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Sığır Orjinli Gıdalarda Salmonella spp. ve Listeria monocytogenes Varlığının Araştırılması

Yıl 2018, Cilt 15, Sayı 1, 22 - 29, 15.04.2018

Öz

Bu çalışma süt, et ve ürünlerini içeren 200 adet sığır orjinli gıdada (kıyma, kasap kötfe, inegöl köfte, sucuk,
pastörize süt, tulum peyniri, taze beyaz peynir ve çeçil peyniri) Salmonella spp. ve Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes)’
in prevalansını araştırmak amacıyla yapıldı. Toplanan örneklerin 66’sından (%33) Salmonella spp., 6’sından
(%3) L. monocytogenes izole edildi. Ürünlere göre değerlendirildiğinde; et orjinli örneklerin 45’inden (%22.5) (16
kıyma, 10 inegöl köfte, 16 kasap köfte, 3 sucuk) peynir örneklerinin ise 21’inden (%10.5) (6 tulum peyniri, 15 taze
beyaz peynir) Salmonella spp. saptandı. Listeria monocytogenes’in ürünlere göre dağılımı ise; 2’si (%1) et (kıyma ve
kasap köfte), 4’ü (%2) peynir (1 tulum peyniri, 3 taze beyaz peynir) olarak belirlendi. Pastörize süt ve sucuk örneklerinden
Salmonella spp. ve L. monocytogenes saptanmadı. Et, süt ve ürünlerindeki yüksek düzeydeki Salmonella spp. ve
L. monocytogenes varlığının, halk sağlığı riski oluşturabileceği düşünüldüğünden, söz konusu etkenlerden kaynaklı
kontaminasyonu önleme çalışmalarında, mezbaha ve et işleme aşamalarında hijyen kuralları ile pastörizasyon uygulamalarının
zorunluluğu üzerinde önemle durulmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abbassi-Ghozzi I, Jaouani A, Hammami S, Martinez-Urtaza J, Boudabous, A, Gtari M. Molecular analysis and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from raw meat marketed in the area of “Grand Tunis”, Tunisia. Pathol Biol 2012; 60(5): 49-54.
  • 2. Al G. Sığır kıyma ve köftelerinde Salmonella spp. varlığı ve antibiyotik dirençlilik profilleri. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniv. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Samsun, 2015; p. 1-55.
  • 3. Angelidis AS, Chronis EN, Papageorgiou DK, Kazakis II, Arsenoglou KC, Stathopoulosd GA. Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: apotential food-quality index. Food Microbiol 2006; 23(1): 95-100.
  • 4. Aslam M, Checkley S, Avery B, Chalmers G, Bohaychuk V, Gensler G, Reid-Smith R, Boerlin, P. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of antimicrobial reistance in Salmonella serovars isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada. Food Microbiol 2012; 32(1): 110-7.
  • 5. Awaisheh SS. Incidence and contamination level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat meat products in Jordan. J Food Prot 2010; 73(3): 535-40.
  • 6. Aygun O, Aslantas O, Oner S. A survey on the microbiological qualityof Carra, a traditional Turkish cheese. J Food Eng 2005; 66(3): 401-4.
  • 7. Bachmann FTP, Spahr IB. The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk. J Dairy Sci 1995; 78(3): 476-83.
  • 8. Başkaya R, Karaca T, Sevinç İ, Çakmak Ö, Yildiz A, Yörük M: İstanbul’da satışa sunulan hazır kıymalarin histolojik, mikrobiyolojik ve serolojk kailtesi. YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 2004; 15(1-2): 41-6.
  • 9. Bouayad L, Hamdi TM. Prevalence of Listeria spp. in ready to eat foods (RTE) from Algiers (Algeria). Food Control 2012; 23(2): 397-99. 10. Bosilevac JM, Guerini MN, Kalchayanand N, Koohmaraie M. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonellae in commercial ground beef in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009; 75(7): 1892-900. 11. Buazzi MM, Johnson, M.E. And Marth, E.H. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. J Food Protect 1992; 55(2): 80-3.
  • 12. Cabrera-Diaz E, Barbos-Cardenas CM, Perez-Montaño J, Gonzalez-Aguilar D, Pacheco-Gallardo C, Barba J. Occurrence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in ground beef at retail stores in Jalisco State, Mexico. J Food Prot 2013; 76 (12): 2004-10.
  • 13. Centers for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC). Multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to imported frescolina marte brand ricotta salata cheese. http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cheese-09-12/2012. Erişim tarihi: 10.03. 2012.
  • 14. Cetinkaya F, Cibik R, Soyutemiz GE, Ozakin C, Kayali R, Levent B. Shigella and Salmonella contamination in various food stuffs in Turkey. Food Control 2008; 19(11): 1059-63.
  • 15. Chambers JR, Gong J. The intestinal microbiota and its modulation for Salmonella control in chickens. Food Res Int 2011; 44(10): 3149-59.
