Araştırma Makalesi
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A Preliminary Study for the Determination of Prion Disease for Farm Animals in Ethiopia

Yıl 2020, Cilt 61, Sayı 1, 17 - 22, 30.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.29185/hayuretim.583573

Öz

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prion and prion-like disease status of native Ethiopian farm animal.

Material and Methods: In this study, descriptive study design was employed. A Semi-Structured interview was conducted to collect primary data from farmers who owned all or either cattle, sheep or goat and animal health extension of the provinces. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling were used to identify farmers who encountered the loss of more than three farm animals from their flock because of the same disease phenotype. Thus, 55 farmers and 6 animal health workers/experts who hold animal science or DVM degree were interviewed.

Results: Of the total, 29 of the farmers experienced the loss of a significant number of animals at different times while 10 of them were not able to recall the incidence. All of the participated farmers claimed that there was no prion-like disease that killed dozens of their animals emerged in their areas. Despite the fact that the majority of farmers asked were not able to remember the exact sign and symptom of the disease that was the cause for the death of their animals, they were able to recall the most frequent phenotypes. According to animal health workers; foot and mouth disease (FMD), Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and sheep pox were the major outbreaks detected in the past few years.

Conclusion: There were treated and untreated cases of animal diseases having similar clinical signs with that of prion diseases. Though this data has some limitations to conclude that prion disease never happened in the areas where the current study was conducted, it is possible to speculate that there was no epidemic of prion or prion-like disease yet. 

Kaynakça

  • Ayelet G, Gelaye E, Negussie H, Asmare K. 2012. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia. Rev. Sci. Tech. 31(3): 789-798.
  • Bishop SC, Morris CA. 2007. Genetic of disease resistance in sheep and goats. Small Rumin. Res. 70:48-59
  • Chesebro B. 2003. Introduction to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Br. Med. Bull. 66(1): 1-20
  • DeJoia C, Moreaux B, Connell K, Bessen RA. 2006. Prion infection of oral and nasal mucosa. J. Virol. 80(9): 4546-4556
  • Detwiler LA, Baylis M. 2003. The epidemiology of scrapie. Rev. Sci. Tech. 22(1): 121-143.
  • EIAR 2019. http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/livestock-research.Acceced at 2/7/2019
  • Endalew B, Ayalew Z. 2016.Assessment of the role of livestock in Ethiopia: A review. Am.Eurasian J. Sci. Res. 11(5): 405-410.
  • Fentie T, Fenta N, Leta S, Molla W, Ayele B, Teshome Y, Nigatu S, Assefa A. 2017.Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 13(1): 385
  • Gough KC, Maddison BC. 2010. Prion transmission: prion excretion and occurrence in the environment. Prion. 4(4): 275-282
  • Grubman MJ, Baxt B. 2004. Foot-and-mouth disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17(2): 465-493.
  • Hoinville LJ, Hoek A, Gravenor MB, McLean AR. 2000. Descriptive epidemiology of scrapie in Great Britain: results of a postal survey. Vet. Rec. 146(16): 455-461
  • Imran M, Mahmood S. 2011. An overview of animal prion diseases. Virol. J. 8: 493.
  • Jemberu WT, Mourits MC, Hogeveen H. 2015. Farmers’ intentions to implement foot and mouth disease control measures in Ethiopia. PLos One 10(9): e0138363
  • Jemberu WT, Mourits MC, Sahle M, Siraw B, Vernooij JC, Hogeveen H. 2016. Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia: a retrospective analysis of district level outbreaks, 2007-2012. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 63(6): e246-e259
  • Knight-Jones TJD, Rushton J. 2013. The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease-What are they, how big are they and where do they occur? Prev. Vet. Med. 112(3-4): 161-173.
  • Liberski PP. 2012. Historical overview of prion diseases: A view from afar. Folia Neuropathol. 50(1): 1-12.
  • Lukic A, Mead S. 2011. Genome wide association studies and prion disease. Prion. 5(3): 154-160.
  • McIntyre KM, Gubbins S, Sivam SK, Baylis M. 2006. Flock-level risk factors for scrapie in Great Britain: analysis of a 2002 anonymous postal survey. BMC Vet. Res. 2(1): 25
  • Molla W, de Jong MCM, Frankena K. 2017a. Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Ethiopia in the period 2000 to 2015. BMC Vet. Res. 13(1): 310-310
  • Molla W, de Jong MCM, Gari G, Frankena K. 2017b. Economic impact of lumpy skin disease and cost effectiveness of vaccination for the control of outbreaks in Ethiopia. Prev. Vet. Med. 147: 100-107
  • Molla W, Frankena K, de Jong MCM. 2017c. Transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Epidemiol. Infect. 145(13): 2856-2863.
  • Morgan KL, Nicholas K, Glover MJ, Hall AP. 1990. A questionnaire survey of the prevalence of scrapie in sheep in Britain. Vet. Rec. 127(15): 373-376
  • Negesso G, Hadush T, Tilahun A, Teshale A. 2016. Trans-Boundary Animal Disease and Their Impacts on International Trade : A Review. Academic Journal of Animal Diseases 5(3): 53-60
  • Pritzkow S, Morales R, Lyon A, Concha-Marambio L, Urayama A, Soto C. 2018. Efficient prion disease transmission through common environmental materials. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 293(9): 363-3373.
  • Prusiner SB. 1998. Prions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(23): 13363-13383.
  • Saunders, S. E., S. L. Bartelt-Hunt and J. C. Bartz .2008. Prions in the environment: occurrence, fate and mitigation. Prion. 2(4): 162-169
  • Schreuder BE, de Jong MC, Pekelder JJ, Vellema P, Broker AJ, Betcke H . 1993. Prevalence and incidence of scrapie in The Netherlands: A questionnaire survey. Vet. Rec. 133(9): 211-214
  • Sulayeman M, Dawo F, Mammo B, Gizaw D, Shegu D. 2018. Isolation, molecular characterization and sero-prevalence study of foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in central Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 14(1): 110. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1429-9
  • Taskin T, Kaymakci M, Bilgen G, Gucel M, Un C. 2010. A study on determining scrapie risk factors in hair goat flocks: Manisa and İzmir Case Studies. J Anim. Prod. 51(2): 7-15
  • Teferedegn EY, Tesfaye D, Ün C. 2019. Valuing the investigation of prion diseases in Ethiopia. Int. J. Agric. Sci. Food Technol. 5(1): 001-005
  • Abera Z, Degefu H, Gari G, Kidane M. 2015. Sero-prevalence of lumpy skin disease in selected districts of West Wollega zone, Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 11(1): 135.

