Araştırma Makalesi
BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Perceiving Major Problems in Forest Products Transportation by Trucks and Trailers: A Cross-sectional Survey

Yıl 2017, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 23 - 34, 30.06.2017

Öz

Hauling forest products from harvesting sites to the
mills is a crucial component in forest operation which directly influence the
cost of delivered products. Although past researchers have focused on various
aspects of transportation including logistics modeling, productivity of
trucking on various road conditions and terrain, the challenges in forest
trucking are by far unnoticed. This study attempted to address some of the prominent
issues on forest products trucking by using cross-sectional questionnaire
survey technique. The survey was carried out in a regional council of forest
engineers’ workshop. With a response rate of 31.22%, the majority of
respondents had more than 25 years of experience working in the forestry
sector.  Location and availability of
markets was ranked as the major challenge faced by the industry followed by the
lack of skilled truck drivers. The effective ways to reduce truck waiting times
at harvesting and processing facilities along with opportunities for
back-hauling of empty trucks were also analyzed. Average distance traveled by a
single truck in a typical harvesting operation was found to be 98 km one-way.
The findings can be utilized by the policy makers to formulate laws to support
the industry and to develop management guidelines for specific trucking
situations.

Kaynakça

  • Abbas, D., Clatterbuck, W., 2015. A Survey analysis of harvesting logistics in Tennessee. Eur. J. For. Eng. 1(2):84–92.
  • Abbas, D., Current, D., Ryans, M., Taff, S., Hoganson, H., Brooks, K.N., 2011. Harvesting forest biomass for energy – An alternative to conventional fuel treatments: Trials in the Superior National Forest, USA. Biomass Bioenergy 35:4557–4564. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.06.030
  • Abbas, D., Handler, R., Dykstra, D., Hartsough, B., Lautala, P., 2013. Cost Analysis of Forest Biomass Supply Chain Logistics. J. For. 111:271–281. doi:10.5849/jof.12-054
  • Abbas, D., Handler, R., Hartsough, B., Dykstra, D., Lautala, P., Hembroff, L., 2014. A survey analysis of forest harvesting and transportation operations in Michigan. Croat. J. For. Eng. 35:179–192.
  • Ahmer, S., Yousafzai, A.W., Bhutto, N., Alam, S., Sarangzai, A.K., Iqbal, A., 2008. Bullying of Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey. PLoS ONE 3(12):e3889. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003889
  • Akram, A., Khan, H.A.A., Qadir, A., Sabir, A.M., 2015. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan. PloS One 10(6): e0130929. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130929
  • Barrett, S.M., 2001. A computer simulation model for predicting the impacts of log truck turn-time on timber harvesting system productivity (MS Thesis). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  • BMV Maine, 2012. State of Maine Commercial Vehicle Laws & Regulations.
  • Bont, L.G., Heinimann, H.R., Church, R.L., 2015. Concurrent optimization of harvesting and road network layouts under steep terrain. Ann. Oper. Res. 232(1):41-64. doi:10.1007/s10479-012-1273-4
  • Carlsson, D., Rönnqvist, M., 2007. Backhauling in forest transportation - models, methods and practical usage. Can. J. For. Res. 37(12):2612-2623. doi:10.1139/X07-106
  • Cavalli, R., Grigolato, S., 2010. Influence of characteristics and extension of a forest road network on the supply cost of forest woodchips. J. For. Res. 15(3):202–209. doi:10.1007/s10310-009-0170-4
  • Costello, B., Suarez, R., 2015. Truck Driver Shortage Analysis. American Trucking Association (ATA).
  • Dowling, T.N., 2010. An Analysis of Log Truck Turn Times at Harvest Sites and Mill Facilities (MS Thesis). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  • Egan, A., Taggart, D., 2009. Public perceptions of the logging profession in Maine and implications for logger recruitment. North. J. Appl. For. 26(3):93-98.
