Yıl 2020, Cilt 7 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 88 - 92 2020-04-26

MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points

Berkay BAHADUR [1] , Metin NOHUTCU [2]


Traditionally, ground control points (GCPs) are utilized to determine absolute image orientations indirectly in aerial triangulation. For a long time, differential and relative GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning techniques have been extensively used to establish GCPs. In our country, the establishment and measurement of GCPs are instructed in the related regulation based on differential GNSS techniques. One of the two methods described in the related regulation is based on establishing, at least, C3 level networks with maximum base length of 10 km and with minimum 35-minute observation time. In an alternative method, without base length restriction, GCP coordinates can be determined being connected to at least 3 TUSAGA-Active stations and with minimum 120-minute static observation. The expected precision for the coordinates of GCPs are described to be better than 5 cm in horizontal and 6 cm in vertical within the regulation. Although differential techniques can provide highly accurate positioning solutions, they are required at least two receivers to mitigate GNSS error sources. Additionally, positioning accuracy obtained from these techniques are strictly dependent on the distance from reference stations. It is clear that all these raise the operational cost and system complexity of differential GNSS techniques. In recent years, Precise Point Positioning (PPP), which enables centimeter- or millimeter-level positioning accuracy with only one receiver on a global scale, has emerged as an alternative positioning method. Over the last decade, PPP has attracted considerable attention within the GNSS community due to its exceptional benefits such as operational simplicity, cost-effectiveness, elimination of base station requirement. However, the main drawback of PPP is relatively long observation period required to achieve a specific positioning accuracy, for example, nearly 50 min to reach 10 cm or better horizontal accuracy with 30 seconds sampling rate. On the other hand, the completion of GLONASS constellation and the emergence of new satellite systems, such as Galileo and BeiDou, offers considerable opportunities to improve the PPP performance. The combinations of different GNSS constellations, namely multi-GNSS, strength the number and geometry of visible satellites, and therefore, reduces the convergence time significantly. Additionally, the new generation GNSS receivers make possible to collect more observations (even up to 100Hz), which provides abundant data for PPP processing. Taking all these into account, the principal objective of this study is to investigate the usability of PPP in establishing GCPs for aerial triangulation. For this purpose, an experimental test was conducted to evaluate the positioning performance of multi-GNSS PPP with high-frequency GNSS receivers (1 Hz). The results indicate that 5 cm or better horizontal and vertical positioning accuracy can be achieved by multi-GNSS PPP process within approximately 30 minutes using high-frequency GNSS receivers. Considering these results and its operational simplicity, it can be said that PPP is a robust alternative for the establishment of GCPs.
Ground Control Points (GCPs), GNSS, Multi-GNSS, , Precise Point Positioning (PPP)
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Birincil Dil en
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0003-3169-8862
Yazar: Berkay BAHADUR (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GEOMATİK MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-9582-582X
Yazar: Metin NOHUTCU
Kurum: HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GEOMATİK MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 26 Nisan 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijegeo710304, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, pages = {88 - 92}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.710304}, title = {MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points}, key = {cite}, author = {BAHADUR, Berkay and NOHUTCU, Metin} }
APA BAHADUR, B , NOHUTCU, M . (2020). MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 7 (1) , 88-92 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.710304
MLA BAHADUR, B , NOHUTCU, M . "MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 7 (2020 ): 88-92 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijegeo/issue/53413/710304>
Chicago BAHADUR, B , NOHUTCU, M . "MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 7 (2020 ): 88-92
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points AU - Berkay BAHADUR , Metin NOHUTCU Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.710304 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.710304 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 88 EP - 92 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.710304 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.710304 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points %A Berkay BAHADUR , Metin NOHUTCU %T MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points %D 2020 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 7 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.710304 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.710304
ISNAD BAHADUR, Berkay , NOHUTCU, Metin . "MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 7 / 1 (Nisan 2020): 88-92 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.710304
AMA BAHADUR B , NOHUTCU M . MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2020; 7(1): 88-92.
Vancouver BAHADUR B , NOHUTCU M . MULTI-GNSS PPP: An Alternative Positioning Technique for Establishing Ground Control Points. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2020; 7(1): 92-88.