Etiyopya'daki Çiftlik Hayvanlarında Prion Hastalığının Belirlemesine Yönelik Bir Ön Çalışma

Yıl 2020, Cilt 61, Sayı 1, 17 - 22, 30.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.29185/hayuretim.583573

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışma, Etiyopyada çiftlik hayvanlarında prion ve prion benzeri hastalıkların durumunu belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır.

Materyal ve Yöntem: Bu bir duurm belirleme çalışmadır. Sığır, koyun ya da keçi yetiştiren üreticilerle yapılan görüşmelerden elde edilen bilgiler derlenmiştir. Yetiştiricilerin belirlenmesi, şansa bağlı olup sürüsünde en az 3 hayvanı aynı hastalık belirtileri göstererek ölen hayvan sahipleri şeklinde olmuştur. Bu amaçla 55 yetiştirici ve 6 adet de hayvan sağlığı uzmanıyla görüşme yapılmıştır.

Bulgular: Toplamda, yetiştiriiclerin 29'u farklı zamanlarda kayda değer sayıda hayvan kaybı yaşarken, 10'u hastalık görülme durumunu hatırlamadığını belirtmiştir. Ankete katılan yetiştiricilerin tümü, bölgelerinde çok sayıda hayvanda hastalık belirtilerinin ortaya çıkmasına neden olan prion benzeri bir hastalık olmadığını iddia etmiştir. Yetiştiricilerin çoğunun sorulara verdiği yanıt, hayvanlarının ölüm nedeni olan hastalığın kesin belirtisini ve semptomunu hatırlayamamış olmasına rağmen, en sık görülen belirtilerinin neler olduğunu hatırlayabilmişlerdir. Hayvan sağlığı çalışanlarına göre; şap/ayak ve ağız hastalığı (FMD), topaklı deri hastalığı (LSD) ve koyun çiçeği, son birkaç yılda görülen başlıca salgınlardır.