  • Egan, A., Taggart, D., 2004. Who will log in Maine’s north woods? A cross-cultural study of occupational choice and prestige. North. J. Appl. For. 21(4): 200-208.
  • El Hachemi, N., Gendreau, M., Rousseau, L.-M., 2013. A heuristic to solve the synchronized log-truck scheduling problem. Comput. Oper. Res. 40(3):666-673. doi:10.1016/j.cor.2011.02.002
  • Epstein, R., Rönnqvist, M., Weintraub, A., 2007. Forest transportation, in: Handbook of Operations Research in Natural Resources. Springer, pp. 391–403.
  • Gallagher, T., McDonald, T., Smidt, M., Tufts, R., 2005. Increasing Truck Payloads and Performance. Wood Supply Res. Inst. Technical Release.
  • G.C., S., Potter-Witter, K., 2011. An examination of Michigan’s logging sector in emerging bioenergy market. For. Prod. J. 61:459–465.
  • Greene, W.D., Baker, S.A., Lowrimore, T., 2007. Analysis of Log Hauling Vehicle Accidents in the State of Georgia, USA, 1988–2004. Int. J. For. Eng. 18:52–57.
  • Greene, W.D., Mayo, J.H., deHoop, C.F., Egan, A.F., 2004. Causes and costs of unused logging production capacity in the southern United States and Maine. For. Prod. J. 54:29–37.
  • Han, H.-S., Halbrook, J., Pan, F., Salazar, L., 2010. Economic evaluation of a roll-off trucking system removing forest biomass resulting from shaded fuelbreak treatments. Biomass Bioenergy 34, 1006–1016. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.02.009
  • HireRight, 2015. HireRight 2015 Transportation Spotlight. HireRight Inc.
  • Holzleitner, F., Kanzian, C., Höller, N., 2013. Monitoring the chipping and transportation of wood fuels with a fleet management system. Silva Fenn. 47(1) article id 899, 11p.
  • Irland, L.C., 2011. Assessment of Conditions of Competition and Ratemaking In the Maine Logging and Log Trucking Industry (Report to the Office of the Maine Attorney General). The Irland Group, Maine, United States.
  • Jin, S., Sader, S.A., 2006. Effects of forest ownership and change on forest harvest rates, types and trends in northern Maine. For. Ecol. Manag. 228:177–186. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.03.009
  • Kizha., A.R., Han, H., Anderson, N., 2016. Machine Activities and Interaction at the Landing in a Cable Yarding Operation., in: Proceeding of 70th International Convention, Forest Products Society. Presented at the Forest Products Society. 70th International Convention, Portland OR.
  • Kizha, A.R., Han, H.-S., 2016. Processing and sorting forest residues: Cost, productivity and managerial impacts. Biomass Bioenergy 93:97–106. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.06.021
  • Kizha., A.R., Han, H.-S., Montgomery, T., Hohl, A., 2015. Biomass power plant feedstock procurement: Modeling transportation cost zones and the potential for competition. Calif. Agric. 69:184–190. doi:10.3733/ca.v069n03p184
  • Koirala, A., Kizha, A.R., Roth, B., 2016. Forest trucking industry in Maine: A review on challenges and resolutions, in: Proceeding of 39th Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering. Presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and Demo International & Conference, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Labaree, R.V., Scimeca, R., 2017. Research Guides: Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs [WWW Document]. Univ. South. Calif. Libr. URL http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/researchdesigns (accessed 4.7.17).
  • Lautala, P.T., Handler, R.M., Hicks, J.W., 2011. Spatially-Based Model to Determine Price-Optimal Log Transportation by Trucks and Rail in the Upper Mid-West--Development and Initial Outcomes. Presented at the Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC.
  • Lautala, P.T., Hilliard, M.R., Webb, E., Busch, I., Richard Hess, J., Roni, M.S., Hilbert, J., Handler, R.M., Bittencourt, R., Valente, A., Laitinen, T., 2015. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains. Environ. Manage. 56:1397–1415. doi:10.1007/s00267-015-0565-2
  • Lavrakas, P.J. (Ed.), 2008. Cross-Sectional Survey Design, in: Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 173–174.
  • Leon, B.H., Benjamin, J.G., 2013. A survey of business attributes, harvest capacity and equipment infrastucture of logging businesses in the northern forest. North. For. Logging Ind. Assess. Univ. Maine Orono.
  • Libbey, S.S., 2000. An assessment of regional variation in the factors affecting the milldelivered price of softwood sawlogs and pulpwood in nine states (MS Thesis). School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono.
  • Lilieholm, R.J., Lammert, P.R., Lord, G.R., Trosper, S.N., 2011. 2010 Directory of Maine’s Primary Wood Processors (Directory). Centre for Research on Sustainable Forests - University of Maine, Maine, United States.
  • Malinen, J., Nousiainen, V., Palojarvi, K., Palander, T., 2014. Prospects and Challenges of Timber Trucking in a Changing Operational Environment in Finland. Croat. J. For. Eng. 35:91–100.
  • McKinnon, A.C., Piecyk, M.I., 2009. Measurement of CO2 emissions from road freight transport: A review of UK experience. Energy Policy 37:3733–3742. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.007
  • MDOL, C., 2013. The Maine labor force - Aging and slowly growing. Maine Department of Labor, Center for Workforce Research and Information.
  • MFPC, 2016. Maine’s forest economy. Maine Forest Products Council.
  • MFPC, 2013. Maine’s forest economy. Maine Forest Products Council.
  • MFS, 2015. 2015 Wood Processor Report. Maine Forest Service, Maine United States.
  • Murphy, G., 2003. Reducing Trucks on the Road through Optimal Route Scheduling and Shared Log Transport Services. South. J. Appl. For. 27(3):198-205.
  • NEFA, 2013. The Economic Importance of Maine’s Forest-based Economy 2013. North East State Foresters Association.
  • Niedhammer, I., David, S., Degioanni, S., 143 Occupational Physicians, 2007. Economic activities and occupations at high risk for workplace bullying: results from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in the general working population in France. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 80:346–353. doi:10.1007/s00420-006-0139-y
  • Ohm, R., 2016. Shutdown of Madison mill is state’s fifth in two years. Portland Press Her.
  • Palander, T., Vainikka, M., Yletyinen, A., 2012. Potential Mechanisms for Co-operation between Transportation Entrepreneurs and Customers: A Case Study of Regional Entrepreneurship in Finland. Croat. J. For. Eng. 33(1): 89-103.
  • Pan, F., Han, H.-S., Johnson, L.R., Elliot, W.J., 2008. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (≤ 5 inches) trees for energy. For. Prod. J. 58(5):47-53.
  • R Core Team, 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Sambides Jr., N., 2017. Researchers, $1M in grants to help Maine recover from ‘natural disaster’ of mill closures. Bang. Dly. News.
  • Schroeder, R., Jackson, B., Ashton, S., 2007. Biomass Transportation and Delivery, in: Sustainable Forestry for Bioenergy and Bio-Based Products Trainers Curriculum Notebook. Southern Forest Research Partnership, Inc. Athens, GA, pp. 145–148.
  • Shaffer, R.M., Stuart, W.B., 2009. A checklist for efficient log trucking.
  • Shaffer, R.M., Stuart, W.B., 2005. A checklist for efficient log trucking. Va. Coop. Ext. 420-094.
  • Short, J., 2014. Analysis of Truck Driver Age Demographics Across Two Decades. American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI).
  • Talbot, B., Suadicani, K., 2006. Road transport of forest chips: containers vs. bulk trailers. For. Stud. Metsanduslikud Uurim 45:11–22.
  • Tufts, R., Gallagher, T., McDonald, T., Smidt, M., 2005a. Let’s Talk Trucking: Trucks and Trailers In Use In South. Wood Supply Res. Inst. Technical Paper.
  • Tufts, R., Gallagher, T., McDonald, T., Smidt, M., 2005b. Let’s Talk Trucking: Truck Performance and Fuel Consumption. Wood Supply Res. Inst. Technical Paper.
  • USDOL, 2016. Occupational employment and wages: May 2015. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  • Zamora-Cristales, R., Sessions, J., 2015. Are double trailers cost effective for transporting forest biomass on steep terrain? Calif. Agric. 69:177–183. doi:10.3733/ca.v069n03p177
Yıl 2017, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 23 - 34, 30.06.2017

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abbas, D., Clatterbuck, W., 2015. A Survey analysis of harvesting logistics in Tennessee. Eur. J. For. Eng. 1(2):84–92.
  • Abbas, D., Current, D., Ryans, M., Taff, S., Hoganson, H., Brooks, K.N., 2011. Harvesting forest biomass for energy – An alternative to conventional fuel treatments: Trials in the Superior National Forest, USA. Biomass Bioenergy 35:4557–4564. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.06.030
  • Abbas, D., Handler, R., Dykstra, D., Hartsough, B., Lautala, P., 2013. Cost Analysis of Forest Biomass Supply Chain Logistics. J. For. 111:271–281. doi:10.5849/jof.12-054
  • Abbas, D., Handler, R., Hartsough, B., Dykstra, D., Lautala, P., Hembroff, L., 2014. A survey analysis of forest harvesting and transportation operations in Michigan. Croat. J. For. Eng. 35:179–192.
  • Ahmer, S., Yousafzai, A.W., Bhutto, N., Alam, S., Sarangzai, A.K., Iqbal, A., 2008. Bullying of Medical Students in Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey. PLoS ONE 3(12):e3889. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003889
  • Akram, A., Khan, H.A.A., Qadir, A., Sabir, A.M., 2015. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan. PloS One 10(6): e0130929. doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130929
  • Barrett, S.M., 2001. A computer simulation model for predicting the impacts of log truck turn-time on timber harvesting system productivity (MS Thesis). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  • BMV Maine, 2012. State of Maine Commercial Vehicle Laws & Regulations.
  • Bont, L.G., Heinimann, H.R., Church, R.L., 2015. Concurrent optimization of harvesting and road network layouts under steep terrain. Ann. Oper. Res. 232(1):41-64. doi:10.1007/s10479-012-1273-4
  • Carlsson, D., Rönnqvist, M., 2007. Backhauling in forest transportation - models, methods and practical usage. Can. J. For. Res. 37(12):2612-2623. doi:10.1139/X07-106
  • Cavalli, R., Grigolato, S., 2010. Influence of characteristics and extension of a forest road network on the supply cost of forest woodchips. J. For. Res. 15(3):202–209. doi:10.1007/s10310-009-0170-4
  • Costello, B., Suarez, R., 2015. Truck Driver Shortage Analysis. American Trucking Association (ATA).
  • Dowling, T.N., 2010. An Analysis of Log Truck Turn Times at Harvest Sites and Mill Facilities (MS Thesis). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  • Egan, A., Taggart, D., 2009. Public perceptions of the logging profession in Maine and implications for logger recruitment. North. J. Appl. For. 26(3):93-98.
  • Egan, A., Taggart, D., 2004. Who will log in Maine’s north woods? A cross-cultural study of occupational choice and prestige. North. J. Appl. For. 21(4): 200-208.
  • El Hachemi, N., Gendreau, M., Rousseau, L.-M., 2013. A heuristic to solve the synchronized log-truck scheduling problem. Comput. Oper. Res. 40(3):666-673. doi:10.1016/j.cor.2011.02.002
  • Epstein, R., Rönnqvist, M., Weintraub, A., 2007. Forest transportation, in: Handbook of Operations Research in Natural Resources. Springer, pp. 391–403.
  • Gallagher, T., McDonald, T., Smidt, M., Tufts, R., 2005. Increasing Truck Payloads and Performance. Wood Supply Res. Inst. Technical Release.
  • G.C., S., Potter-Witter, K., 2011. An examination of Michigan’s logging sector in emerging bioenergy market. For. Prod. J. 61:459–465.
  • Greene, W.D., Baker, S.A., Lowrimore, T., 2007. Analysis of Log Hauling Vehicle Accidents in the State of Georgia, USA, 1988–2004. Int. J. For. Eng. 18:52–57.
  • Greene, W.D., Mayo, J.H., deHoop, C.F., Egan, A.F., 2004. Causes and costs of unused logging production capacity in the southern United States and Maine. For. Prod. J. 54:29–37.
