Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2019, Cilt: 1 Sayı: 1, 34 - 50, 15.01.2019

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Adebola Sakiru, Usama Al-Mulalib, Ibrahim Musaha and Ilhan Ozturk (2017). “Investigating the pollution haven hypothesis in Ghana: an empirical investigation”. Energy 124: 706-719. Akin, Serhat C. (2014). “Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlarinin CO2 Emisyonu Uzerine Olan Etkisi: Dinamik Panel Veri Analizi” (The Effect of Foreign Capital Investments on CO2 Emission: Dynamic Panel Data Analysis). Akademik Bakis Uluslararasi Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 44: 465-475. Al-Mulali, Usama and Chor F. Tang (2013). “Investigating the validity of pollution haven hypothesis in the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries”. Energy Policy. 60: 813-819. Baltagi, Badi (2008). Econometric analysis of panel data. New York, NY: John Wiley & Son. Breitung, Jork (1999). “The local power of some unit root tests for panel data”, Discussion Paper, Berlin: Humboldt University. Choi, In (2001). “Unit root tests for panel data”. Journal of international money and Finance 20(2): 249-272. Cole, Matthew A., Robert J. R. Elliott and Per G. Fredriksson (2006). “Endogenous Pollution Havens: Does FDI Influence Environmental Regulations”. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 108(1): 157-178. Copeland, Brian and Scott M. Taylor (2004). “Trade, growth, and the environment”. Journal of Economic Literature 42(1): 7-71. Eskeland, Gunnar and Ann Harrison (1997). “Moving to Greener Pastures? Multinationals and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis”. Washington: World Bank working paper. Eyuboglu, Kemal (2017). “Turk Dunyasinda Yer Alan Ulkelerin Makro Performanslarinin Karsilastirilmasi” (Comparing the Macro Performances of the Countries in the Turkic Region). BILIG Turk Dunyasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 834: 331-350. Granger, Clive W.J. and Paul Newbold (1974). “Spurious regressions in econometrics”. Journal of Econometrics 2(2): 111-120. Grossman, Gene M. and Alan B. Krueger (1991). Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement (No. w3914). National Bureau of Economic Research. Hoffmann, Robert, Chew G. Lee, Bala Ramasamy and Matthew Yeung (2005). “FDI and pollution: a granger causality test using panel data”. Journal of International Development 17(3): 311-317. Im, So Kyung, M. Hashem Pesaran and Yongcheol Shin (2003). “Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels”. Journal of Econometrics 115(1): 53-74. Kao, Chihwa (1999). “Spurious regression and residual-based tests for co-integration in panel data”. Journal of Econometrics 90(1): 1-44. Kao, Chihwa and Min-Hsie Chiang (2000). Testing for structural change of a cointegrated regression in panel data. Syracuse University. Manuscript. Karagoz, Kadir (2007). “Turkiye’de Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirim Girislerini Belirleyen Faktorler: 1970–2005” (Decisive factors on foreign direct investment inflow into Turkey: 1970-2005). Journal of Yasar University 2(8): 929-948. Kearsley, Aaron and Riddel, Mary (2010). “A Further Inquiry into the Pollution Haven Hypothesis and the Environmental Kuznets Curve”. Ecological Economics 69(4): 905-919. Kesgingoz, Hayrettin and Huseyin Karamelikli (2015). “Dis Ticaret-Enerji Tuketimi ve Ekonomik Buyumenin CO2 Emisyonu Uzerine Etkisi”. (The effect of trade-energy consumption and economic growth on CO2 emission). Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Dergisi (9): 7-17. Kocak, Emrah and Aykut Sarkgunesi (2018). “The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on CO2 Emissions in Turkey: New Evidence from Co-Integration and Bootstrap Causality Analysis”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25(1): 790-804. Levin, Andrew, Chien-Fu Lin and James C. Chia-Shang (2002). “Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-Sample Properties”. Journal of Econometrics 108(1): 1-24. Levinson, Arik (1996). “Environmental Regulations and Manufacturers’ Location Choices: Evidence from the Census of Manufactures”. Journal of Public Economics 62(1-2): 5-29. MacDermott, Raymond (2009). “A Panel Study of the Pollution-Haven Hypothesis”. Global Economy Journal 9(1): 1524-5861. Maddala, Gangadharrao