Araştırma Makalesi
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Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset, 9 - 32, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037941

Öz

Concerned with exploiting communication tools for development purposes, Communication for Development was born in the specific context of post-World War II years as an implementation area or practice, prior to its establishment as an academic research domain. The same era coincidences with implementation of Marshall Plan, which included Turkey among its beneficiary countries. Marshall Plan and its communication, with a specific focus on the films in/about Turkey, constitute the core to the study, which aims to contribute to the limited literature on Marshall Plan communication in Turkey and the history of Communication for Development in Turkey. Underlying impulses of the Plan, its implication, the communication strategies and methods utilized throughout the Plan and films are studied, while the Marshall Plan films about Turkey are contextualized in the modernization paradigm-dominated period of communication for development practice and research.

Kaynakça

  • Agnew, John, and Nicholas Entrikin. 2004. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. New York: Routledge.
  • Ascroft, Joseph,and Sipho Masilela. 1989. From top-down to co-equal communication: Popular participation in development decision-making. Paper presented at the seminar on Participation: A Key concept in Communication and Change. University of Poona, Pune, India.
  • Aytaç, İren Dicle. 2008. “Marshall Plan Filmleri (1948-1953): Türkiye Örneği.” Master of Arts Thesis, Gazi University.
  • Belgil, Vehbi. 1952. “Issues of Our National Film-making.” Yıldız, February 9, 1952.
  • Birinci, Burcu. 2007. “The Marshall Plan in Turkey: A Critical Evaluation of United States’ Interests in the Plan and Its Effects on the Republic.” Masters’ Thesis, Bogazici University.
  • Burk, Kathleen. 2001. “The Marshall Plan: Filling in some of the blanks.” Contemporary European History 10(2), 267-294.
  • Ellwood, David W. 1998. “You too can be like us: Selling the Marshall Plan.” History Today 48 (October): 33-39.
  • Ellwood, David W. 2001. “Italian modernization and propaganda of the Marshall Plan.” In The art of persuasion: Political communication in Italy from 1945 to 1990s, edited by Cheles, Luciano., and Ponza, Lucio., 23-45. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Ellwood, David W. 2006. “The Marshall Plan: A Strategy that Worked.” Foreign Policy Agenda, April: 17-22.
  • Escobar, Arturo. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. New Jersey: Princeton Press.
  • Fair, Jo Ellen .1989. “29 Years of Theory and Research on Media and Development: The Dominant Paradigm Impact.” Gazette, 44: 129–150.
  • Fair, Jo Ellen and Hemant Shah .1997. “Continuities and Discontinuities in Communication and Development Research since 1958.” Journal of International Communication, 4: 3-25.
  • Garret, C. Amy. 2004. “Marketing America: Public culture and public diplomacy in the Marshall Plan era 1947-1954.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Hemer, Oscar and Tomas Tufte. 2005. “The challenge of the glocal.” In Media & Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, edited by Oscar Hemer and Tomas Tufte, 13-25. Sweden: Nordicom.
  • Hemsing, Albert. 1994. “The Marshall Plan’s European Film Unit, 1948–1955: A memoir and filmography.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 14: 269-297.
  • Kozat, Burçak. 2007. “Negotiating Modernization through U.S Foreign Assistance: Turkey’s Marshall Plan (1948-52) Re-interpreted.” PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • Lerner, Daniel. 1958. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. London: Collier-Macmillan Ltd.
  • Mendi, Ahmet. 2002. “İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın Türk dış politikasına etkileri, Truman Doktrini, Marshall Planı ve Türkiye”. PhD dissertation, Istanbul University.
  • Melkote, Raj Srinivas. 1991. Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
  • Melkote, Raj Srinivas and Steeves, Leslie. 2001. Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
  • MPF. 2020. Marshall Plan Filmography. Accessed 15 November 2020 http://www.marshallfilms.org/mpf.asp
  • Noble, S. Evan. 2006. “Marshall Plan films and Americanization.” Master of Arts Thesis, Virginia Tech.
  • Robinson, Robinson D. 1956. The Impact of American Military and Economic Assistance Programs in Turkey. New York: American Universities Field Staff Report.
  • Rogers, Everett. 1976. Communication and Development: Critical Perspectives. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.
  • Rother, Rainer, Sandra Schulberg, Gunter Agde, and Jeanpaul Goergen. 2005. Selling Democracy: Winning the Peace. Program for 55th Berlin International Film Festival. Berlin: KBB.
  • Servaes, Jan. 1999. Communication for Development. One World, Multiple Cultures. Cresskill: Hampton Press.
  • Servaes, Jan. 2008. Communication for Social Change and Development. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Servaes, Jan, and Patchanee Malikhao. 2005. “Participatory Communication: the new paradigm?” In Media & Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, edited by Oscar Hemer and Tomas Tufte, 91-95. Sweden: Nordicom.
  • