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Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 3, 267 - 275, 05.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.828668

Öz

Kaynakça

  • ACU-Cell, (2003), Bismuth and lithium http://www.ace-cell.com/bili.html
  • Adefisan, E. A., and Egiku, J., (2018), Vulnerability Assessment of 2015 Flood in North Central Nigeria Using Integrated Approach of Hydrological Model and GIS, Global Scientific Journals (GSJ) 6(8): 262-275
  • Adegbola, A. A., and Jolayemi, J. K., (2012), Historical rainfall-runoff modelling of river Ogunpa, Ibadan, Nigeria. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 5(5), 2725-2728.
  • Adeloye, A.J., and Rustum, R., (2011), Flooding and influence of urban planning. Urban Design and Planning, 164 (DP3), 175-187.
  • Aderoju, O.M., Jantiku, J., Fagbemiro, O. A., Aliyu, I., Nwadike, B. K., Ajonye, S. E., and Salman, K. S., (2014), Geospatial assessment of 2012 flood disaster in Kogi State. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 74-84.
  • Adeoye, N.O. (2012). Spatio-temporal analysis of Land use/cover change of Lokoja- a Confluence town. Journal of Geography and Geology, Canadian Center of Science and education. 4(4), 40-51.
  • Adesina, H.O., (1986), Urban Environment and Epidemic Disease. Proceedings of National Conference on Development and the Environment, NISER, Ibadan-Nigeria: 234-256.
  • Agbola, B.S., Ajayi, O., Taiwo, O.J., and Wahab, B.W., (2012), The August 2011 flood in Ibadan, Nigeria: anthropogenic causes and consequences. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 3(4) 207-217.
  • Ajibade, A. C., Woakes, M., and Rahaman, M. A., (1989), Proterozoic Crustal Development in the Pan-African Regime of Nigeria. In Geology of Nigeria by Kogbe, C. A., (Ed.) Rock View (Nigeria) Limited. 57 – 69.
  • Ajibade, A.C., and Wright, J.B., (1989), The Togo- Benin, Nigeria shield evidence of crustal aggregation in pan African belt. Tectonophysics, 155.
  • Akpen, G. D., Kpoghol, I. S and Oparaku L. A (2018), Quality Assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko, Benue state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 37(1): 241-248.
  • Alcantara-Ayala, I., (2002), Geomorphology, natural hazards, vulnerability and prevention of natural disasters in developing countries.47:107-124.
  • Alexander, M., Viavattene, C., Faulkner, H., and Priest, S., (2011), A GIS-based flood risk assessment tool: supporting flood incident management at the local scale. Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, cited in Kaoje, I. U., &Ishiaku, I., (2017). Urban Flood Vulnerability Mapping of Lagos, Nigeria. MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(1), 224 - 236.
  • Aremu, M. O., Sangari,D. U., Musa,B. Z., and Chaanda,M. S., (2008), Assessment of Ground-Water and Stream for Trace Metals and Physic-Chemical Contaminations of Toto Local Government Area of Nassarawa state, Nigeria. Int. J. Chem. Sci., 1 (1), 8-19.
  • Atiku, S., Chukwuma, C. O., Olatunbosun, O. A., and Onyinye F. N., (2018), Comparative Study of the Physicochemical and Bacteriological Qualities of some Drinking water sources in Abuja, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ,24: 91-98.
  • Awal, R., (2003), Application of Steady and Unsteady Flow Model and GIS for Floodplain Analysis and Risk Mapping. Applied Research by Young Practitioners in South, South East and East Asia, 118-129.
  • Barnes, J.W., and Lisle, R.J., (2004), Basic Geological Mapping.(Ed.) John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England. (4): 1-15.
  • Black, R., Caby, R., Moussine-Pouchkine, A., and Bayer, R., (1979), Evidence for Late Precambrian plate tectonics in West Africa. International journal of science, 223-227.
  • British Geological Survey., (2006), The Physical Properties of Major Aquifer in England and Wales. 97/034, 333.
  • Burke, K.C., and Dewey, F.J., 1972, Orogeny of Africa, cited in Dessauvagie, T.F.J., and Whiteman A.J., (Eds.), International Journal of Geosciences, 5(4), 583-608.
  • Cutter, S.L., (1996), Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20, 529-539.
  • Dewan, S., Ganey, D., and Kraemer, K.L., (2005), Across the digital divide: a cross-country multi-technology analysis of the determinants of IT penetration. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 6(12), 409-432.
  • Disaster Management Support Group DMSG, (2001), The use of earth observing satellite for hazard support group, Final report, NOAA, Department of Commerce, USA.
  • Drogue, G., Pfister, L., Leviandier, T., El-Idrissi, A., Iffly, J.F., Matgen, P., Humbert, J., and Hoffmann, L., (2004), Simulating the spatio-temporal variability of stream-flow response to climate change scenarios in a meso scale basin. Journal of Hydrology 293, 255–269.
  • Enyinnaya, O.C., (2015), Spatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability in Aba Urban Using Geographic Information System Technology and Rainfall Information. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 191-200.
  • European Commission (EC)., (2007), Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October, on the assessment and management of flood risks, Official Journal of the European Union, L288/27-34.
  • Füssel, H.M., (2007), Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change.17:155-167.
  • Gonzalez, A., Donnelly, A., Jones, M., Chrysoulakis, N., and Lopes, N., (2012), A decision support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 38: 109-119.