S. and Wu Shaowen (1999). “A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 61(1) : 631-652. Mani, Muthukumara and David Wheeler (1998). “In Search of Pollution Havens? Dirty Industry in the World Economy 1960 to 1995”. Journal of Environment and Development 7(3): 215-247. Mi, Zhifu, Pan Su-Yan, Yu Hao and Wei Yi-Ming (2015). “Potential Impacts of Industrial Structure on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission: A Case Study of Beijing”. Journal of Cleaner Production 103: 455-462. Millimet, Daniel and Roy Jayjit (2016). “Empirical Tests of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis When Environmental Regulation is Endogenous”. Journal of Applied Econometrics 31(4): 652-677. Pedroni, Peter (1999). “Critical Values for Co-Integration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 61(1): 653-670. Pedroni, Peter (2004). “Panel Co-Integration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests with an Application to the PPP Hypothesis”. Econometric Theory 26: 597-625. Polat, Melike A. (2015). “Turkiye’de Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlari ile CO2 Emisyonu arasindaki Iliskinin Yapisal Kirilmali Testler Ile Analizi” (Investments in Turkey with foreign capital in the long relationship between CO2 Emissions Testing and Analysis quinine structural break). Journal of International Social Research 8(41): 1127-1135. Ren Shenggang, Baolong Yuan, Xie Ma and Xiaohong Chen (2014). “International Trade, FDI (foreign direct investment) and Embodied CO2 Emissions: A Case Study of China’s Industrial Sectors”. China Economic Review 28, 123-134. Seker, Fahri, Hasan Murat and Ertugrul Murat Cetin (2015). “The impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Environmental Quality: a Bounds Testing and Causality Analysis for Turkey”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52: 347-356. Shahbaz, Muhammed, Lean Hooi Hooi and Shahbaz Muhammad (2012). “Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Pakistan: Co-Integration and Granger Causality”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(5): 2947- 2953. Siebert, Horst, Ralf Gronych, Jurgen Eichberger and Rudiger Pethig (1980). Trade and Environment: a Theoretical Enquiry. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Solarin Adebola S., Usama Al-Mulalib, Ibrahim Musaha and Ilhan Ozturk (2017). “Investigating the pollution haven hypothesis in Ghana: an empirical investigation”. Energy 124: 706-719. Stock, James and Mark Watson (1993). “A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems”. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society 61(4): 783-820. Tatoglu, Ferda (2013). Panel Data Econometrics. Istanbul: Beta Yayinevi. Taylor, Scott (2004). “Unbundling the Pollution Haven Hypothesis”. Advances in Economic Analysis and Policy 4(2), Article 8, 28s. Temurshoev, Umed (2006). “Pollution Haven Hypothesis or Factor Endowment Hypothesis: Theory and Empirical Examination for the US and China”. CERGE-EI Working Paper No. 292. Tunay, Batu (2017). “Yukselen Ekonomilerde Makro Ekonomik Dengesizliklerin Etkilesimi: Turk Cumhuriyetleri Ornegi” (The Effects of Macroeconomic Imbalances in Upward Economies: A Case of Turkic Republics). Bilig Turk Dunyasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 834: 171-199. Weigel, Dale (1997). Foreign Direct Investment. Washington: World Bank Publications. World Investment Report (1991). United Nations, New York, (Accessed on 11.03.2018). World Investment Report (2017). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Unctad, New York: United Nations, (Accessed on 11.04.2018). Xian-Gang, Zeng (2010). “Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Pollution Haven Hypothesis”. Economic Theory and Business Management 11: 65-71. Yildiz, Yilmaz and Baha M. Karan (2016). “Firm Level Determinants of Foreign Portfolio Investments in Turkey: A Dynamic Panel Regression Analysis Approach”. Journal of Economics Finance and Accounting 3(2): 126-141. Zeren, Feyyaz (2015). “Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirimlarin CO2 Emisyonuna Etkisi: Kirlilik Hale Hipotezi mi? Kirlilik Cenneti Hipotezi mi?” (CO2 Effect of Foreign Direct Investments on CO2 Emission: Pollution Hypothesis? The Pollution Heaven Hypothesis?) Journal of Yasar University 10(37): 6381-6477.