  • Han, H.-S., Halbrook, J., Pan, F., Salazar, L., 2010. Economic evaluation of a roll-off trucking system removing forest biomass resulting from shaded fuelbreak treatments. Biomass Bioenergy 34, 1006–1016. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.02.009
  • HireRight, 2015. HireRight 2015 Transportation Spotlight. HireRight Inc.
  • Holzleitner, F., Kanzian, C., Höller, N., 2013. Monitoring the chipping and transportation of wood fuels with a fleet management system. Silva Fenn. 47(1) article id 899, 11p.
  • Irland, L.C., 2011. Assessment of Conditions of Competition and Ratemaking In the Maine Logging and Log Trucking Industry (Report to the Office of the Maine Attorney General). The Irland Group, Maine, United States.
  • Jin, S., Sader, S.A., 2006. Effects of forest ownership and change on forest harvest rates, types and trends in northern Maine. For. Ecol. Manag. 228:177–186. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.03.009
  • Kizha., A.R., Han, H., Anderson, N., 2016. Machine Activities and Interaction at the Landing in a Cable Yarding Operation., in: Proceeding of 70th International Convention, Forest Products Society. Presented at the Forest Products Society. 70th International Convention, Portland OR.
  • Kizha, A.R., Han, H.-S., 2016. Processing and sorting forest residues: Cost, productivity and managerial impacts. Biomass Bioenergy 93:97–106. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.06.021
  • Kizha., A.R., Han, H.-S., Montgomery, T., Hohl, A., 2015. Biomass power plant feedstock procurement: Modeling transportation cost zones and the potential for competition. Calif. Agric. 69:184–190. doi:10.3733/ca.v069n03p184
  • Koirala, A., Kizha, A.R., Roth, B., 2016. Forest trucking industry in Maine: A review on challenges and resolutions, in: Proceeding of 39th Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering. Presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Council on Forest Engineering and Demo International & Conference, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Labaree, R.V., Scimeca, R., 2017. Research Guides: Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs [WWW Document]. Univ. South. Calif. Libr. URL http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/researchdesigns (accessed 4.7.17).
  • Lautala, P.T., Handler, R.M., Hicks, J.W., 2011. Spatially-Based Model to Determine Price-Optimal Log Transportation by Trucks and Rail in the Upper Mid-West--Development and Initial Outcomes. Presented at the Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC.
  • Lautala, P.T., Hilliard, M.R., Webb, E., Busch, I., Richard Hess, J., Roni, M.S., Hilbert, J., Handler, R.M., Bittencourt, R., Valente, A., Laitinen, T., 2015. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains. Environ. Manage. 56:1397–1415. doi:10.1007/s00267-015-0565-2
  • Lavrakas, P.J. (Ed.), 2008. Cross-Sectional Survey Design, in: Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 173–174.
  • Leon, B.H., Benjamin, J.G., 2013. A survey of business attributes, harvest capacity and equipment infrastucture of logging businesses in the northern forest. North. For. Logging Ind. Assess. Univ. Maine Orono.
  • Libbey, S.S., 2000. An assessment of regional variation in the factors affecting the milldelivered price of softwood sawlogs and pulpwood in nine states (MS Thesis). School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono.
  • Lilieholm, R.J., Lammert, P.R., Lord, G.R., Trosper, S.N., 2011. 2010 Directory of Maine’s Primary Wood Processors (Directory). Centre for Research on Sustainable Forests - University of Maine, Maine, United States.
  • Malinen, J., Nousiainen, V., Palojarvi, K., Palander, T., 2014. Prospects and Challenges of Timber Trucking in a Changing Operational Environment in Finland. Croat. J. For. Eng. 35:91–100.