  • Grant, N.K., (1969), The Late Precambrian to Early Palaeozoic Pan African Orogeny in Ghana, Togo, Dahomey and Nigeria Geol. Soc. Ame. Bull.80
  • Igwemmar,N. C., Kolawole,S. A., Okunoye, L. K., (2013), Physical and Chemical Assessment of Some Selected Borehole Water in Gwagwalada, Abuja, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(11), 324-326.
  • Imasuen, O. I., Olatunji, J. A., and Onyeobi. T. U. S., (2013),Geological Observations of Basement Rocks, around Ganaja, Kogi State, Nigeria,International Research Journal of Geology and Mining. 3(2), 57-66.
  • Ipinmoroti, K., and Shodi, O.O., (1993), Determination of Trace Metals in fish, associated Water and Soil sediments of fresh fish ponds. Disc Innov, 5:138-143.
  • Iweana, (2012), A Geo-electrical Investigation of Ground Water: 34.
  • Jeb, D.N., and Aggarwal, S.P., (2008), Flood inundation hazard modeling of the River Kaduna using remote sensing and geographic information systems, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4 (12), 1822 – 1833.
  • Kaoje, I. U., (2016), Application of Geographical Information System Techniques in Urban Flood Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Mapping. A Case Study of Cardiff, Wales. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 6:2250-3153.
  • Mc-Curry, P., (1973), Geology of Degree Sheet 21, Zaria Nigeria Overseas Geology and Mineral Resource London; 45
  • Mc-Curry, P., (1976), The Geology of the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic Rocks of Northern Nigeria, Elizabethan Lagos; 155 Mohammed, A., (2018), Spatio-Temporal analysis of areas vulnerable to flooding in Ibaji local government area, Kogi State, Nigeria, Journal of Resources and Environment, 8(3): 91-98
  • Mukhopadhyay, S., (2010), A geo-environmental assessment of flood dynamics in lower Ajoy River inducing sand splay problem in Eastern India. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 3(2), 1-15.
  • Nwilo, P.C., (2013), Geospatial information in flooding and disaster management in Nigeria. 7th Annual Lecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka
  • Nigerian Emergency Management Agency NEMA, (2012), Report on flood disasters in Nigeria. Abuja: Government Press. Obaje, N.G., (2009), Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, International Research Journal of Geology and Mining (IRJGM), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 3(1), 19-30.
  • Obiefuna, G.I., Sheriff, A., (2011), Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 3(2), 131 – 141.
  • Ologe, O., Bankole, S.A., and Adeoye, T.O., (2014), Geo-electric study for groundwater development in Ikunri Estate, Kogi West, Southwestern. Nigeria, 1: 157.
  • Okorafor, K. A., Agbo, B. E., Johnson, A. M and Chiorlu, M., (2012), Physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of selected streams and boreholes in Akamkpa and Calabar Municipality, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4 (5):2115-2121.
  • Onuigbo, I. C., Ibrahim, P. O., Agada, D.U., Nwose, I. A., and Abimbola, I. I., (2017), Flood Vulnerability Mpping of Lokoja metropolis using Geographical Information System Techniques, Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 5 (5), 229-242.
  • Oyawoye, M. O., (1970), The Basement Complex of Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie and Whiteman (Ed), African Geology, Ibadan University Press, 66-78.
  • Oyawoye, M. O., (1972), The basement complex of Nigeria in African Geology, edited by T. F. J Dessauvagie and Whiteman, A. J., University of Ibadan, 66-102.
  • Rahaman, M. A., (1976), Review of the Basement Geology of south western Nigeria in Geology of Nigeria, edited by Kogbe, C.A., Elizabethan Pub. Co, Lagos: 41-58.
  • Russ, W., (1975), The Geology of parts of Niger, Zaria and Sokoto province, Geol. Survey of Nigeria, 27:42.
  • Samarasinghea, S. M. J. S., Nandalalb, H. K., Weliwitiyac, D. P., Fowzed, J. S. M., Hazarikad, M. K., and Samarakoond, L., (2010), Application of remote sensing and GIS for flood risk analysis: A case study at Kalu-Ganga River, Sri-Lanka, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science. 38(B): 110-115.
  • Suleiman, Y. M., Matazu, M. B., Davids, A. A., and Chioma, M. M., (2014), The Application of Geospatial Techniques in Flood risk and Vulnerability Mapping for Disaster Management at Lokoja, Kogi state, Nigeria, Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 5(4): 45-54.
  • Tuner, D.C., (1983), Upper Proterozoic Schist Belts in Nigerian Sector of the Pan African province of West Africa, Precambrian Res. 21:55-59.
  • Ugoyibo, O. V., Enyinnaya, O. C., and Suleiman, L., (2017), Spatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability in Anambra East Local Government Area, Nigeria Using GIS and Remote Sensing. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 19(5): 1-11.
  • United Nations (UN), (1998), Proceedings of the Seminars on Flood Vulnerability Analysis and on the Principles of Flood Plain Management for Flood Loss Prevention. Bangko.
  • U.S. Geological Survey, (1998), Retrieved from http://www.usgs.gov/research/gis/title.html on 04/12/2009.
  • Van Western, C. J. I., Van Duren, H. M. G., and Terlien, M.T.J., (1993), Training Package for Geographic Information Systems in Slope Instability Zonation. International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Science (ITC), 15 (1): 245.

Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 3, 267 - 275, 05.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.828668

Öz

This study aimed at the geological and geospatial mapping of flood vulnerable areas in Ganaja, Lokoja metropolis for proper flood mitigation. The geological mapping of the study area involved taking several traverses and understudying the different rock types in the study area. Rocks identified are porphyritic granite, migmatite, augen gneiss, aplitic granite, medium-grained granite, pegmatitic intrusions and quartzo-feldspathic veins, banded gneiss and biotite gneiss. Fractures and joint within the rocks show NW-SE, NNE-SSW orientations; corresponding to the predominant stress direction that represent imprints of the Pan-African orogeny. The incessant inundation of the settlement by floods has necessitated this risk and vulnerability assessment. Results from the geospatial investigation identified three areas with respect to vulnerability level. Buildings within 100 meters buffer distance from the river banks and flood plains are highly vulnerable, those within 200 meters buffer distance is moderately vulnerable while those 300 meters above buffer distance are less vulnerable areas. The relationship between the geology or geomorphology of the area and its effect on flood vulnerability is clearly seen from the geologic, elevation and vulnerability maps of the study area. The contour intervals in the western section is seen to have steeper slopes thereby allowing for easy run-off while the eastern section, having the flood plains of River Niger; have more gentle slopes with a tendency to accumulate water.

