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A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Yıl 2021, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 67 - 76, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.33904/ejfe.1036102

Öz

The forestry sector plays a key role in mitigating the negative effects of climate change. Wood supply chain (harvesting and transportation) have adverse impacts on forest environment. With respect to the interaction between forest and harvest operations, one of the key issue is the changes in carbon stock. The study on the emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wood supply in Turkey was undertaken to exemplify the adverse impacts of the harvest operations on global warming potential and climate change. The subject of this study, was to evaluate the primary roundwood production activities in terms of environmental impacts. The environmental impacts metrics were generally based on global warming potential, measured in CO2-equivalent GHG. The system boundary for this study was restricted to supply chain operations associated with roundwood harvesting and transportation. The impacts of forest operations on climate change may be reduced by choosing the best technologies for general forest conditions. LCA (life cycle assessment)-based systematic comparative analysis of different modes of harvesting systems and technological options were considered for the quantification of adverse impacts. To evaluate and control the wood supply chain, life cycle analysis can be a powerful decision mechanism. Operational modifications can be needed to reach the target of GHG minimization.

Kaynakça

  • Abbas, D., Handler, R.M., 2018. Life-cycle assessment of forest harvesting and transportation operations in Tennessee. J. Clean. Prod., 176: 512–520.
  • Acuna, M., Strandgard, M., 2017. Impact of climate change on Australian forest operations. Australian Forestry, 80(5): 299–308.
  • Akay. A.E., Yımaz, M., Tonguç, F., 2006. Impact of Mechanized harvesting Machines on Forest Ecosystem: Residual Stand Damage. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(11): 2414-2419.
  • Akay, A. E., Bilici, E., Taş, İ., Özkan, D., 2021. Türkiye Ormanciliğinda Mekanik Üretim Araçlarinin Kullanimi: Çanakkale Örneği. IV. Ulusal Ormancılık Kongresi. 15-16 Kasım. Antalya, Turkey. 448-458. (In Turkish).
  • Athanassiadis, D. 2000. Energy consumption and exhaust emissions in mechanized timber harvesting operations in Sweden. Sci. Total Environ., 255:135–143
  • Berg, S., Karjalainen, T., 2003. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissionfrom forest operations in Finland and Sweden. Forestry, 76(3):271–284.
  • Berg, S., Lindholm, E.L., 2005. Energy use and environmental impacts of forest operations in Sweden. J. Cleaner Prod., 13:33–42.
  • Björheden, R., 1991. Basic time concepts for international comparisons of time study reports. Journal of Forest Engineering, 2(2): 33–39.
  • Bosner, A., Porsinsky, T., Stankic, I., 2012. Forestry and Life Cycle Assessment, Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management, Dr. Clement A. Okia (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0569-5, InTech.
  • Buğday, E., 2011. Environmental Damages of Forest Harvesting Operations. MSc. Thesis. Çankırı Karatekin University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Çankırı. 64 p.
  • COP26, 2021. The Negoatitions Explained.UN Climate Change Conference, 31 Oct.-12 Nov., UK Partnership with Italy. https://ukcop26.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/COP26-.pdf (Accessed: 20.11.2021)
  • D’Amato, D., Gaio, M., Semenzin, E., 2019. A review of LCA assessments of forest-based bioeconomy products and processes under an ecosystem services perspective. J. Sci. Total. Environ., 12: 359–367.
  • Eker, M., 2016. Life Cycle Inventory in wood harvesting for sensitive forest operations. 1st Inter. Symposium of Forest Engineering and Technologies-FETEC 2016, 2-4 June, Bursa, Book of Abstracts, p. 31.
  • Eker, M., Önal, Y.E., 2017. Life cycle assessment for wood harvesting in Turkish forestry conditions. International Symposium on New Horizons in Forestry, 18-20 October, Proceedings & Abstract Book, Isparta, p. 431.
  • Eker, M., Kurt, Y., 2019. Development of a time measurement and recording tool for forestry works. Turkisj Journal of Forestry, 20(3): 157-167.
  • Eker, M, Çoban, H.O., 2019. The Relationship Between Forest Operations and Climate Change. International Conference on Climate Change and Forestry, November 13-14, Antalya, Turkey.
  • Ellis, W.P., Gopalakrishna, T., Goodman, R.C., Putzc, F.E., Roopsind, A., Umunay, P.M., Zalman, J., Ellis, E.A., Mo, K., Gregoiree, T.G., Griscom, B.W., 2019. Reduced-impact logging for climate change mitigation (RIL-C) can halve selective logging emissions from tropical forests. Forest Ecology and Management 438: 255–266. EMEP/EEA, 2019. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019. European Environment Agency, 81 p.
  • Engel, A.M., Wegener J., Lange, M., 2012. Greenhouse gas emissions of two mechanized wood harvesting methods in comparison with the use of draft horses for logging. Eur. J. For. Res., 131:1139–1149.
  • FAO. 2020. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020: Main report. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome. 186 p.
  • FI, 2020. Forestry Statistics:2020, General Directorate of Forestry. www.ogm.gov.tr (Accessed: 18.11.2021)
  • Frühwald, A., Wegener G., 1993. Energiekreislauf Holz- ein Vorbild für die Zukunft. HOLZ- Erzeugung und Verwendung-Ein Kreislauf der Natur. 15. Dreiländer-Holztagung in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, pp. 49-60.
  • Frühwald, A., Solberg, B., 1995. LCA – A Challenge for Forestry and Forest Products Industry. Proceedings of the International Workshop organised by the European Forest Institute and the Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, 3-5 May, ISBN:952-9844-16-6, Hamburg, Germany.
  • Gonzalez-Garcia, S., Berg, S., Feijoo, G., Moreira, M.T., 2009. Environmental impacts of forest production and supply of pulpwood: Spanish and Swedish case studies. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14(4):340–353.
  • Gülci, N., Akay, A. E., Erdaş, O., Gülci, S., 2015. Forest operations planning by using RTK-GPS based digital elevation model. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University (JFFIU), 65(2): 59-68.
  • IPCC, 2018. Global Warming of 1.5 0C. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Switzerland, 30 p.
  • ISO, 1997. ISO 14040: Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO, 1998. ISO 14041: Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Goal and Scope, Definition and Inventory Analysis. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO, 2006. ISO 14000: Environmental management. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO, 2021. ISO 14044: Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines. ISO 14044:2006, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • García, S.G., Moreirab, M.T., Diasa, A.C., Yudegoc, M.B., 2014. Cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment of forest operations in Europe: environmental and energy profiles. Journal of Cleaner Production 66:188-198. Heinimann, H.R., 2012. Life cycle assessment (LCA) in forestry—state and perspectives. Croat J For Eng 33:357–372.
  • Kanawaty, G., 2004. İş Etüdü. (Çev. Zuhal AKAL) MPM Yayınları, Yayın No:29, Ankara.
  • Karjalainen, T., Asikainen, A., 1996. Greenhouse gas emissions from the use of primary energy in forest operations and long-distance transportation of timber in Finland. Forestry, 69(3): 215-228.
  • Klein, D., Wolf, C., Schulz, C., Weber-Blaschke, G., 2015. 20 years of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the forestry sector: state of the art and a methodical proposal for the LCA of forest production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20: 556–575.
  • Klvac, R., Ward, S., Owende, P., Lyons, J., 2003. Energy audit of wood harvesting systems. Scand J For Res 18(2):176–183.
  • Marchi, E., Chung, W., Visser, R., Abbas, D., Nordfjell, T., Mederski, P.S., McEwan, A., Brink, M., Laschi, A., 2018. Sustainable forest operation (SFO): A new paradigm in a changing world and climate. Science of the Total Environment 634:1385-1397.
