Yıl 2020, Cilt 7 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 45 - 53 2020-04-26

The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey

Gülşen ALTUĞ [1] , Onnocan HULYAR [2]


The identification of bacteriologically characters of coastal areas is important due to the fact that bacteriological pollution, transported to seas via rivers is a potential threat for ecosystem, animal and human health. In this study, bacteriological load of Çırpıcı River transporting to the Sea of Marmara from Zeytinburnu location in Istanbul and its relationship with primary hydrographic parameters investigated. The levels of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC), fecal streptococci (FS) and total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HPC) tested using Membrane Filtration Technique in the surface water samples. Seawater temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen were recorded in-situ using multiparameter (YSI556 MPS). While the highest TC detected to be 13x107 CFU/100 ml, the highest FC was 14x106 CFU/100 ml. The lowest FC recorded as 25x10 CFU/100 ml. While the highest FS level was determined to be 73x105 CFU/100 ml, the highest HPC was 14x106 CFU / ml. Variable environmental parameters recorded for seawater temperature between 10.3-29.5˚C; pH 6.0-8.38; dissolved oxygen 0.34- 10.71 mg /l and salinity 16.50-26.57 psu during the study period. Significant correlation between the temperature and FC, FS and THAB detected. The levels of bacteria detected at the spot where the Çırpıcı River poured into the Sea of Marmara were found higher than the station at the 800 m open of the Sea of Marmara. It was determined that the Çırpıcı River carried 103 CFU bacterial loads at 100 ml for TC to the Sea of Marmara. The FC and FS counts carried to the Marmara Sea from Çırpıcı River recorded to be 102/100 ml and 103/100 ml, respectively. The fact that FC and TC levels were above the limit values during the study indicate the stability of pollution sources in the region and that the Çırpıcı Stream carries a bacteriological risk in terms of human, animal, and environmental health.
Fecal coliform, Total coliform, Heterortophic Bacteria, the Sea of Marmara, Çırpıcı River
  • Altuğ, G., Çardak, M., Çiftçi, P.S., Gürün, S. (2013). First Records and Microgeographical Variations of Culturable Heterotrophic Bacteria ın an Inner Sea (the Sea of Marmara) Between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Biology, (37), 184-190.
  • Altuğ, G., Çiftçi Türetken, P.S., Gürün, S., Kalkan, S. (2016) Diversity of Bacteria Isolated Turkish Marine Areas. Workshop on Biotechnological Use of Bacteria Proceeding Book Edit. G. Altuğ, S. 41-50. 20, İstanbul
  • APHA. (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th Edition, Clesceri, In L. S., A.E Greenberg and A.D Eaton (eds). American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington, D.C.
  • Aslan-Yılmaz, A. (2002). Monitoring discharges at Bosphorus, Black Sea exit of the Strait and the Northeastern Marmara sea by indicator microorganisms, Master’s Thesis. Istanbul University Institute of Marine Sciences and Management (in Turkish).
  • Austin, B. (1988). Marine Microbiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Bayhan, H., Övez, S., Aydın, A.F., Okuş, E. (1998). Monitoring of Domestic Wastewater by Fecal Coliform Determination at Marmara, Istanbul Strait and Black Sea Exit, Wastewater Management and Marine Pollution Control Symposium in Large Cities, 123-130 (in Turkish).
  • Baums, I.B., Goodwın, K.D., Kıeslıng, T., Wanless, D., Dıaz, M.R. Ve Fell, J.W., 2007, Luminex detection of fecal indicators in river samples, marine recreational water, and beach sand, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 521-536.
  • Bitton, G. (2005). Wastewater Microbiology, 3th In John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken (eds), New Jersey, I0-471-65071-4.
  • Borrego, J.J., Arrabal, F., de Vicente ,A., Gomez, L.F., Romero, P. (1983). Study of microbial inactivation in the marine environment. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), (55), 297-302.
  • Carlucci, A.F., Scarpino, P.V., Ve Pramer, D. (1960). Evaluation of factors affecting survival of Escherichia coli in sea water studies with heat- and filter-sterilized sea water, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 9(5), 400–404.
  • Çardak, M., Altuğ, G. (2014). Species Distribution and Heavy Metal Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae Members Isolated From Istanbul Strait, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 23, 2620-2626.
  • Çardak, M., Altuğ, G., May, M., Erol, Ö. (2016). Investigation of the Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance and the Presence of Vancomycin-Resistance Genes (vanA and vanB) in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from the Sea of Marmara, Canakkale Strait and Istanbul Strait, Turkey, Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 1, 1-5.
  • Çevikol, E. (1982). İstanbul’u çeviren deniz sularında yaz mevsimi başında ve sonunda yapılan bakteriyolojik incelemeler, İstanbul Üniversitesi Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi, Uzmanlık tezi.
  • Çiftçi Türetken, P.S., Altuğ, G. (2016). Bacterial pollution, activity and heterotrophic diversity of the northern part of the Aegean Sea, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(2):127. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5109-6.
  • Çiftçi, P.S. (2008). A study on the degradation ability of the bacteria isolated from the sea of marmara in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Istanbul University Institute of Graduate Studies In Sciences. Master’s Thesis. (in Turkish)
  • Droste, R.L. (1997). Theory and practice of water and wastewater treatment, Willey and Sons, New York, 0471153573, 978-0471153573.
  • EPA. (1998). Improved enumeration methods for the recreational water quality indicators: Enterococci and Escherichia coli.
  • EPA. (2006). EPA, Microbiological alternate test procedure (ATP) protocol for drinking water, ambient water, and wastewater monitoring methods.
  • European Parlament. (2006). Directive 2006/7/EC of the European parlament and of the council of 15 February 2006.
  • Gürün, S., Kimiran Erdem, A. (2013). Examination of the Level of Bacteriological Pollution in the Discharge Area of the Ayamama Stream to the Marmara Sea. Ekoloji, 22, 48-57.
  • Hacıoğlu, N., Dulger, B. (2009). Monthly variation of some physico-chemical and microbiological parameters in Biga stream (Biga,Canakkale, Turkey), African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(9), 1929-1937.
  • Karabulut, E. (1999). Research on the distribution of microbiological pollution load in the costs of İstanbul metropolitan city, Master’s Thesis, Istanbul University Institute of Marine Sciences and Management (in Turkish).
  • Kaşgar, S. (1992). İstanbul Boğazı’nın deniz suyu ve midyelerinin fekal koliform bakteriler tarafından incelenmesi, Master’s Thesis Istanbul University Institute of Graduate Studies In Sciences (in Turkish).
  • Kimiran, A., 1999, Examination of İstanbul seawater samples with regard to bacteria which are indicators of pollution, Doctoral Thesis, Istanbul University Institute of Graduate Studies In Sciences (in Turkish).
  • Munro, P.M., Gauthier, M.J., Breittmayer, V.A., Bongiovanni, J. (1989). Influence of some osmoregulaiton processes on starvation of Escherichia coli in seawater. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology, 55,2017-2014.
  • Neill, M. (2004). Microbiological indices for toplam coliform and E. coli bacteria in estuarine waters, Marine Pollution Bulletin. 49, 752–760.
  • Shen, J., Jıa, J.J. Ve Mcallıster Sısson, G. (2006). Inverse estimation of nonpoint sources of fecal coliform for establishing allowable load for Wye River, Maryland. Water Research,40, 3333 – 3342.
  • Sivri, N., Seker, D.Z. (2010) Investigation of Enteric Bacteria of Surface Waters in the Southwestern Coast of Istanbul by means of GIS Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 10 (4), 505-511.
  • Shen, J., Jia, J.J., Mcallister Sisson, G. (2006). Inverse estimation of nonpoint sources of fecal coliform for establishing allowable load for Wye River, Maryland, Water Research, 40, 3333 – 3342.
  • Sorensen, S.J. (1991). Survival of Escherichia coli K12 in seawater, FEMS Microbial Ecology, 85, 161-168.
  • Prescot, L. M., Harley, J. P., Klein, D. A. (1999). Microbiology, 4th ed., WCB Mc GrawHill Science, Boston, 0072951753, 978-0072951752.
  • Quinn, G., Keough, M. (2002). Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, 537 pp.
  • Rhodes, M., Kator, H. (1988). Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine environments, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54 (12), 2902-2907.
  • Touron, A., Berthe, T., Gargala, G., Fournıer, M. Ratajczak, M., Servais, P. Petit, F. (2007). Assessment of faecal contamination and the relationship between pathogens and faecal bacterial indicators in an estuarine environment (Seine, France), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 1441–1450
  • Unat, E.K., Ulusoy, M. Öztürk, M. (1986). İstanbul boğazı ve Haliç sularının 1986 Mayısındaki koliform bakteriler bakımından durumu, Türk Mikrobiyoloji Cemiyeti Dergisi, 16 (2-3), 45-49.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0003-3251-7699
Yazar: Gülşen ALTUĞ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: İstanbul Üniversitesi Su Bilimleri Fakültesi Deniz Biyolojisi Ana Bilim Dalı
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-8942-7152
Yazar: Onnocan HULYAR
Kurum: Istanbul University, Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Department of Marine Biology
Ülke: Turkey