Kaynakça

  • ACU-Cell, (2003), Bismuth and lithium http://www.ace-cell.com/bili.html
  • Adefisan, E. A., and Egiku, J., (2018), Vulnerability Assessment of 2015 Flood in North Central Nigeria Using Integrated Approach of Hydrological Model and GIS, Global Scientific Journals (GSJ) 6(8): 262-275
  • Adegbola, A. A., and Jolayemi, J. K., (2012), Historical rainfall-runoff modelling of river Ogunpa, Ibadan, Nigeria. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 5(5), 2725-2728.
  • Adeloye, A.J., and Rustum, R., (2011), Flooding and influence of urban planning. Urban Design and Planning, 164 (DP3), 175-187.
  • Aderoju, O.M., Jantiku, J., Fagbemiro, O. A., Aliyu, I., Nwadike, B. K., Ajonye, S. E., and Salman, K. S., (2014), Geospatial assessment of 2012 flood disaster in Kogi State. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 74-84.
  • Adeoye, N.O. (2012). Spatio-temporal analysis of Land use/cover change of Lokoja- a Confluence town. Journal of Geography and Geology, Canadian Center of Science and education. 4(4), 40-51.
  • Adesina, H.O., (1986), Urban Environment and Epidemic Disease. Proceedings of National Conference on Development and the Environment, NISER, Ibadan-Nigeria: 234-256.
  • Agbola, B.S., Ajayi, O., Taiwo, O.J., and Wahab, B.W., (2012), The August 2011 flood in Ibadan, Nigeria: anthropogenic causes and consequences. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 3(4) 207-217.
  • Ajibade, A. C., Woakes, M., and Rahaman, M. A., (1989), Proterozoic Crustal Development in the Pan-African Regime of Nigeria. In Geology of Nigeria by Kogbe, C. A., (Ed.) Rock View (Nigeria) Limited. 57 – 69.
  • Ajibade, A.C., and Wright, J.B., (1989), The Togo- Benin, Nigeria shield evidence of crustal aggregation in pan African belt. Tectonophysics, 155.
  • Akpen, G. D., Kpoghol, I. S and Oparaku L. A (2018), Quality Assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko, Benue state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 37(1): 241-248.
  • Alcantara-Ayala, I., (2002), Geomorphology, natural hazards, vulnerability and prevention of natural disasters in developing countries.47:107-124.
  • Alexander, M., Viavattene, C., Faulkner, H., and Priest, S., (2011), A GIS-based flood risk assessment tool: supporting flood incident management at the local scale. Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, cited in Kaoje, I. U., &Ishiaku, I., (2017). Urban Flood Vulnerability Mapping of Lagos, Nigeria. MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(1), 224 - 236.
  • Aremu, M. O., Sangari,D. U., Musa,B. Z., and Chaanda,M. S., (2008), Assessment of Ground-Water and Stream for Trace Metals and Physic-Chemical Contaminations of Toto Local Government Area of Nassarawa state, Nigeria. Int. J. Chem. Sci., 1 (1), 8-19.
  • Atiku, S., Chukwuma, C. O., Olatunbosun, O. A., and Onyinye F. N., (2018), Comparative Study of the Physicochemical and Bacteriological Qualities of some Drinking water sources in Abuja, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ,24: 91-98.
  • Awal, R., (2003), Application of Steady and Unsteady Flow Model and GIS for Floodplain Analysis and Risk Mapping. Applied Research by Young Practitioners in South, South East and East Asia, 118-129.
  • Barnes, J.W., and Lisle, R.J., (2004), Basic Geological Mapping.(Ed.) John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England. (4): 1-15.
  • Black, R., Caby, R., Moussine-Pouchkine, A., and Bayer, R., (1979), Evidence for Late Precambrian plate tectonics in West Africa. International journal of science, 223-227.
  • British Geological Survey., (2006), The Physical Properties of Major Aquifer in England and Wales. 97/034, 333.
  • Burke, K.C., and Dewey, F.J., 1972, Orogeny of Africa, cited in Dessauvagie, T.F.J., and Whiteman A.J., (Eds.), International Journal of Geosciences, 5(4), 583-608.
  • Cutter, S.L., (1996), Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20, 529-539.
  • Dewan, S., Ganey, D., and Kraemer, K.L., (2005), Across the digital divide: a cross-country multi-technology analysis of the determinants of IT penetration. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 6(12), 409-432.
  • Disaster Management Support Group DMSG, (2001), The use of earth observing satellite for hazard support group, Final report, NOAA, Department of Commerce, USA.
  • Drogue, G., Pfister, L., Leviandier, T., El-Idrissi, A., Iffly, J.F., Matgen, P., Humbert, J., and Hoffmann, L., (2004), Simulating the spatio-temporal variability of stream-flow response to climate change scenarios in a meso scale basin. Journal of Hydrology 293, 255–269.
  • Enyinnaya, O.C., (2015), Spatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability in Aba Urban Using Geographic Information System Technology and Rainfall Information. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 191-200.
  • European Commission (EC)., (2007), Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October, on the assessment and management of flood risks, Official Journal of the European Union, L288/27-34.
  • Füssel, H.M., (2007), Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global Environmental Change.17:155-167.
  • Gonzalez, A., Donnelly, A., Jones, M., Chrysoulakis, N., and Lopes, N., (2012), A decision support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 38: 109-119.
  • Grant, N.K., (1969), The Late Precambrian to Early Palaeozoic Pan African Orogeny in Ghana, Togo, Dahomey and Nigeria Geol. Soc. Ame. Bull.80