  • 16. Colak H, Hampikyan H, Bingol EB, Ulusoy B. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in tulum cheese. Food Control 2007; 18(5): 576-9.
  • 17. Dallal MMS, Doyle MP, Rezadehbashi M, Dabiri H, Sanaei M, Shabnam M, Bakhtiari R, Sharifiy K, Taremi M, Zali MR. Sharifi-Yazdi MK. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella serotypes, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. isolated from retail chicken and beef, Tehran, Iran. Food Control 2010; 21(4): 388-92.
  • 18. Direkel Ş, Yildiz Ç, Aydin FE, Emekdaş G. Mersin ili Yenişehir İlçesi’nde satışa sunulan çiğ kıymaların mikrobiyolojik kalitesinin değerlendirilmesi. Mersin Üniv Sağlık Bilim Derg 2010; 3(2): 8-14.
  • 19. Diez J, Patarata L. Behavior of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in chourico de vinho, a dry fermented sausage made from wine-marinated meat. J Food Prot 2013; 76(4): 588-94. 20. Doyle E. Food safety review: Review of epidemiology of foodborne listeriosis,1-25.ttps://fri.wisc.edu/files/Briefs_File/FRI_Brief_FoodborneListeriosis_Sept2013.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 18.09.2013.
  • 21. Ertaş N, Abay S, Telli N, Hizlisoy H, Al S. Presence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella spp. in retailed sausages in Kayseri, Turkey. Fırat Üniv Sağlık Bilim Vet Derg 2014; 28(1): 25-8.
  • 22. Farber JM, Peterkin PI. Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen. Microbiol Rev 1991; 55(3): 476-511. 23. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Bacteriological Analytical Manual: Chapter 5. Salmonella. 2011a. http://www.fda.gov/ Food / Food Science Research /Laboratory Methods/ucm070. 149.htm. Erişim tarihi: 28.11. 2015.
  • 24. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Chapter 10. Detection and Enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes, 2011b. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm. Erişim tarihi: 28.11.2015.
  • 25. Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI). First Trimester National Microbiological Survey 2004 (04NS1). Microbiological safety and quality of fermented meat. http://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/microbiological_fermented%20meat_2004. pdf. 2004. Erişim tarihi: 01.02.2014.
  • 26. Foerster C, Vidal L, Troncoso M, Figueroa G. Characterzation of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis. Rev Argentina Microbiol 2012; 44(3):195-200.
  • 27. Gönülalan Z, Köse A. Kars ilinde satışa sunulan sığır kıymalarının mikrobiyolojik kalitesi. Fırat Üniv Sağlık Biim Derg 2003; 17(1) :49-53.
  • 28. Gülmez M, Güven A. Kars ilinde satişa sunulan çeçil (civil) peynirlerin bazı mikrobiyolojik ve kimyasal özellikleri. Kafkas Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2001; 7(1): 63-70.
  • 29. Haneklaus AN, Harris KB, Gruiffin DB, Edrington TS, Lucia LM, Savel JW. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feed yards. J Food Prot 2012; 75: 1131-33.
  • 30. Inoue S, Nakama A, Arai Y, Kokubo Y, Maruyama T, Saito A, Yoshida T, Terao M, Yamamoto S, Kumagai S. Prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail foods in Japan. Int J Food Microbiol 2000; 59(1-2): 73-7.
  • 31. Jakobsen RA, Heggeb R, Sunde EB, Skjervheim M. Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in Norwegian raw milk cheese. Food Microbiol 2011; 28(3): 492-96.
  • 32. Jemmi T, Pak S, Salman MD. Prevalence and risk factors for contamination with L. monocytogenes of imported and exported meat and fish products in Switzerland, 1992-2000. Prevent Vet Med 2002; 54(1): 25-36. 33. Kalender H. Prevalence of Listeria species in ground beef and chicken meat sold in eastern Turkey. Pak Vet J 2012; 32(3): 456-8.
  • 34. Khen BK, Lynch OA. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland. Zoonoses Public Health 2014; 61(8): 534-6.
  • 35. Knabel SJ. Food borne illness: Role of home food handling practices. Food Technol 1995; 49(4):119-31.
  • 36. Kousta M, Mataragas M, Skandamis P, Drosinos EH. Prevalence and sources of cheese contamination with pathogens at farm and processing levels. Food Control 2009; 21(6): 805-15.
  • 37. Lambertz ST, Nilsson C, Brådenmark A, Sylvén S, Johansson A, Jansson LM, Lindblad M. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Sweden 2010. Int J Food Microbiol 2012; 160(1): 24-31.
  • 38. Little CL, Monsey HA, Nichols GL, Louvois J. The microbiological quality of ready to eat dried and fermented meat and meat products. Int J Environ Health Res 1998; 8(4): 277-84.