  • Michelsen, O., Solli, C., Strømman, A.H., 2008. Environmental impact and added value in forestry operations in Norway. J Ind Ecol 12:69–81.
  • Mirabella, N., Castellani, V., Sala, S., 2014. Forestry operations in the alpine context: Life cycle assessment to support the integrated assessment of forest wood short supply chain. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19: 1524–1535.
  • Nabuurs, G, J., Verkerk, P. J., Schelhass M. J., Olabarria J.R.G., Trasobares, A., Cienciala, E., 2018. Climate Smart Forestry: mitigation impacts in three European regions. From Science to Policy 6. European Forest Institute.
  • Özer, D., 2016. Life Cycle Inventory for Wood Harvesting in Forestry (Ormancilikta Odun Üretiminde Yaşam Döngüsü Envanter Analizi), M.Sc. Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences Department of Forest Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta.
  • Proto, A. R., Bacenetti, J., Macrì, G., Zimbalatti, G., 2017. Roundwood and bioenergy production from forestry: Environmental impact assessment considering different logging systems. J. Clean. Prod. 165: 1485–1498.
  • Pryshlakivskya, J., Searcy, C., 2013. Fifteen years of ISO 14040: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production 57(15):115-123.
  • Puettmann, M., R.D. Bergman, S. Hubbard, L. Johnson, B. Lippke, Wagner, F., 2010. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventories of US wood products production – CORRIM Phase I and Phase II Products. Wood and Fiber Science, 42(CORRIM Special Issue):15-28.
  • Routa, J., Kellomäki, S., Peltola, H., 2012. Impacts of intensive management and landscape structure on timber and energy wood production and net CO2 emissions from energy wood use of norway spruce. Bioenerg. Res. 5:106–123.
  • Saud, P., Wang, J., Lin, W., Sharma, B.D., Hartley, D.S., 2013. A life cycle analysis of forest carbon balance and carbon emissions of timber harvesting in West Virginia. Wood Fiber Sci 45:1–18.
  • Schwaiger, H., Zimmer, B., 2001. A comparison of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from forest operations in Europe. In: Karjalainen T, Zimmer B, Berg S, Welling J, Schwaiger H, Finér L, Cortijo P (eds) Energy, carbon and other material flows in the life cycle assessment of forestry and forest products. European Forest Institute, Joensuu, pp 33–50.
  • Schweier, J., Magagnotti, N., Labelle, E.R., Athanassiadis, D., 2013. Sustainability Impact Assessment of Forest Operations: A Review. Curr. For. Rep. 5:101–113.
  • Straka, T.J., Layton, P.A., 2010. Natural resources management: life cycle assessment and forest certification and sustainability issues. Sustainability 2:604–623.
  • Tukker, A, 2000. Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20(4):435-456.
  • Ünver, S., Acar. H. H., 2011The Effects of Wood Raw Material Production Activities on Wood Quality Classes. Artvin Çoruh University Faculty of Forestry Journal, 6(1):128-134.
  • Zhang, X., Zhang W., Xu, Dayu., 2020. Life cycle assessment of complex forestry enterprise: A case study of a forest–fiberboard integrated enterprise. Sustainability, 12(4147):18 p

Yıl 2021, Cilt 7, Sayı 2, 67 - 76, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.33904/ejfe.1036102

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abbas, D., Handler, R.M., 2018. Life-cycle assessment of forest harvesting and transportation operations in Tennessee. J. Clean. Prod., 176: 512–520.
  • Acuna, M., Strandgard, M., 2017. Impact of climate change on Australian forest operations. Australian Forestry, 80(5): 299–308.
  • Akay. A.E., Yımaz, M., Tonguç, F., 2006. Impact of Mechanized harvesting Machines on Forest Ecosystem: Residual Stand Damage. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(11): 2414-2419.
