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Investigation of Academicians' Job Stress, Burnout, and Musculoskeletal Pain During the Covid-19 Pandemic Remote Working Period

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 297 - 313, 31.08.2021

Öz

Objectives: The study aims to examine the job stress, burnout, musculoskeletal pain, and physical activity levels experienced by academicians in the new work and lifestyle that started with social isolation during the pandemic process. Materials and Methods: 100 Healthy Academicians having an average age of 35.21 ± 8.97 years during the public health restrictions were included in the study. Demographic information, physical activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form), pain severity (Numeric Rating Scale), job stress (Job Stress Scale), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) of academicians included in the study were questioned through an online questionnaire and social media announcements. Results: 41% of the academicians had a low level and 59% had a high level of job stress. In terms of physical activity level, 41% of the academicians were found to be "low level active" and 11% were "inactive". A statistically positive significant relationship with the results of the academicians' job stress scale and the results of pain during working (r = 0.230; p <0.01) and at rest (r = 0.277; p <0.05), emotional exhaustion (r = 0.475; p <0.05), depersonalization ( r = 0.436; p <0.05) and total burnout perception (r = 0.459; p <0.05) were found. There is a statistically negative significant relationship with physical activity level of academicians and pain during working (r = -0.206; p <0.05), emotional exhaustion (r = -0.207; p <0.05), personal accomplishment (r = -0.254; p <0.05) and total burnout perception (r = -0.240; p <0.05) Conclusion: It was determined that there was a positive relationship with the increase experienced in academicians' job stress during the Covid-19 process and musculoskeletal pain during rest and work, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and total burnout. Besides, a negative correlation was found between the physical activity levels of the academicians and the musculoskeletal pain during the study, emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and total burnout perception.

Kaynakça

  • Adaramola, S. S. (2012). Job stress and productivity increase. Work, 41, 2955-2958.
  • Aktaş, A. M. (2001). Bir kamu kuruluşunun üst düzey yöneticilerinin iş stresi ve kişilik özellikleri. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 56(04).
  • Allison, D. G. (1997). Coping with stress in the principalship. Journal of Educational Administration, 35 (1), 39-55
  • Armon, G., Shirom, A., Berliner, S., Shapira, I., & Melamed, S. (2008). A prospective study of the association between obesity and burnout among apparently healthy men and women. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 43-57.
  • Atan, T., Tural, E., İmamoğlu, O., Çiçek, G., & Tural, Ş. (2012). Physical activity levels of teachers and health professionals in Turkey. HealthMED, 6(6), 1935-1942.
  • Azlan, S. & Abdul Manaf, M.R. (2017). Systematic review of organization stressors as predictors for job stress and burnout among university academicians in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences, 4, 2289-7577.
  • Bilgili, H., & Tekin, E. (2019). Örgütsel stres, örgütsel bağlılık ve öğrenilmiş güçlülük ilişkisi üzerine bir araştırma. Opus Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 11(18), 2165-2200
  • Birinci, T., Aydin, G., Üçgül, M. Ş., & Yeldan, İ. (2019). Relationship Between Alexithymia and Musculoskeletal Pain, Job Stress, Job and Life Satisfaction in Young Academicians Working in the Field of Health Sciences. Türk Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon Dergisi (Online), 30(2), 126-135.
  • Bottiani, J. H., Duran, C. A., Pas, E. T., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2019). Teacher stress and burnout in urban middle schools: Associations with job demands, resources, and effective classroom practices. Journal of School Psychology, 77, 36-51.
  • Brown, S. M., Doom, J. R., Lechuga-Peña, S., Watamura, S. E., & Koppels, T. (2020). Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Child Abuse & Neglect, 110, 104699.
  • Campbell, I. (1995). Stress litigation and training. Management Development Review, 8 (4), 21-22.
  • Cheng, V., Wong, S., Chuang, V., So, S., Chen, J., Sridhar, S., et al. (2020). The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infection. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jinf.2020.04.024
  • Chirico, F. (2016). Job stress models for predicting burnout syndrome: a review. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita, 52(3), 443-456.