  • 39. Little CL, Richardson JF, Owen RJ, De Pinna E, Threlfall EJ. Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw red meats in the United Kingdom: Prevalence, characterization and antimicrobial resistance pattern, 2003-2005. Food Microbiol 2008; 25(3): 538-43.
  • 40. Maciak T, Sawicka-Wrzosek K. Microbial contamination of sausages. Zycie-Weterynaryjne 1996; 71(1): 341-3.
  • 41. Mattick KL, Bailey RA, Jorgensen F, Humphrey TJ. The prevalence and number of Salmonella in sausages and their destruction by frying, grilling or barbecuing. J Appl Microbiol 2002; 93(4): 541-47. 42. Mena C, Almeida G, Carneiro L, Teixeira P, Hogg T, Gibbs PA. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in different food products commercialized in Portugal. Food Microbiol 2004; 21: 213-16.
  • 43. Menéndez S, Godínez R, Centeno JA, Rodríguez-Otero JL. Microbiological, chemical and biochemical characteristics of ‘Tetilla’ raw cows-milk cheese. Food Mcrobiol 2001; 18(2): 151-8.
  • 44. Millet L, Saubusse M, Didienne R, Tessier L, Montel MC. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw-milk cheeses. Int J Food Microbiol 2006; 108(1): 105-14.
  • 45. Noack DJ, Jockel J. Listeria monocytogenes, its occurrence and significance in meat and meat products, and the application of detection procedures. Fleischwirtschaft 1993; 73(3): 581-84.
  • 46. Öksüztepe G, Patir B, Calicioglu M. Identification and distribution of lactic acid bacteria during the ripening of Savak tulum cheese. Tr J Vet Anim Sci 2005; 29(3): 873-9.
  • 47. Poppe P. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Second Edition. USA: Academic pres, 2011; p. 3033.
  • 48. Rudolf M, Scherer S. High incidence of L. monocytogenes in European red smear cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 2001; 63(1-2): 91-8. 49. Sagun E, Sancak YC, İsleyici Ö, Ekici K. The presence and prevalence of Listeria species in milk and herby cheese in and around Van. Tr J Vet Anim Sci 2001; 25(2001): 15-9.
  • 50. Siriken B. The microbiological quality of ground beef in Aydin and Afyon provinces, Turkey. Revue Méd Vét 2004; 155 (12): 632-6.
  • 51. Siriken B, Pamuk S, Özakin C, Gedikoglu S, Eyigör MA note on the incidences of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 serotypes in Turkish sausage (Soudjouck). Meat Sci 2006; 72(1): 177-81.
  • 52. Srey S, Jahid IK, Ha SD. Biofilm formation in food industries: A food safety concern. Food Control 2013; 31(2): 572-85. 53. Sullivan GA, Jackson-Davis AL, Niebuhr SE, Xi Y, Schrader KD, Sebranek JG, Dickson JS. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes using natural antimicrobials in no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added ham. J Food Prot 2012; 75(6):1071-6. 54. Tekinsen K, Özdemir Z. Prevalence of Microbiological and compositional status of Turkish foodborne pathogens in Turkish Van otlu (Herb) White cheese. Food Control 2006; 17: 707-11.
  • 55. Thevenot D, Delignette-Muller ML, Christieans S,Vernozy-Rozand C. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in 13 dried sausage processing plants and their products. Int J Food Microbiol 2005;102(1): 85-94.
  • 56. Todd ECD, Notermans S. Surveillance of listeriosis and its causative pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Food Control 2011; 22(9): 1484-90.
  • 57. Torres-Vitela MR, Mendoza-Bernardo M, Castro-Rosas J, Gomez-Aldapa CA, Garay-Martinez LE, Navarro-Hidalgo V, Villarruel-Lopez A. Incidence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin in two types of Mexican fresh cheeses. J Food Prot 2012; 75(1): 79-84.
  • 58. Wemmenhove E, Stampelou I, Hooijdonk ACMV, Zwietering MH, Wellsbennik MHJ. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Goudamicrocheese: no growth, and substantial inactivation after extended ripening times. Int Dairy J 2013; 32(2): 192-98.
  • 59. World Health Organisation (WHO). Foodborne listeriosis. Bull 1988; 66(1): 421-8.
  • 60. Yıldız A, Karaca T, Çakmak Ö, Yörük M, Başkaya R. The histological, microbiyological and serological quality of meat ball marketed in Istanbul. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2004; 15(1-2): 53-7.
  • 61. Yildirim T, Siriken B, Yavuz C. 2014. Amasya ilinde tüketime sunulan sığır kıyma ve köftelerinde Salmonella spp. varlığı ve antibiyotik dirençlilik profilleri. Amasya Üniviversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projesi, 2015; FMB-BAP-13-040, Amasya.

Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods

Yıl 2018, Cilt 15, Sayı 1, 22 - 29, 15.04.2018

Öz

This study was conducted to investigate the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in

200 bovine origin meat, milk and their products (minced meat, meatball, Inegöl meatball, sausage, pasteurized milk,

Tulum cheese, fresh soft cheese and cecil cheese). Salmonella were isolated from 66 (33%) of 200 samples. While 45

(22.5%) of which were obtained from meat origin samples (16 minced meat, 10 inegöl meatball, 16 meatball and 3

sausage) and 21 (10.5%) of which was detected in cheese samples (6 tulum and 15 fresh soft cheeses). L. monocytogenes

was detected in a total 6 samples (3%); 2 (1%) of the meat (one ground beef and one meatball) and 4 (2%) of

the cheese samples (one tulum and 3 fresh soft cheeses). In contrast, Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes was not

detected in pasteurized milk and sausage samples. The high prevalence of Salmonella spp. and presence of L. monocytogenes

in the samples could pose public health risks for consumers. To avoid Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes

contamination, hygienic rules of slaughter and meat processing or pasteurizing milk must be rigorously observed.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abbassi-Ghozzi I, Jaouani A, Hammami S, Martinez-Urtaza J, Boudabous, A, Gtari M. Molecular analysis and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from raw meat marketed in the area of “Grand Tunis”, Tunisia. Pathol Biol 2012; 60(5): 49-54.
  • 2. Al G. Sığır kıyma ve köftelerinde Salmonella spp. varlığı ve antibiyotik dirençlilik profilleri. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniv. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Samsun, 2015; p. 1-55.
  • 3. Angelidis AS, Chronis EN, Papageorgiou DK, Kazakis II, Arsenoglou KC, Stathopoulosd GA. Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: apotential food-quality index. Food Microbiol 2006; 23(1): 95-100.
  • 4. Aslam M, Checkley S, Avery B, Chalmers G, Bohaychuk V, Gensler G, Reid-Smith R, Boerlin, P. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of antimicrobial reistance in Salmonella serovars isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada. Food Microbiol 2012; 32(1): 110-7.
  • 5. Awaisheh SS. Incidence and contamination level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat meat products in Jordan. J Food Prot 2010; 73(3): 535-40.
  • 6. Aygun O, Aslantas O, Oner S. A survey on the microbiological qualityof Carra, a traditional Turkish cheese. J Food Eng 2005; 66(3): 401-4.
  • 7. Bachmann FTP, Spahr IB. The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk. J Dairy Sci 1995; 78(3): 476-83.
  • 8. Başkaya R, Karaca T, Sevinç İ, Çakmak Ö, Yildiz A, Yörük M: İstanbul’da satışa sunulan hazır kıymalarin histolojik, mikrobiyolojik ve serolojk kailtesi. YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 2004; 15(1-2): 41-6.
  • 9. Bouayad L, Hamdi TM. Prevalence of Listeria spp. in ready to eat foods (RTE) from Algiers (Algeria). Food Control 2012; 23(2): 397-99. 10. Bosilevac JM, Guerini MN, Kalchayanand N, Koohmaraie M. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonellae in commercial ground beef in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009; 75(7): 1892-900. 11. Buazzi MM, Johnson, M.E. And Marth, E.H. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. J Food Protect 1992; 55(2): 80-3.
  • 12. Cabrera-Diaz E, Barbos-Cardenas CM, Perez-Montaño J, Gonzalez-Aguilar D, Pacheco-Gallardo C, Barba J. Occurrence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in ground beef at retail stores in Jalisco State, Mexico. J Food Prot 2013; 76 (12): 2004-10.
  • 13. Centers for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC). Multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to imported frescolina marte brand ricotta salata cheese. http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cheese-09-12/2012. Erişim tarihi: 10.03. 2012.
  • 14. Cetinkaya F, Cibik R, Soyutemiz GE, Ozakin C, Kayali R, Levent B. Shigella and Salmonella contamination in various food stuffs in Turkey. Food Control 2008; 19(11): 1059-63.
  • 15. Chambers JR, Gong J. The intestinal microbiota and its modulation for Salmonella control in chickens. Food Res Int 2011; 44(10): 3149-59.
  • 16. Colak H, Hampikyan H, Bingol EB, Ulusoy B. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in tulum cheese. Food Control 2007; 18(5): 576-9.
  • 17. Dallal MMS, Doyle MP, Rezadehbashi M, Dabiri H, Sanaei M, Shabnam M, Bakhtiari R, Sharifiy K, Taremi M, Zali MR. Sharifi-Yazdi MK. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella serotypes, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. isolated from retail chicken and beef, Tehran, Iran. Food Control 2010; 21(4): 388-92.
  • 18. Direkel Ş, Yildiz Ç, Aydin FE, Emekdaş G. Mersin ili Yenişehir İlçesi’nde satışa sunulan çiğ kıymaların mikrobiyolojik kalitesinin değerlendirilmesi. Mersin Üniv Sağlık Bilim Derg 2010; 3(2): 8-14.
  • 19. Diez J, Patarata L. Behavior of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in chourico de vinho, a dry fermented sausage made from wine-marinated meat. J Food Prot 2013; 76(4): 588-94. 20. Doyle E. Food safety review: Review of epidemiology of foodborne listeriosis,1-25.ttps://fri.wisc.edu/files/Briefs_File/FRI_Brief_FoodborneListeriosis_Sept2013.pdf. Erişim tarihi: 18.09.2013.