Destekleyen Kurum Istanbul University Scientific Researches Project Unit
Proje Numarası İ.Ü. BAP Project/43201
Teşekkür The authors thank to Istanbul University Scientific Researches Project Unit (İ.Ü. BAP Project/43201) for their financial support. The authors also thank Dr. Pelin S. Çiftçi Türetken and PhD student Meryem Öztaş for their assistances in laboratory studies.
Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 26 Nisan 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijegeo704260, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, pages = {45 - 53}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.704260}, title = {The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {ALTUĞ, Gülşen and HULYAR, Onnocan} }
APA ALTUĞ, G , HULYAR, O . (2020). The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 7 (1) , 45-53 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.704260
MLA ALTUĞ, G , HULYAR, O . "The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 7 (2020 ): 45-53 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijegeo/issue/53413/704260>
Chicago ALTUĞ, G , HULYAR, O . "The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 7 (2020 ): 45-53
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey AU - Gülşen ALTUĞ , Onnocan HULYAR Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.704260 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.704260 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 45 EP - 53 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.704260 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.704260 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey %A Gülşen ALTUĞ , Onnocan HULYAR %T The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey %D 2020 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 7 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.704260 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.704260
ISNAD ALTUĞ, Gülşen , HULYAR, Onnocan . "The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 7 / 1 (Nisan 2020): 45-53 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.704260
AMA ALTUĞ G , HULYAR O . The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2020; 7(1): 45-53.
Vancouver ALTUĞ G , HULYAR O . The Bacteriological Risk Transported to Seas by Rivers; the Example of Çırpıcı River, the Sea of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2020; 7(1): 53-45.