  • Christian, M., Purwanto, E., & Wibowo, S. (2020). Technostress creators on teaching performance of private universities in Jakarta during Covid-19 pandemic. Technology Reports of Kansai University, 62(6), 2799-2809.
  • Demir, F., & Çankaya, C.(2019) Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Öğretmenlerinin Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeylerinin Mesleki Tükenmişlik Düzeylerine Etkisi. Spor Eğitim Dergisi, 3(2), 20-32.
  • Dworkin, A. G., & Tobe, P. F. (2014). The effects of standards-based school accountability on teacher burnout and trust relationships: A longitudinal analysis. İçinde D. Van Maele, P. B. Forsyth, & M. Van Houtte (Eds.), Trust and school life (pp. 121-143). New York, NY: Springer
  • Ergin, C. (1992). Doktor ve hemşirelerde tükenmişlik ve Maslach tükenmişlik ölçeğinin uyarlanması. VII. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi, 22th September 1992 Ankara (Turkey).
  • Escribà-Agüir, V., Martín-Baena,D. & Pérez-Hoyos, S. (2006). Psychosocial work environment and burnout among emergency medical and nursing staff. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 80(2):127-133
  • Eurofound and the International Labour Office. (2017).Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, and the International Labour Office, Geneva. http://eurofound.link/ef1658 adresinden elde edildi.
  • Garrett, L. (2020). COVID-19: the medium is the message. The lancet, 395(10228), 942-943.
  • Gümüş, H., & Işık, O. (2018). The Relationship of Physical Activity Level, Leisure Motivation and Quality of Life in Candidate Teachers. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(5), 22-32.
  • Hawker G.A., Mian, S., Kendzerska, T., & French, M. (201). Measures of adult pain. Arthritis Care Res, 63(S11):240 252.
  • Hildebrandt, V.H., Bongers, P.M., Dul, J., Van Dijk, F.J., & Kemper, H.C. (2000). The relationship between leisure time, physical activities and musculoskeletal symptoms and disability in worker populations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 73(8):507-18.
  • Holmes, E. A., O'Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., ... & Bullmore, E. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry. 7 (6), 547-560
  • Holth, H. S., Werpen, H. K. B., Zwart, J. A., & Hagen, K. (2008). Physical inactivity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 9(1), 1-7.
  • Honkonen T, Ahola K, Pertovaara M, Isometsä E, Kalimo R, Nykyri E, Aromaa A, & Lönnqvist J. (2006) The association between burnout and physical illness in the general population-results from the Finnish Health 2000 Study. J Psychosom Res, 61(1):59-66
  • Jiménez-Pavón D., Carbonell-Baeza A., & Lavie C.J. (2020). COVID-19 karantinasının zihinsel ve fiziksel sonuçlarına karşı savaşmak için terapi olarak fiziksel egzersiz: yaşlılara özel odaklanma. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 63, 386-388.
  • Kaplan, J., Frias, L., & McFall-Johnsen, M. (2020). A third of the global population is on coronavirus lockdown - Here's our constantly updated list of countries and restrictions. https://www.businessinsider.com/countries-on-lockdowncoronavirus-italy-2020-3?IR=T adresinden elde edildi.
  • Langballe, E. M., Innstrand, S. T., Hagtvet, K. A., Falkum, E., & Gjerløw Aasland, O. (2009). The relationship between burnout and musculoskeletal pain in seven Norwegian occupational groups. Work, 32(2), 179-188.
  • Li, L., & Wang, X. (2020). Technostress inhibitors and creators and their impacts on university teachers' work performance in higher education. Cognition, Technology & Work. doi:10.1007/s10111 020-00625-0
  • Macilwrait, P. & Bennett, D. (2018).Burnout and physical activity in medical students.Irish Medical Journal, 111(3): 707-713.
  • Maslach, C. ve Jackson, S.E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113
  • Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498-512
  • Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. & Leiter, M.P. (1996). MBI manual (3rd ed). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Maslach, C.; Schaufeli, W.B. & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.