  • 21. Ertaş N, Abay S, Telli N, Hizlisoy H, Al S. Presence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella spp. in retailed sausages in Kayseri, Turkey. Fırat Üniv Sağlık Bilim Vet Derg 2014; 28(1): 25-8.
  • 22. Farber JM, Peterkin PI. Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen. Microbiol Rev 1991; 55(3): 476-511. 23. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Bacteriological Analytical Manual: Chapter 5. Salmonella. 2011a. http://www.fda.gov/ Food / Food Science Research /Laboratory Methods/ucm070. 149.htm. Erişim tarihi: 28.11. 2015.
  • 24. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Chapter 10. Detection and Enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes, 2011b. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm. Erişim tarihi: 28.11.2015.
  • 25. Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI). First Trimester National Microbiological Survey 2004 (04NS1). Microbiological safety and quality of fermented meat. http://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/microbiological_fermented%20meat_2004. pdf. 2004. Erişim tarihi: 01.02.2014.
  • 26. Foerster C, Vidal L, Troncoso M, Figueroa G. Characterzation of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis. Rev Argentina Microbiol 2012; 44(3):195-200.
  • 27. Gönülalan Z, Köse A. Kars ilinde satışa sunulan sığır kıymalarının mikrobiyolojik kalitesi. Fırat Üniv Sağlık Biim Derg 2003; 17(1) :49-53.
  • 28. Gülmez M, Güven A. Kars ilinde satişa sunulan çeçil (civil) peynirlerin bazı mikrobiyolojik ve kimyasal özellikleri. Kafkas Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2001; 7(1): 63-70.
  • 29. Haneklaus AN, Harris KB, Gruiffin DB, Edrington TS, Lucia LM, Savel JW. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feed yards. J Food Prot 2012; 75: 1131-33.
  • 30. Inoue S, Nakama A, Arai Y, Kokubo Y, Maruyama T, Saito A, Yoshida T, Terao M, Yamamoto S, Kumagai S. Prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail foods in Japan. Int J Food Microbiol 2000; 59(1-2): 73-7.
  • 31. Jakobsen RA, Heggeb R, Sunde EB, Skjervheim M. Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in Norwegian raw milk cheese. Food Microbiol 2011; 28(3): 492-96.
  • 32. Jemmi T, Pak S, Salman MD. Prevalence and risk factors for contamination with L. monocytogenes of imported and exported meat and fish products in Switzerland, 1992-2000. Prevent Vet Med 2002; 54(1): 25-36. 33. Kalender H. Prevalence of Listeria species in ground beef and chicken meat sold in eastern Turkey. Pak Vet J 2012; 32(3): 456-8.
  • 34. Khen BK, Lynch OA. Prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in the beef chain in the Republic of Ireland. Zoonoses Public Health 2014; 61(8): 534-6.
  • 35. Knabel SJ. Food borne illness: Role of home food handling practices. Food Technol 1995; 49(4):119-31.
  • 36. Kousta M, Mataragas M, Skandamis P, Drosinos EH. Prevalence and sources of cheese contamination with pathogens at farm and processing levels. Food Control 2009; 21(6): 805-15.
  • 37. Lambertz ST, Nilsson C, Brådenmark A, Sylvén S, Johansson A, Jansson LM, Lindblad M. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Sweden 2010. Int J Food Microbiol 2012; 160(1): 24-31.
  • 38. Little CL, Monsey HA, Nichols GL, Louvois J. The microbiological quality of ready to eat dried and fermented meat and meat products. Int J Environ Health Res 1998; 8(4): 277-84.
  • 39. Little CL, Richardson JF, Owen RJ, De Pinna E, Threlfall EJ. Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw red meats in the United Kingdom: Prevalence, characterization and antimicrobial resistance pattern, 2003-2005. Food Microbiol 2008; 25(3): 538-43.
  • 40. Maciak T, Sawicka-Wrzosek K. Microbial contamination of sausages. Zycie-Weterynaryjne 1996; 71(1): 341-3.
  • 41. Mattick KL, Bailey RA, Jorgensen F, Humphrey TJ. The prevalence and number of Salmonella in sausages and their destruction by frying, grilling or barbecuing. J Appl Microbiol 2002; 93(4): 541-47. 42. Mena C, Almeida G, Carneiro L, Teixeira P, Hogg T, Gibbs PA. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in different food products commercialized in Portugal. Food Microbiol 2004; 21: 213-16.
  • 43. Menéndez S, Godínez R, Centeno JA, Rodríguez-Otero JL. Microbiological, chemical and biochemical characteristics of ‘Tetilla’ raw cows-milk cheese. Food Mcrobiol 2001; 18(2): 151-8.
  • 44. Millet L, Saubusse M, Didienne R, Tessier L, Montel MC. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw-milk cheeses. Int J Food Microbiol 2006; 108(1): 105-14.
  • 45. Noack DJ, Jockel J. Listeria monocytogenes, its occurrence and significance in meat and meat products, and the application of detection procedures. Fleischwirtschaft 1993; 73(3): 581-84.
  • 46. Öksüztepe G, Patir B, Calicioglu M. Identification and distribution of lactic acid bacteria during the ripening of Savak tulum cheese. Tr J Vet Anim Sci 2005; 29(3): 873-9.
  • 47. Poppe P. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Second Edition. USA: Academic pres, 2011; p. 3033.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Şebnem PAMUK (Sorumlu Yazar)