  • Igwemmar,N. C., Kolawole,S. A., Okunoye, L. K., (2013), Physical and Chemical Assessment of Some Selected Borehole Water in Gwagwalada, Abuja, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(11), 324-326.
  • Imasuen, O. I., Olatunji, J. A., and Onyeobi. T. U. S., (2013),Geological Observations of Basement Rocks, around Ganaja, Kogi State, Nigeria,International Research Journal of Geology and Mining. 3(2), 57-66.
  • Ipinmoroti, K., and Shodi, O.O., (1993), Determination of Trace Metals in fish, associated Water and Soil sediments of fresh fish ponds. Disc Innov, 5:138-143.
  • Iweana, (2012), A Geo-electrical Investigation of Ground Water: 34.
  • Jeb, D.N., and Aggarwal, S.P., (2008), Flood inundation hazard modeling of the River Kaduna using remote sensing and geographic information systems, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4 (12), 1822 – 1833.
  • Kaoje, I. U., (2016), Application of Geographical Information System Techniques in Urban Flood Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Mapping. A Case Study of Cardiff, Wales. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 6:2250-3153.
  • Mc-Curry, P., (1973), Geology of Degree Sheet 21, Zaria Nigeria Overseas Geology and Mineral Resource London; 45
  • Mc-Curry, P., (1976), The Geology of the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic Rocks of Northern Nigeria, Elizabethan Lagos; 155 Mohammed, A., (2018), Spatio-Temporal analysis of areas vulnerable to flooding in Ibaji local government area, Kogi State, Nigeria, Journal of Resources and Environment, 8(3): 91-98
  • Mukhopadhyay, S., (2010), A geo-environmental assessment of flood dynamics in lower Ajoy River inducing sand splay problem in Eastern India. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 3(2), 1-15.
  • Nwilo, P.C., (2013), Geospatial information in flooding and disaster management in Nigeria. 7th Annual Lecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka
  • Nigerian Emergency Management Agency NEMA, (2012), Report on flood disasters in Nigeria. Abuja: Government Press. Obaje, N.G., (2009), Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, International Research Journal of Geology and Mining (IRJGM), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 3(1), 19-30.
  • Obiefuna, G.I., Sheriff, A., (2011), Assessment of Shallow Ground Water Quality of Pindiga Gombe Area, Yola, NE, Nigeria for Irrigation and Domestic Purposes. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 3(2), 131 – 141.
  • Ologe, O., Bankole, S.A., and Adeoye, T.O., (2014), Geo-electric study for groundwater development in Ikunri Estate, Kogi West, Southwestern. Nigeria, 1: 157.
  • Okorafor, K. A., Agbo, B. E., Johnson, A. M and Chiorlu, M., (2012), Physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of selected streams and boreholes in Akamkpa and Calabar Municipality, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4 (5):2115-2121.
  • Onuigbo, I. C., Ibrahim, P. O., Agada, D.U., Nwose, I. A., and Abimbola, I. I., (2017), Flood Vulnerability Mpping of Lokoja metropolis using Geographical Information System Techniques, Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 5 (5), 229-242.
  • Oyawoye, M. O., (1970), The Basement Complex of Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie and Whiteman (Ed), African Geology, Ibadan University Press, 66-78.
  • Oyawoye, M. O., (1972), The basement complex of Nigeria in African Geology, edited by T. F. J Dessauvagie and Whiteman, A. J., University of Ibadan, 66-102.
  • Rahaman, M. A., (1976), Review of the Basement Geology of south western Nigeria in Geology of Nigeria, edited by Kogbe, C.A., Elizabethan Pub. Co, Lagos: 41-58.
  • Russ, W., (1975), The Geology of parts of Niger, Zaria and Sokoto province, Geol. Survey of Nigeria, 27:42.
  • Samarasinghea, S. M. J. S., Nandalalb, H. K., Weliwitiyac, D. P., Fowzed, J. S. M., Hazarikad, M. K., and Samarakoond, L., (2010), Application of remote sensing and GIS for flood risk analysis: A case study at Kalu-Ganga River, Sri-Lanka, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science. 38(B): 110-115.
  • Suleiman, Y. M., Matazu, M. B., Davids, A. A., and Chioma, M. M., (2014), The Application of Geospatial Techniques in Flood risk and Vulnerability Mapping for Disaster Management at Lokoja, Kogi state, Nigeria, Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 5(4): 45-54.
  • Tuner, D.C., (1983), Upper Proterozoic Schist Belts in Nigerian Sector of the Pan African province of West Africa, Precambrian Res. 21:55-59.
  • Ugoyibo, O. V., Enyinnaya, O. C., and Suleiman, L., (2017), Spatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability in Anambra East Local Government Area, Nigeria Using GIS and Remote Sensing. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 19(5): 1-11.
  • United Nations (UN), (1998), Proceedings of the Seminars on Flood Vulnerability Analysis and on the Principles of Flood Plain Management for Flood Loss Prevention. Bangko.
  • U.S. Geological Survey, (1998), Retrieved from http://www.usgs.gov/research/gis/title.html on 04/12/2009.
  • Van Western, C. J. I., Van Duren, H. M. G., and Terlien, M.T.J., (1993), Training Package for Geographic Information Systems in Slope Instability Zonation. International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Science (ITC), 15 (1): 245.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Çevre Bilimleri
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