Sonuç: Prion hastalıklarına benzer klinik bulgulara sahip hayvanlar tedavi edilen ve edilmeyen hayvan hastalıkları vakaları vardır. Her ne kadar bu veriler, prion hastalığının mevcut çalışmanın yapıldığı bölgelerde asla yaşanmadığı sonucuna varmak için bazı sınırlamaları vardır. Henüz prion ya da prion benzeri hastalık salgını olmadığını tahmin etmek mümkün görünmemektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ayelet G, Gelaye E, Negussie H, Asmare K. 2012. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia. Rev. Sci. Tech. 31(3): 789-798.
  • Bishop SC, Morris CA. 2007. Genetic of disease resistance in sheep and goats. Small Rumin. Res. 70:48-59
  • Chesebro B. 2003. Introduction to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Br. Med. Bull. 66(1): 1-20
  • DeJoia C, Moreaux B, Connell K, Bessen RA. 2006. Prion infection of oral and nasal mucosa. J. Virol. 80(9): 4546-4556
  • Detwiler LA, Baylis M. 2003. The epidemiology of scrapie. Rev. Sci. Tech. 22(1): 121-143.
  • EIAR 2019. http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/livestock-research.Acceced at 2/7/2019
  • Endalew B, Ayalew Z. 2016.Assessment of the role of livestock in Ethiopia: A review. Am.Eurasian J. Sci. Res. 11(5): 405-410.
  • Fentie T, Fenta N, Leta S, Molla W, Ayele B, Teshome Y, Nigatu S, Assefa A. 2017.Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 13(1): 385
  • Gough KC, Maddison BC. 2010. Prion transmission: prion excretion and occurrence in the environment. Prion. 4(4): 275-282
  • Grubman MJ, Baxt B. 2004. Foot-and-mouth disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17(2): 465-493.
  • Hoinville LJ, Hoek A, Gravenor MB, McLean AR. 2000. Descriptive epidemiology of scrapie in Great Britain: results of a postal survey. Vet. Rec. 146(16): 455-461
  • Imran M, Mahmood S. 2011. An overview of animal prion diseases. Virol. J. 8: 493.
  • Jemberu WT, Mourits MC, Hogeveen H. 2015. Farmers’ intentions to implement foot and mouth disease control measures in Ethiopia. PLos One 10(9): e0138363
  • Jemberu WT, Mourits MC, Sahle M, Siraw B, Vernooij JC, Hogeveen H. 2016. Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia: a retrospective analysis of district level outbreaks, 2007-2012. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 63(6): e246-e259
  • Knight-Jones TJD, Rushton J. 2013. The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease-What are they, how big are they and where do they occur? Prev. Vet. Med. 112(3-4): 161-173.
  • Liberski PP. 2012. Historical overview of prion diseases: A view from afar. Folia Neuropathol. 50(1): 1-12.
  • Lukic A, Mead S. 2011. Genome wide association studies and prion disease. Prion. 5(3): 154-160.
  • McIntyre KM, Gubbins S, Sivam SK, Baylis M. 2006. Flock-level risk factors for scrapie in Great Britain: analysis of a 2002 anonymous postal survey. BMC Vet. Res. 2(1): 25
  • Molla W, de Jong MCM, Frankena K. 2017a. Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Ethiopia in the period 2000 to 2015. BMC Vet. Res. 13(1): 310-310
  • Molla W, de Jong MCM, Gari G, Frankena K. 2017b. Economic impact of lumpy skin disease and cost effectiveness of vaccination for the control of outbreaks in Ethiopia. Prev. Vet. Med. 147: 100-107
  • Molla W, Frankena K, de Jong MCM. 2017c. Transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Epidemiol. Infect. 145(13): 2856-2863.
  • Morgan KL, Nicholas K, Glover MJ, Hall AP. 1990. A questionnaire survey of the prevalence of scrapie in sheep in Britain. Vet. Rec. 127(15): 373-376
  • Negesso G, Hadush T, Tilahun A, Teshale A. 2016. Trans-Boundary Animal Disease and Their Impacts on International Trade : A Review. Academic Journal of Animal Diseases 5(3): 53-60
  • Pritzkow S, Morales R, Lyon A, Concha-Marambio L, Urayama A, Soto C. 2018. Efficient prion disease transmission through common environmental materials. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 293(9): 363-3373.
  • Prusiner SB. 1998. Prions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(23): 13363-13383.
  • Saunders, S. E., S. L. Bartelt-Hunt and J. C. Bartz .2008. Prions in the environment: occurrence, fate and mitigation. Prion. 2(4): 162-169
  • Schreuder BE, de Jong MC, Pekelder JJ, Vellema P, Broker AJ, Betcke H . 1993. Prevalence and incidence of scrapie in The Netherlands: A questionnaire survey. Vet. Rec. 133(9): 211-214
  • Sulayeman M, Dawo F, Mammo B, Gizaw D, Shegu D. 2018. Isolation, molecular characterization and sero-prevalence study of foot-and-mouth disease virus circulating in central Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 14(1): 110. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1429-9
  • Taskin T, Kaymakci M, Bilgen G, Gucel M, Un C. 2010. A study on determining scrapie risk factors in hair goat flocks: Manisa and İzmir Case Studies. J Anim. Prod. 51(2): 7-15
  • Teferedegn EY, Tesfaye D, Ün C. 2019. Valuing the investigation of prion diseases in Ethiopia. Int. J. Agric. Sci. Food Technol. 5(1): 001-005
  • Abera Z, Degefu H, Gari G, Kidane M. 2015. Sero-prevalence of lumpy skin disease in selected districts of West Wollega zone, Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 11(1): 135.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Fen
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Eden Yitna TEFERDEGN>
Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Biyoloji Bölümü
0000-0003-2526-1672
Ethiopia


Cemal ÜN>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN FAKÜLTESİ, BİYOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-4248-9671
Türkiye


Turgay TAŞKIN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Zootekni Bölümü
0000-0001-8528-9760
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 61, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Teferdegn, E. Y. , Ün, C. & Taşkın, T. (2020). A Preliminary Study for the Determination of Prion Disease for Farm Animals in Ethiopia . Hayvansal Üretim , 61 (1) , 17-22 . DOI: 10.29185/hayuretim.583573


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