  • Akay, A. E., Bilici, E., Taş, İ., Özkan, D., 2021. Türkiye Ormanciliğinda Mekanik Üretim Araçlarinin Kullanimi: Çanakkale Örneği. IV. Ulusal Ormancılık Kongresi. 15-16 Kasım. Antalya, Turkey. 448-458. (In Turkish).
  • Athanassiadis, D. 2000. Energy consumption and exhaust emissions in mechanized timber harvesting operations in Sweden. Sci. Total Environ., 255:135–143
  • Berg, S., Karjalainen, T., 2003. Comparison of greenhouse gas emissionfrom forest operations in Finland and Sweden. Forestry, 76(3):271–284.
  • Berg, S., Lindholm, E.L., 2005. Energy use and environmental impacts of forest operations in Sweden. J. Cleaner Prod., 13:33–42.
  • Björheden, R., 1991. Basic time concepts for international comparisons of time study reports. Journal of Forest Engineering, 2(2): 33–39.
  • Bosner, A., Porsinsky, T., Stankic, I., 2012. Forestry and Life Cycle Assessment, Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management, Dr. Clement A. Okia (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0569-5, InTech.
  • Buğday, E., 2011. Environmental Damages of Forest Harvesting Operations. MSc. Thesis. Çankırı Karatekin University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Çankırı. 64 p.
  • COP26, 2021. The Negoatitions Explained.UN Climate Change Conference, 31 Oct.-12 Nov., UK Partnership with Italy. https://ukcop26.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/COP26-.pdf (Accessed: 20.11.2021)
  • D’Amato, D., Gaio, M., Semenzin, E., 2019. A review of LCA assessments of forest-based bioeconomy products and processes under an ecosystem services perspective. J. Sci. Total. Environ., 12: 359–367.
  • Eker, M., 2016. Life Cycle Inventory in wood harvesting for sensitive forest operations. 1st Inter. Symposium of Forest Engineering and Technologies-FETEC 2016, 2-4 June, Bursa, Book of Abstracts, p. 31.
  • Eker, M., Önal, Y.E., 2017. Life cycle assessment for wood harvesting in Turkish forestry conditions. International Symposium on New Horizons in Forestry, 18-20 October, Proceedings & Abstract Book, Isparta, p. 431.
  • Eker, M., Kurt, Y., 2019. Development of a time measurement and recording tool for forestry works. Turkisj Journal of Forestry, 20(3): 157-167.
  • Eker, M, Çoban, H.O., 2019. The Relationship Between Forest Operations and Climate Change. International Conference on Climate Change and Forestry, November 13-14, Antalya, Turkey.
  • Ellis, W.P., Gopalakrishna, T., Goodman, R.C., Putzc, F.E., Roopsind, A., Umunay, P.M., Zalman, J., Ellis, E.A., Mo, K., Gregoiree, T.G., Griscom, B.W., 2019. Reduced-impact logging for climate change mitigation (RIL-C) can halve selective logging emissions from tropical forests. Forest Ecology and Management 438: 255–266. EMEP/EEA, 2019. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019. European Environment Agency, 81 p.
  • Engel, A.M., Wegener J., Lange, M., 2012. Greenhouse gas emissions of two mechanized wood harvesting methods in comparison with the use of draft horses for logging. Eur. J. For. Res., 131:1139–1149.
  • FAO. 2020. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020: Main report. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome. 186 p.
  • FI, 2020. Forestry Statistics:2020, General Directorate of Forestry. www.ogm.gov.tr (Accessed: 18.11.2021)
  • Frühwald, A., Wegener G., 1993. Energiekreislauf Holz- ein Vorbild für die Zukunft. HOLZ- Erzeugung und Verwendung-Ein Kreislauf der Natur. 15. Dreiländer-Holztagung in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, pp. 49-60.
  • Frühwald, A., Solberg, B., 1995. LCA – A Challenge for Forestry and Forest Products Industry. Proceedings of the International Workshop organised by the European Forest Institute and the Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, 3-5 May, ISBN:952-9844-16-6, Hamburg, Germany.