  • Nomura, K., Nakao, M., Sato, M., Ishikawa, H., & Yano, E. (2007). The association of the reporting of somatic symptoms with job stress and active coping among Japanese White-collar workers. Journal of occupational health, 49(5), 370-375.
  • Özdinç, S., Kayabınar, E., Özen, T., Turan, F. N., & Yılmaz, S. (2019). Musculoskeletal problems in academicians and related factors in Turkey. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation, 32(6), 833-839.
  • Paşa, M., & Kaymaz, K. (2013). Stres yönetimi. Bursa: Aktüel Yayıncılar
  • Sağlam, M., Arıkan, H., Savcı, S., İnal-İnce, D. & Boşnak Güçlü, M. (2010). International physical activity questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 111(1), 278-284.
  • Sallon, S., Katz-Eisner, D., Yaffe, H., & Bdolah-Abram, T. (2015). Extended, five-component stress-reduction intervention for hospital staff. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 43, 47-60. doi:10.1080/0896428 9.2015.1053426
  • Santoro, D. A. (2018). Demoralized: Why teachers leave the profession they love and how they can stay. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
  • Sarafino E. P. & Ewing M. (1999). The hassles assessment scale for students in college: Measuring the frequency and unpleasantness of dwelling on stressful events. Journal of American College Health, 48(2),75-83.
  • Schmidt, B., Schneider, M., Seeger, P., van Vianen, A., Loerbroks, A., & Herr, R. M. (2019). A comparison of job stress models: Associations with employee well-being, absenteeism, presenteeism, and resulting costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61, 535- 544.
  • Scholar, Z., Khan, M., Jam, F. & Syed, H. (2010). The impacts of employees job stress on organizational commitment? European Journal of Social Sciences, 13 (4), 617-622
  • Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analyses. Applied psychology, 57, 152-171.
  • Sonnentag, S. (2012). Psychological detachment from work during leisure time: The benefits of mentally disengaging from work. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 114-118
  • Taspinar, B., Taspinar, F., Guclu, S., Nalbant, A., Calik, B. B., Uslu, A., & Inal, S. (2013). Investigation of the association between mobbing and musculoskeletal discomfort in academicians. Japanese Psychological Research, 55(4), 400-408.
  • Toker, S., Melamed, S., Berliner, S., Zeltser, D., & Shapira, I. (2012). Burnout and risk of coronary heart disease: A prospective study of 8838 employees. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(8), 840-847.
  • Toppinen-Tanner, S., Ahola, K., Koskinen, A., & Väänänen, A. (2009). Burnout predicts hospitalization for mental and cardiovascular disorders: 10-year prospective results from industrial sector. Stress and Health, 25(4), 287-296.
  • Tsumura, H., Shimada, H., Nomura, K., Sugaya, N., & Suzuki, K. (2012). The effects of attention retraining on depressive mood and cortisol responses to depression-related stimuli. Japanese Psychological Research, 54(4), 400-411.
  • Tunçay, S. U., & Yeldan, İ. (2013). Kas iskelet sistemi rahatsızlıklarıyla fiziksel inaktivite ilişkili midir? Ağrı, 25(4), 147-155
  • Wang, Y., Ramos, A., Wu, H., Liu, L., Yang, X., Wang, J., & Wang, L. (2015). Relationship between occupational stress and burnout among Chinese teachers: a cross-sectional survey in Liaoning, China. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 88(5), 589-597.
