Effects of Forest Harvesting on Forest Soil. European Journal of Forest Engineering, 2(2), 89-97.

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