  • Gonzalez-Garcia, S., Berg, S., Feijoo, G., Moreira, M.T., 2009. Environmental impacts of forest production and supply of pulpwood: Spanish and Swedish case studies. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14(4):340–353.
  • Gülci, N., Akay, A. E., Erdaş, O., Gülci, S., 2015. Forest operations planning by using RTK-GPS based digital elevation model. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University (JFFIU), 65(2): 59-68.
  • IPCC, 2018. Global Warming of 1.5 0C. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Switzerland, 30 p.
  • ISO, 1997. ISO 14040: Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO, 1998. ISO 14041: Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Goal and Scope, Definition and Inventory Analysis. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO, 2006. ISO 14000: Environmental management. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO, 2021. ISO 14044: Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines. ISO 14044:2006, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • García, S.G., Moreirab, M.T., Diasa, A.C., Yudegoc, M.B., 2014. Cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment of forest operations in Europe: environmental and energy profiles. Journal of Cleaner Production 66:188-198. Heinimann, H.R., 2012. Life cycle assessment (LCA) in forestry—state and perspectives. Croat J For Eng 33:357–372.
  • Kanawaty, G., 2004. İş Etüdü. (Çev. Zuhal AKAL) MPM Yayınları, Yayın No:29, Ankara.
  • Karjalainen, T., Asikainen, A., 1996. Greenhouse gas emissions from the use of primary energy in forest operations and long-distance transportation of timber in Finland. Forestry, 69(3): 215-228.
  • Klein, D., Wolf, C., Schulz, C., Weber-Blaschke, G., 2015. 20 years of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the forestry sector: state of the art and a methodical proposal for the LCA of forest production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20: 556–575.
  • Klvac, R., Ward, S., Owende, P., Lyons, J., 2003. Energy audit of wood harvesting systems. Scand J For Res 18(2):176–183.
  • Marchi, E., Chung, W., Visser, R., Abbas, D., Nordfjell, T., Mederski, P.S., McEwan, A., Brink, M., Laschi, A., 2018. Sustainable forest operation (SFO): A new paradigm in a changing world and climate. Science of the Total Environment 634:1385-1397.
  • Michelsen, O., Solli, C., Strømman, A.H., 2008. Environmental impact and added value in forestry operations in Norway. J Ind Ecol 12:69–81.
  • Mirabella, N., Castellani, V., Sala, S., 2014. Forestry operations in the alpine context: Life cycle assessment to support the integrated assessment of forest wood short supply chain. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19: 1524–1535.
  • Nabuurs, G, J., Verkerk, P. J., Schelhass M. J., Olabarria J.R.G., Trasobares, A., Cienciala, E., 2018. Climate Smart Forestry: mitigation impacts in three European regions. From Science to Policy 6. European Forest Institute.
  • Özer, D., 2016. Life Cycle Inventory for Wood Harvesting in Forestry (Ormancilikta Odun Üretiminde Yaşam Döngüsü Envanter Analizi), M.Sc. Thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences Department of Forest Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University, Isparta.
  • Proto, A. R., Bacenetti, J., Macrì, G., Zimbalatti, G., 2017. Roundwood and bioenergy production from forestry: Environmental impact assessment considering different logging systems. J. Clean. Prod. 165: 1485–1498.
  • Pryshlakivskya, J., Searcy, C., 2013. Fifteen years of ISO 14040: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production 57(15):115-123.
  • Puettmann, M., R.D. Bergman, S. Hubbard, L. Johnson, B. Lippke, Wagner, F., 2010. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventories of US wood products production – CORRIM Phase I and Phase II Products. Wood and Fiber Science, 42(CORRIM Special Issue):15-28.
  • Routa, J., Kellomäki, S., Peltola, H., 2012. Impacts of intensive management and landscape structure on timber and energy wood production and net CO2 emissions from energy wood use of norway spruce. Bioenerg. Res. 5:106–123.
