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Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism

Yıl 2014, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 11, 10.11.2014
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.300712

Öz

Iron enrichment hypothesis have been tested on many occasions by adding dissolved iron into the seawater. Though Mediterranean Sea never depleted with iron it is one of the most oligotrophic water that exists on earth. It’s shown that oceanic surface chlorophyll levels do in fact regulated by the wet desert dust deposition, independent of the nutritional load of the receiving body. The in cloud alteration of desert dust matrix and its biological content is in fact responsible from the reaction mechanisms initiated via the oxalate released by the prokaryotes. Solar light further enhances the formation of dissolved iron via decarboxylation reaction. Thus this paper explains the pathways of natural iron fertilization mechanisms that can be regulated by seeding the clouds with appropriate desert dust hence offers a means to control the chlorophyll concentration hence control on the negative feedback mechanisms on climate.

Kaynakça

  • Baker, A. R., & Croot, P. L. (2010). Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater. Marine Chemistry, 120(1), 4-13.
  • Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O. and Warren, S. 1987. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate, Nature, 326, 655-661.
  • Chen, J., Blume, H. P., & Beyer, L. (2000). Weathering of rocks induced by lichen colonization—a review. Catena, 39(2), 121-146
  • Guieu. C., Loy¨e-Pilot M. D. Ridame C. and Thomas C. Chemical characterization of the Saharan dust end-member: Some biogeochemical implications for the western Mediterranean Sea JGR,107, NO. D15, 10.1029/2001JD000582, 2002
  • Griffin, D.W., Garrison.V. H., Herman. J. R., Shinn. E.A. African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia. 17: 203–213, 2001
  • Griffin, D. W., Kubilay, N., Koçak, M., Gray, M. A., Borden, T. C., & Shinn, E. A. (2007). Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean Coastline. Atmospheric Environment, 41(19), 4050-4062.
  • Guerzoni, Stefano, Roy Chester, François Dulac, Barak Herut, Marie-Dominique Loÿe-Pilot, Chris Measures, Christophe Migon et al. "The role of atmospheric deposition in the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea. "Progress in Oceanography 44, no. 1 (1999): 147-190.
  • Hadjialighandi Amir (2011) The investigation of the variations in atmospheric CO2 levels during the course of Saharan dust transport (In Turkish) M.Sc Thesis. Hacettepe University. Environmental Engineering.179p.
  • Jickells, T. D., An, Z. S., Andersen, K. K., Baker, A. R., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N. & Torres, R. (2005). Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science, 308(5718), 67-71.
  • Leininger, S., Urich, T., Schloter, M., Schwark, L., Qi, J., Nicol, G. W. & Schleper, C. (2006). Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils. Nature, 442(7104), 806-809.
  • Levin, Z., Ganor, E., & Gladstein, V. (1996). The effects of desert particles coated with sulfate on rain formation in the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 35(9), 1511-1523.
  • Martin, J. H. (1992). Iron as a limiting factor in oceanic productivity. In Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea (pp. 123-137). Springer US.
  • Kellogg, C. A., & Griffin, D. W. (2006). Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends in ecology & evolution, 21(11), 638-644.
  • Myriokefalitakis, S., Tsigaridis, K., Mihalopoulos, N., Sciare, J., Nenes, A., Kawamura, K., Segers, A., and Kanakidou, M.: In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5761-5782, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5761-2011, 2011.
  • Rogora, M., R. Mosello, and A. Marchetto. "Long‐term trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in Northwestern Italy: the role of increasing Saharan dust deposition." Tellus B 56, no. 5 (2004): 426-434.
  • Ruijter, G. J., van de Vondervoort, P. J., & Visser, J. (1999). Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: an oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese. Microbiology, 145(9), 2569-2576.
  • Saydam. A. C. and Senyuva. H. Z. Deserts: Can they be the potential suppliers of bioavailable iron? Geophysical Research Letters. 29,( 11), DOI:10.1029/2001GL013562, 2002
  • Sorooshian, Armin, Varuntida Varutbangkul, Fred J. Brechtel, Barbara Ervens, Graham Feingold, Roya Bahreini, Shane M. Murphy et al. "Oxalic acid in clear and cloudy atmospheres: Analysis of data from International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation 2004." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 111, no. D23 (2006).
  • Sulzberger, Barbara, and Hansulrich Laubscher. "Reactivity of various types of iron (III) (hydr) oxides towards light-induced dissolution." Marine Chemistry 50 (1) (1995): 103-115.
  • Toon. O. B. African dust in Florida clouds. Nature, 427, 623-624, 2003.
  • Yu, Jian Zhen, Xiao-Feng Huang, Jinhui Xu, and Min Hu. "When aerosol sulfate goes up, so does oxalate: Implication for the formation mechanisms of oxalate." Environmental science & technology 39 (1), (2005): 128-133.
  • Zuo, Yuegang, and Juerg Hoigne. "Formation of hydrogen peroxide and depletion of oxalic acid in atmospheric water by photolysis of iron (III)-oxalato complexes." Environmental Science & Technology 26, no. 5 (1992): 1014-1022.