  • Wu, S., Zhu, W., Wang, Z., Wang, M., & Lan, Y. (2007) Relationship between burnout and occupational stress among nurses in China. J Adv Nurs, 59(3):233-239
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Covid-19 Pandemisi Uzaktan Çalışma Sürecinde Akademisyenlerin İş Stresi, Tükenmişlik Algısı ve Kas İskelet Sistemi Ağrılarının İncelenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 297 - 313, 31.08.2021

Öz

Amaç: Çalışmanın amacı pandemi sürecinde sosyal izolasyon ile başlayan yeni iş ve yaşam düzeninde akademisyenlerin deneyimlediği iş stresi, tükenmişlik algısı, kas ve iskelet sistemi ağrıları ve fiziksel aktivite düzeylerinin incelenmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmaya Türkiye’deki halk sağlığı kısıtlamaları sırasında yaş ortalamaları 35,21±8,97 yıl olan sağlıklı 100 akademisyen birey dahil edildi. Çalışmaya dahil edilen akademisyenlerin demografik bilgileri, fiziksel aktivite düzeyleri (Uluslararası Fiziksel Aktivite Anketi – Kısa Form), ağrı şiddeti (Sayısal Derecelendirmeli Ağrı Skalası), iş stresi (İş Stresi Ölçeği), tükenmişlik algısı (Maslach Tükenmişlik Envateri) çevrimiçi anket ve sosyal medya duyuruları aracılığıyla sorgulandı. Bulgular: Akademisyenlerin %41’i düşük, %59’u yüksek düzeyde iş stresine sahipti. Fiziksel aktivite düzeyi açısından %41’i düşük düzeyde aktif, %11’inin inaktif olduğu bulundu. Akademisyenlerin iş stresi ölçeği sonuçları ile çalışma (r=0,230; p<0,01) ve istirahat (r=0,277; p<0,05) sırasındaki ağrı, duygusal tükenme (r=0,475; p<0,05), duyarsızlaşma (r=0,436; p<0,05) ve genel tükenmişlik (r=0,459; p<0,05) sonuçları arasında istatistiksel olarak pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki bulundu. Akademisyenlerin fiziksel aktivite düzeyi ile çalışma sırasındaki ağrı (r=-0,206; p<0,05), duygusal tükenme (r=-0,207; p<0,05), kişisel başarıda düşme (r=-0,254; p<0,05) ve genel tükenmişlik (r=-0,240; p<0,05) arasında istatistiksel olarak negatif yönde anlamlı ilişki vardır. Sonuç: Covid-19 sürecinde akademisyenlerin iş stresindeki deneyimlenen artışın; istirahat ve çalışma esnasında kas iskelet sistemi ağrıları, duygusal tükenme, duyarsızlaşma ve genel tükenmişlik algılarıyla pozitif yönde bir ilişki gösterdiği tespit edildi. Ayrıca akademisyenlerin fiziksel aktivite düzeyleri ile çalışma sırasındaki kas iskelet sistemi ağrısı, duygusal tükenme, kişisel başarıda düşme ve genel tükenmişlik algılarıyla negatif yönde ilişki saptandı.

Kaynakça

  • Adaramola, S. S. (2012). Job stress and productivity increase. Work, 41, 2955-2958.
  • Aktaş, A. M. (2001). Bir kamu kuruluşunun üst düzey yöneticilerinin iş stresi ve kişilik özellikleri. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 56(04).
  • Allison, D. G. (1997). Coping with stress in the principalship. Journal of Educational Administration, 35 (1), 39-55
  • Armon, G., Shirom, A., Berliner, S., Shapira, I., & Melamed, S. (2008). A prospective study of the association between obesity and burnout among apparently healthy men and women. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 43-57.
  • Atan, T., Tural, E., İmamoğlu, O., Çiçek, G., & Tural, Ş. (2012). Physical activity levels of teachers and health professionals in Turkey. HealthMED, 6(6), 1935-1942.
  • Azlan, S. & Abdul Manaf, M.R. (2017). Systematic review of organization stressors as predictors for job stress and burnout among university academicians in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences, 4, 2289-7577.
  • Bilgili, H., & Tekin, E. (2019). Örgütsel stres, örgütsel bağlılık ve öğrenilmiş güçlülük ilişkisi üzerine bir araştırma. Opus Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 11(18), 2165-2200
  • Birinci, T., Aydin, G., Üçgül, M. Ş., & Yeldan, İ. (2019). Relationship Between Alexithymia and Musculoskeletal Pain, Job Stress, Job and Life Satisfaction in Young Academicians Working in the Field of Health Sciences. Türk Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon Dergisi (Online), 30(2), 126-135.