George OZULU (Sorumlu Yazar)
SALEM UNIVERSITY LOKOJA, NIGERIA
0000-0001-7612-6273
Nigeria


Grace Paul ESSİEN Bu kişi benim
Department of Earth Sciences, College of Natural & Applied Sciences, Salem University Lokoja
Nigeria


Ernest Orji AKUDO Bu kişi benim
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Lokoja
Nigeria

Destekleyen Kurum Department of Geology, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State
Teşekkür Thanks
Yayımlanma Tarihi 5 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijegeo828668, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {267 - 275}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.828668}, title = {Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria}, key = {cite}, author = {Ozulu, George and Essien, Grace Paul and Akudo, Ernest Orji} }
APA Ozulu, G. , Essien, G. P. & Akudo, E. O. (2021). Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 8 (3) , 267-275 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.828668
MLA Ozulu, G. , Essien, G. P. , Akudo, E. O. "Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria" . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8 (2021 ): 267-275 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijegeo/issue/61200/828668>
Chicago Ozulu, G. , Essien, G. P. , Akudo, E. O. "Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8 (2021 ): 267-275
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria AU - George Ozulu , Grace Paul Essien , Ernest Orji Akudo Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.828668 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.828668 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 267 EP - 275 VL - 8 IS - 3 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.828668 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.828668 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria %A George Ozulu , Grace Paul Essien , Ernest Orji Akudo %T Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria %D 2021 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 8 %N 3 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.828668 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.828668
ISNAD Ozulu, George , Essien, Grace Paul , Akudo, Ernest Orji . "Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8 / 3 (Eylül 2021): 267-275 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.828668
AMA Ozulu G. , Essien G. P. , Akudo E. O. Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2021; 8(3): 267-275.
Vancouver Ozulu G. , Essien G. P. , Akudo E. O. Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2021; 8(3): 267-275.
IEEE G. Ozulu , G. P. Essien ve E. O. Akudo , "Geological and Geospatial Mapping of Vulnerability Areas for Proper Flood Mitigation: Ganaja, Lokoja Metropolis, North-Central Nigeria", International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, c. 8, sayı. 3, ss. 267-275, Eyl. 2021, doi:10.30897/ijegeo.828668