Yıl 2014, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 1 - 11, 10.11.2014
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.300712

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Baker, A. R., & Croot, P. L. (2010). Atmospheric and marine controls on aerosol iron solubility in seawater. Marine Chemistry, 120(1), 4-13.
  • Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O. and Warren, S. 1987. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate, Nature, 326, 655-661.
  • Chen, J., Blume, H. P., & Beyer, L. (2000). Weathering of rocks induced by lichen colonization—a review. Catena, 39(2), 121-146
  • Guieu. C., Loy¨e-Pilot M. D. Ridame C. and Thomas C. Chemical characterization of the Saharan dust end-member: Some biogeochemical implications for the western Mediterranean Sea JGR,107, NO. D15, 10.1029/2001JD000582, 2002
  • Griffin, D.W., Garrison.V. H., Herman. J. R., Shinn. E.A. African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia. 17: 203–213, 2001
  • Griffin, D. W., Kubilay, N., Koçak, M., Gray, M. A., Borden, T. C., & Shinn, E. A. (2007). Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean Coastline. Atmospheric Environment, 41(19), 4050-4062.
  • Guerzoni, Stefano, Roy Chester, François Dulac, Barak Herut, Marie-Dominique Loÿe-Pilot, Chris Measures, Christophe Migon et al. "The role of atmospheric deposition in the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea. "Progress in Oceanography 44, no. 1 (1999): 147-190.
  • Hadjialighandi Amir (2011) The investigation of the variations in atmospheric CO2 levels during the course of Saharan dust transport (In Turkish) M.Sc Thesis. Hacettepe University. Environmental Engineering.179p.
  • Jickells, T. D., An, Z. S., Andersen, K. K., Baker, A. R., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N. & Torres, R. (2005). Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science, 308(5718), 67-71.
  • Leininger, S., Urich, T., Schloter, M., Schwark, L., Qi, J., Nicol, G. W. & Schleper, C. (2006). Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils. Nature, 442(7104), 806-809.
  • Levin, Z., Ganor, E., & Gladstein, V. (1996). The effects of desert particles coated with sulfate on rain formation in the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 35(9), 1511-1523.
  • Martin, J. H. (1992). Iron as a limiting factor in oceanic productivity. In Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea (pp. 123-137). Springer US.
  • Kellogg, C. A., & Griffin, D. W. (2006). Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends in ecology & evolution, 21(11), 638-644.
  • Myriokefalitakis, S., Tsigaridis, K., Mihalopoulos, N., Sciare, J., Nenes, A., Kawamura, K., Segers, A., and Kanakidou, M.: In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5761-5782, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5761-2011, 2011.
  • Rogora, M., R. Mosello, and A. Marchetto. "Long‐term trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in Northwestern Italy: the role of increasing Saharan dust deposition." Tellus B 56, no. 5 (2004): 426-434.
  • Ruijter, G. J., van de Vondervoort, P. J., & Visser, J. (1999). Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: an oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese. Microbiology, 145(9), 2569-2576.
  • Saydam. A. C. and Senyuva. H. Z. Deserts: Can they be the potential suppliers of bioavailable iron? Geophysical Research Letters. 29,( 11), DOI:10.1029/2001GL013562, 2002
  • Sorooshian, Armin, Varuntida Varutbangkul, Fred J. Brechtel, Barbara Ervens, Graham Feingold, Roya Bahreini, Shane M. Murphy et al. "Oxalic acid in clear and cloudy atmospheres: Analysis of data from International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation 2004." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 111, no. D23 (2006).
  • Sulzberger, Barbara, and Hansulrich Laubscher. "Reactivity of various types of iron (III) (hydr) oxides towards light-induced dissolution." Marine Chemistry 50 (1) (1995): 103-115.
  • Toon. O. B. African dust in Florida clouds. Nature, 427, 623-624, 2003.
  • Yu, Jian Zhen, Xiao-Feng Huang, Jinhui Xu, and Min Hu. "When aerosol sulfate goes up, so does oxalate: Implication for the formation mechanisms of oxalate." Environmental science & technology 39 (1), (2005): 128-133.
  • Zuo, Yuegang, and Juerg Hoigne. "Formation of hydrogen peroxide and depletion of oxalic acid in atmospheric water by photolysis of iron (III)-oxalato complexes." Environmental Science & Technology 26, no. 5 (1992): 1014-1022.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

A.cemal SAYDAM>
Hacettepe University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06800, BEYTEPE, ANKARA
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 10 Kasım 2014
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2014, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijegeo300712, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2014}, volume = {1}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 11}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.300712}, title = {Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism}, key = {cite}, author = {Saydam, A.cemal} }
APA Saydam, A. (2014). Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 1 (1) , 1-11 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.300712
MLA Saydam, A. "Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism" . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 1 (2014 ): 1-11 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijegeo/issue/28163/300712>
Chicago Saydam, A. "Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 1 (2014 ): 1-11
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism AU - A.cemalSaydam Y1 - 2014 PY - 2014 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.300712 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.300712 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 11 VL - 1 IS - 1 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.300712 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.300712 Y2 - 2014 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism %A A.cemal Saydam %T Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism %D 2014 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 1 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.300712 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.300712
ISNAD Saydam, A.cemal . "Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 1 / 1 (Kasım 2014): 1-11 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.300712
AMA Saydam A. Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2014; 1(1): 1-11.
Vancouver Saydam A. Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2014; 1(1): 1-11.
IEEE A. Saydam , "Desert Dust Cloud Interactions and Natural Iron Enrichment Mechanism", International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, c. 1, sayı. 1, ss. 1-11, Kas. 2014, doi:10.30897/ijegeo.300712