  • Bottiani, J. H., Duran, C. A., Pas, E. T., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2019). Teacher stress and burnout in urban middle schools: Associations with job demands, resources, and effective classroom practices. Journal of School Psychology, 77, 36-51.
  • Brown, S. M., Doom, J. R., Lechuga-Peña, S., Watamura, S. E., & Koppels, T. (2020). Stress and parenting during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Child Abuse & Neglect, 110, 104699.
  • Campbell, I. (1995). Stress litigation and training. Management Development Review, 8 (4), 21-22.
  • Cheng, V., Wong, S., Chuang, V., So, S., Chen, J., Sridhar, S., et al. (2020). The role of community-wide wearing of face mask for control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic due to SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infection. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jinf.2020.04.024
  • Chirico, F. (2016). Job stress models for predicting burnout syndrome: a review. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita, 52(3), 443-456.
  • Christian, M., Purwanto, E., & Wibowo, S. (2020). Technostress creators on teaching performance of private universities in Jakarta during Covid-19 pandemic. Technology Reports of Kansai University, 62(6), 2799-2809.
  • Demir, F., & Çankaya, C.(2019) Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Öğretmenlerinin Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeylerinin Mesleki Tükenmişlik Düzeylerine Etkisi. Spor Eğitim Dergisi, 3(2), 20-32.
  • Dworkin, A. G., & Tobe, P. F. (2014). The effects of standards-based school accountability on teacher burnout and trust relationships: A longitudinal analysis. İçinde D. Van Maele, P. B. Forsyth, & M. Van Houtte (Eds.), Trust and school life (pp. 121-143). New York, NY: Springer
  • Ergin, C. (1992). Doktor ve hemşirelerde tükenmişlik ve Maslach tükenmişlik ölçeğinin uyarlanması. VII. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi, 22th September 1992 Ankara (Turkey).
  • Escribà-Agüir, V., Martín-Baena,D. & Pérez-Hoyos, S. (2006). Psychosocial work environment and burnout among emergency medical and nursing staff. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 80(2):127-133
  • Eurofound and the International Labour Office. (2017).Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, and the International Labour Office, Geneva. http://eurofound.link/ef1658 adresinden elde edildi.
  • Garrett, L. (2020). COVID-19: the medium is the message. The lancet, 395(10228), 942-943.
  • Gümüş, H., & Işık, O. (2018). The Relationship of Physical Activity Level, Leisure Motivation and Quality of Life in Candidate Teachers. International Journal of Progressive Education, 14(5), 22-32.
  • Hawker G.A., Mian, S., Kendzerska, T., & French, M. (201). Measures of adult pain. Arthritis Care Res, 63(S11):240 252.
  • Hildebrandt, V.H., Bongers, P.M., Dul, J., Van Dijk, F.J., & Kemper, H.C. (2000). The relationship between leisure time, physical activities and musculoskeletal symptoms and disability in worker populations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 73(8):507-18.
  • Holmes, E. A., O'Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., ... & Bullmore, E. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry. 7 (6), 547-560
  • Holth, H. S., Werpen, H. K. B., Zwart, J. A., & Hagen, K. (2008). Physical inactivity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 9(1), 1-7.
  • Honkonen T, Ahola K, Pertovaara M, Isometsä E, Kalimo R, Nykyri E, Aromaa A, & Lönnqvist J. (2006) The association between burnout and physical illness in the general population-results from the Finnish Health 2000 Study. J Psychosom Res, 61(1):59-66
  • Jiménez-Pavón D., Carbonell-Baeza A., & Lavie C.J. (2020). COVID-19 karantinasının zihinsel ve fiziksel sonuçlarına karşı savaşmak için terapi olarak fiziksel egzersiz: yaşlılara özel odaklanma. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 63, 386-388.