  • McKinnon, A.C., Piecyk, M.I., 2009. Measurement of CO2 emissions from road freight transport: A review of UK experience. Energy Policy 37:3733–3742. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.007
  • MDOL, C., 2013. The Maine labor force - Aging and slowly growing. Maine Department of Labor, Center for Workforce Research and Information.
  • MFPC, 2016. Maine’s forest economy. Maine Forest Products Council.
  • MFPC, 2013. Maine’s forest economy. Maine Forest Products Council.
  • MFS, 2015. 2015 Wood Processor Report. Maine Forest Service, Maine United States.
  • Murphy, G., 2003. Reducing Trucks on the Road through Optimal Route Scheduling and Shared Log Transport Services. South. J. Appl. For. 27(3):198-205.
  • NEFA, 2013. The Economic Importance of Maine’s Forest-based Economy 2013. North East State Foresters Association.
  • Niedhammer, I., David, S., Degioanni, S., 143 Occupational Physicians, 2007. Economic activities and occupations at high risk for workplace bullying: results from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in the general working population in France. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 80:346–353. doi:10.1007/s00420-006-0139-y
  • Ohm, R., 2016. Shutdown of Madison mill is state’s fifth in two years. Portland Press Her.
  • Palander, T., Vainikka, M., Yletyinen, A., 2012. Potential Mechanisms for Co-operation between Transportation Entrepreneurs and Customers: A Case Study of Regional Entrepreneurship in Finland. Croat. J. For. Eng. 33(1): 89-103.
  • Pan, F., Han, H.-S., Johnson, L.R., Elliot, W.J., 2008. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (≤ 5 inches) trees for energy. For. Prod. J. 58(5):47-53.
  • R Core Team, 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Sambides Jr., N., 2017. Researchers, $1M in grants to help Maine recover from ‘natural disaster’ of mill closures. Bang. Dly. News.
  • Schroeder, R., Jackson, B., Ashton, S., 2007. Biomass Transportation and Delivery, in: Sustainable Forestry for Bioenergy and Bio-Based Products Trainers Curriculum Notebook. Southern Forest Research Partnership, Inc. Athens, GA, pp. 145–148.
  • Shaffer, R.M., Stuart, W.B., 2009. A checklist for efficient log trucking.
  • Shaffer, R.M., Stuart, W.B., 2005. A checklist for efficient log trucking. Va. Coop. Ext. 420-094.
  • Short, J., 2014. Analysis of Truck Driver Age Demographics Across Two Decades. American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI).
  • Talbot, B., Suadicani, K., 2006. Road transport of forest chips: containers vs. bulk trailers. For. Stud. Metsanduslikud Uurim 45:11–22.
  • Tufts, R., Gallagher, T., McDonald, T., Smidt, M., 2005a. Let’s Talk Trucking: Trucks and Trailers In Use In South. Wood Supply Res. Inst. Technical Paper.
  • Tufts, R., Gallagher, T., McDonald, T., Smidt, M., 2005b. Let’s Talk Trucking: Truck Performance and Fuel Consumption. Wood Supply Res. Inst. Technical Paper.
  • USDOL, 2016. Occupational employment and wages: May 2015. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  • Zamora-Cristales, R., Sessions, J., 2015. Are double trailers cost effective for transporting forest biomass on steep terrain? Calif. Agric. 69:177–183. doi:10.3733/ca.v069n03p177

Ayrıntılar

Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Anil KOİRALA

Anil Raj KİZHA Bu kişi benim

Brian E. ROTH Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2017
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017 Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA KOİRALA, A., KİZHA, A. R., & ROTH, B. E. (2017). Perceiving Major Problems in Forest Products Transportation by Trucks and Trailers: A Cross-sectional Survey. European Journal of Forest Engineering, 3(1), 23-34.

Creative Commons License

The works published in European Journal of Forest Engineering (EJFE) are licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.