THE POLLUTION HAVEN HYPOTHESIS AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL ASIAN TURKIC REPUBLICS

Yıl 2019, Cilt: 1 Sayı: 1, 34 - 50, 15.01.2019

Öz

In recent years, the Central Asian Turkic Republics have started to become centers of attraction for the foreign direct investments of multinational companies. In the literature, it is a matter of debate whether the relocation of multinational companies with low environmental standards increases environmental pollution associated with foreign direct investments. In this context, this study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and foreign direct investments in the Central Asian Turkic Republics. For that purpose, a panel co-integration test was applied to the CO2 emission rate and foreign direct investment data in six Turkic Republics (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) in the period between 1995-2016. The long-term co-integration coefficients of variables were examined with the panel dynamic least squares method across the panel. The empirical estimation results demonstrate that foreign direct investments and CO2 emissions have a long-term positive and significant relationship.

Kaynakça

  • Adebola Sakiru, Usama Al-Mulalib, Ibrahim Musaha and Ilhan Ozturk (2017). “Investigating the pollution haven hypothesis in Ghana: an empirical investigation”. Energy 124: 706-719. Akin, Serhat C. (2014). “Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlarinin CO2 Emisyonu Uzerine Olan Etkisi: Dinamik Panel Veri Analizi” (The Effect of Foreign Capital Investments on CO2 Emission: Dynamic Panel Data Analysis). Akademik Bakis Uluslararasi Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 44: 465-475. Al-Mulali, Usama and Chor F. Tang (2013). “Investigating the validity of pollution haven hypothesis in the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries”. Energy Policy. 60: 813-819. Baltagi, Badi (2008). Econometric analysis of panel data. New York, NY: John Wiley & Son. Breitung, Jork (1999). “The local power of some unit root tests for panel data”, Discussion Paper, Berlin: Humboldt University. Choi, In (2001). “Unit root tests for panel data”. Journal of international money and Finance 20(2): 249-272. Cole, Matthew A., Robert J. R. Elliott and Per G. Fredriksson (2006). “Endogenous Pollution Havens: Does FDI Influence Environmental Regulations”. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 108(1): 157-178. Copeland, Brian and Scott M. Taylor (2004). “Trade, growth, and the environment”. Journal of Economic Literature 42(1): 7-71. Eskeland, Gunnar and Ann Harrison (1997). “Moving to Greener Pastures? Multinationals and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis”. Washington: World Bank working paper. Eyuboglu, Kemal (2017). “Turk Dunyasinda Yer Alan Ulkelerin Makro Performanslarinin Karsilastirilmasi” (Comparing the Macro Performances of the Countries in the Turkic Region). BILIG Turk Dunyasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 834: 331-350. Granger, Clive W.J. and Paul Newbold (1974). “Spurious regressions in econometrics”. Journal of Econometrics 2(2): 111-120. Grossman, Gene M. and Alan B. Krueger (1991). Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement (No. w3914). National Bureau of Economic Research. Hoffmann, Robert, Chew G. Lee, Bala Ramasamy and Matthew Yeung (2005). “FDI and pollution: a granger causality test using panel data”. Journal of International Development 17(3): 311-317. Im, So Kyung, M. Hashem Pesaran and Yongcheol Shin (2003). “Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels”. Journal of Econometrics 115(1): 53-74. Kao, Chihwa (1999). “Spurious regression and residual-based tests for co-integration in panel data”. Journal of Econometrics 90(1): 1-44. Kao, Chihwa and Min-Hsie Chiang (2000). Testing for structural change of a cointegrated regression in panel data. Syracuse University. Manuscript. Karagoz, Kadir (2007). “Turkiye’de Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirim Girislerini Belirleyen Faktorler: 1970–2005” (Decisive factors on foreign direct investment inflow into Turkey: 1970-2005). Journal of Yasar University 2(8): 929-948. Kearsley, Aaron and Riddel, Mary (2010). “A Further Inquiry into the Pollution Haven Hypothesis and the Environmental Kuznets Curve”. Ecological Economics 69(4): 905-919. Kesgingoz, Hayrettin and Huseyin Karamelikli (2015). “Dis Ticaret-Enerji Tuketimi ve Ekonomik Buyumenin CO2 Emisyonu Uzerine Etkisi”. (The effect of trade-energy consumption and economic growth on CO2 emission). Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Dergisi (9): 7-17. Kocak, Emrah and Aykut Sarkgunesi (2018). “The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on CO2 Emissions in Turkey: New Evidence from Co-Integration and Bootstrap Causality Analysis”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25(1): 790-804. Levin, Andrew, Chien-Fu Lin and James C. Chia-Shang (2002). “Unit Root Tests in Panel Data: Asymptotic and Finite-Sample Properties”. Journal of Econometrics 108(1): 1-24. Levinson, Arik (1996). “Environmental Regulations and Manufacturers’ Location Choices: Evidence from the Census of Manufactures”. Journal of Public Economics 62(1-2): 5-29. MacDermott, Raymond (2009). “A Panel Study of the Pollution-Haven Hypothesis”. Global Economy Journal 9(1): 1524-5861. Maddala, Gangadharrao S. and Wu Shaowen (1999). “A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 61(1) : 631-652. Mani, Muthukumara and David Wheeler (1998). “In Search of Pollution Havens? Dirty Industry in the World Economy 1960 to 1995”. Journal of Environment and Development 7(3): 215-247. Mi, Zhifu, Pan Su-Yan, Yu Hao and Wei Yi-Ming (2015). “Potential Impacts of Industrial Structure on Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission: A Case Study of Beijing”. Journal of Cleaner Production 103: 455-462. Millimet, Daniel and Roy Jayjit (2016). “Empirical Tests of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis When Environmental Regulation is Endogenous”. Journal of Applied Econometrics 31(4): 652-677. Pedroni, Peter (1999). “Critical Values for Co-Integration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 61(1): 653-670. Pedroni, Peter (2004). “Panel Co-Integration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests with an Application to the PPP Hypothesis”. Econometric Theory 26: 597-625. Polat, Melike A. (2015). “Turkiye’de Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlari ile CO2 Emisyonu arasindaki Iliskinin Yapisal Kirilmali Testler Ile Analizi” (Investments in Turkey with foreign capital in the long relationship between CO2 Emissions Testing and Analysis quinine structural break). Journal of International Social Research 8(41): 1127-1135. Ren Shenggang, Baolong Yuan, Xie Ma and Xiaohong Chen (2014). “International Trade, FDI (foreign direct investment) and Embodied CO2 Emissions: A Case Study of China’s Industrial Sectors”. China Economic Review 28, 123-134. Seker, Fahri, Hasan Murat and Ertugrul Murat Cetin (2015). “The impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Environmental Quality: a Bounds Testing and Causality Analysis for Turkey”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52: 347-356. Shahbaz, Muhammed, Lean Hooi Hooi and Shahbaz Muhammad (2012). “Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Pakistan: Co-Integration and Granger Causality”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(5): 2947- 2953. Siebert, Horst, Ralf Gronych, Jurgen Eichberger and Rudiger Pethig (1980). Trade and Environment: a Theoretical Enquiry. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Solarin Adebola S., Usama Al-Mulalib, Ibrahim Musaha and Ilhan Ozturk (2017). “Investigating the pollution haven hypothesis in Ghana: an empirical investigation”. Energy 124: 706-719. Stock, James and Mark Watson (1993). “A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems”. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society 61(4): 783-820. Tatoglu, Ferda (2013). Panel Data Econometrics. Istanbul: Beta Yayinevi. Taylor, Scott (2004). “Unbundling the Pollution Haven Hypothesis”. Advances in Economic Analysis and Policy 4(2), Article 8, 28s. Temurshoev, Umed (2006). “Pollution Haven Hypothesis or Factor Endowment Hypothesis: Theory and Empirical Examination for the US and China”. CERGE-EI Working Paper No. 292. Tunay, Batu (2017). “Yukselen Ekonomilerde Makro Ekonomik Dengesizliklerin Etkilesimi: Turk Cumhuriyetleri Ornegi” (The Effects of Macroeconomic Imbalances in Upward Economies: A Case of Turkic Republics). Bilig Turk Dunyasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 834: 171-199. Weigel, Dale (1997). Foreign Direct Investment. Washington: World Bank Publications. World Investment Report (1991). United Nations, New York, (Accessed on 11.03.2018). World Investment Report (2017). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Unctad, New York: United Nations, (Accessed on 11.04.2018). Xian-Gang, Zeng (2010). “Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Pollution Haven Hypothesis”. Economic Theory and Business Management 11: 65-71. Yildiz, Yilmaz and Baha M. Karan (2016). “Firm Level Determinants of Foreign Portfolio Investments in Turkey: A Dynamic Panel Regression Analysis Approach”. Journal of Economics Finance and Accounting 3(2): 126-141. Zeren, Feyyaz (2015). “Dogrudan Yabanci Yatirimlarin CO2 Emisyonuna Etkisi: Kirlilik Hale Hipotezi mi? Kirlilik Cenneti Hipotezi mi?” (CO2 Effect of Foreign Direct Investments on CO2 Emission: Pollution Hypothesis? The Pollution Heaven Hypothesis?) Journal of Yasar University 10(37): 6381-6477.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Nalan ISIK Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Ocak 2019
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019 Cilt: 1 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA ISIK, N. (2019). THE POLLUTION HAVEN HYPOTHESIS AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL ASIAN TURKIC REPUBLICS. Eurasian Research Journal, 1(1), 34-50.