  • Kaplan, J., Frias, L., & McFall-Johnsen, M. (2020). A third of the global population is on coronavirus lockdown - Here's our constantly updated list of countries and restrictions. https://www.businessinsider.com/countries-on-lockdowncoronavirus-italy-2020-3?IR=T adresinden elde edildi.
  • Langballe, E. M., Innstrand, S. T., Hagtvet, K. A., Falkum, E., & Gjerløw Aasland, O. (2009). The relationship between burnout and musculoskeletal pain in seven Norwegian occupational groups. Work, 32(2), 179-188.
  • Li, L., & Wang, X. (2020). Technostress inhibitors and creators and their impacts on university teachers' work performance in higher education. Cognition, Technology & Work. doi:10.1007/s10111 020-00625-0
  • Macilwrait, P. & Bennett, D. (2018).Burnout and physical activity in medical students.Irish Medical Journal, 111(3): 707-713.
  • Maslach, C. ve Jackson, S.E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113
  • Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498-512
  • Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. & Leiter, M.P. (1996). MBI manual (3rd ed). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Maslach, C.; Schaufeli, W.B. & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.
  • Nomura, K., Nakao, M., Sato, M., Ishikawa, H., & Yano, E. (2007). The association of the reporting of somatic symptoms with job stress and active coping among Japanese White-collar workers. Journal of occupational health, 49(5), 370-375.
  • Özdinç, S., Kayabınar, E., Özen, T., Turan, F. N., & Yılmaz, S. (2019). Musculoskeletal problems in academicians and related factors in Turkey. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation, 32(6), 833-839.
  • Paşa, M., & Kaymaz, K. (2013). Stres yönetimi. Bursa: Aktüel Yayıncılar
  • Sağlam, M., Arıkan, H., Savcı, S., İnal-İnce, D. & Boşnak Güçlü, M. (2010). International physical activity questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 111(1), 278-284.
  • Sallon, S., Katz-Eisner, D., Yaffe, H., & Bdolah-Abram, T. (2015). Extended, five-component stress-reduction intervention for hospital staff. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 43, 47-60. doi:10.1080/0896428 9.2015.1053426
  • Santoro, D. A. (2018). Demoralized: Why teachers leave the profession they love and how they can stay. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
  • Sarafino E. P. & Ewing M. (1999). The hassles assessment scale for students in college: Measuring the frequency and unpleasantness of dwelling on stressful events. Journal of American College Health, 48(2),75-83.
  • Schmidt, B., Schneider, M., Seeger, P., van Vianen, A., Loerbroks, A., & Herr, R. M. (2019). A comparison of job stress models: Associations with employee well-being, absenteeism, presenteeism, and resulting costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61, 535- 544.
  • Scholar, Z., Khan, M., Jam, F. & Syed, H. (2010). The impacts of employees job stress on organizational commitment? European Journal of Social Sciences, 13 (4), 617-622
  • Schwarzer, R., & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analyses. Applied psychology, 57, 152-171.
  • Sonnentag, S. (2012). Psychological detachment from work during leisure time: The benefits of mentally disengaging from work. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 114-118
  • Taspinar, B., Taspinar, F., Guclu, S., Nalbant, A., Calik, B. B., Uslu, A., & Inal, S. (2013). Investigation of the association between mobbing and musculoskeletal discomfort in academicians. Japanese Psychological Research, 55(4), 400-408.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Seval KUTLUTÜRK (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, FİZYOTERAPİ VE REHABİLİTASYON BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-9120-7071
Türkiye


İbrahim YIKILMAZ
KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, İŞLETME BÖLÜMÜ, YÖNETİM VE ORGANİZASYON ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-1051-0886
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 8 Şubat 2021
Kabul Tarihi 23 Temmuz 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Kutlutürk, S. & Yıkılmaz, İ. (2021). Covid-19 Pandemisi Uzaktan Çalışma Sürecinde Akademisyenlerin İş Stresi, Tükenmişlik Algısı ve Kas İskelet Sistemi Ağrılarının İncelenmesi . Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal , 8 (2) , 297-313 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/husbfd/issue/64628/877088