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Nisan 2018
Başvuru Tarihi 6 Ekim 2016
Kabul Tarihi 18 Nisan 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 15, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ercivet414126, journal = {Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1304-7280}, eissn = {2667-5498}, address = {}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {15}, number = {1}, pages = {22 - 29}, title = {Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods}, key = {cite}, author = {Pamuk, Şebnem} }
APA Pamuk, Ş. (2018). Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 15 (1) , 22-29 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/36501/414126
MLA Pamuk, Ş. "Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods" . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 15 (2018 ): 22-29 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/36501/414126>
Chicago Pamuk, Ş. "Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 15 (2018 ): 22-29
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods AU - Şebnem Pamuk Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 22 EP - 29 VL - 15 IS - 1 SN - 1304-7280-2667-5498 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods %A Şebnem Pamuk %T Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods %D 2018 %J Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1304-7280-2667-5498 %V 15 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Pamuk, Şebnem . "Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 15 / 1 (Nisan 2018): 22-29 .
AMA Pamuk Ş. Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods. Erciyes Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2018; 15(1): 22-29.
Vancouver Pamuk Ş. Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods. Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2018; 15(1): 22-29.
IEEE Ş. Pamuk , "Investigation of the Presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in Bovine Origin Foods", Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 15, sayı. 1, ss. 22-29, Nis. 2018