  • Saud, P., Wang, J., Lin, W., Sharma, B.D., Hartley, D.S., 2013. A life cycle analysis of forest carbon balance and carbon emissions of timber harvesting in West Virginia. Wood Fiber Sci 45:1–18.
  • Schwaiger, H., Zimmer, B., 2001. A comparison of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from forest operations in Europe. In: Karjalainen T, Zimmer B, Berg S, Welling J, Schwaiger H, Finér L, Cortijo P (eds) Energy, carbon and other material flows in the life cycle assessment of forestry and forest products. European Forest Institute, Joensuu, pp 33–50.
  • Schweier, J., Magagnotti, N., Labelle, E.R., Athanassiadis, D., 2013. Sustainability Impact Assessment of Forest Operations: A Review. Curr. For. Rep. 5:101–113.
  • Straka, T.J., Layton, P.A., 2010. Natural resources management: life cycle assessment and forest certification and sustainability issues. Sustainability 2:604–623.
  • Tukker, A, 2000. Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20(4):435-456.
  • Ünver, S., Acar. H. H., 2011The Effects of Wood Raw Material Production Activities on Wood Quality Classes. Artvin Çoruh University Faculty of Forestry Journal, 6(1):128-134.
  • Zhang, X., Zhang W., Xu, Dayu., 2020. Life cycle assessment of complex forestry enterprise: A case study of a forest–fiberboard integrated enterprise. Sustainability, 12(4147):18 p

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Mehmet EKER (Sorumlu Yazar)
Isparta University of Applied Sciences
0000-0002-1817-3706
Türkiye


H. Oğuz ÇOBAN
Isparta Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi Orman fakültesi
0000-0002-4037-4811
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 7, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ejfe1036102, journal = {European Journal of Forest Engineering}, eissn = {2149-5637}, address = {}, publisher = {Forest Engineering and Technologies Platform}, year = {2021}, volume = {7}, number = {2}, pages = {67 - 76}, doi = {10.33904/ejfe.1036102}, title = {A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions}, key = {cite}, author = {Eker, Mehmet and Çoban, H. Oğuz} }
APA Eker, M. & Çoban, H. O. (2021). A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions . European Journal of Forest Engineering , 7 (2) , 67-76 . DOI: 10.33904/ejfe.1036102
MLA Eker, M. , Çoban, H. O. "A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions" . European Journal of Forest Engineering 7 (2021 ): 67-76 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ejfe/issue/67032/1036102>
Chicago Eker, M. , Çoban, H. O. "A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions". European Journal of Forest Engineering 7 (2021 ): 67-76
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions AU - Mehmet Eker , H. Oğuz Çoban Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.33904/ejfe.1036102 DO - 10.33904/ejfe.1036102 T2 - European Journal of Forest Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 67 EP - 76 VL - 7 IS - 2 SN - -2149-5637 M3 - doi: 10.33904/ejfe.1036102 UR - https://doi.org/10.33904/ejfe.1036102 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 European Journal of Forest Engineering A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions %A Mehmet Eker , H. Oğuz Çoban %T A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions %D 2021 %J European Journal of Forest Engineering %P -2149-5637 %V 7 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33904/ejfe.1036102 %U 10.33904/ejfe.1036102
ISNAD Eker, Mehmet , Çoban, H. Oğuz . "A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions". European Journal of Forest Engineering 7 / 2 (Aralık 2021): 67-76 . https://doi.org/10.33904/ejfe.1036102
AMA Eker M. , Çoban H. O. A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Eur J Forest Eng. 2021; 7(2): 67-76.
Vancouver Eker M. , Çoban H. O. A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions. European Journal of Forest Engineering. 2021; 7(2): 67-76.
IEEE M. Eker ve H. O. Çoban , "A Simple Example on Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Harvesting Technologies in Turkish Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions", European Journal of Forest Engineering, c. 7, sayı. 2, ss. 67-76, Ara. 2021, doi:10.33904/ejfe.1036102

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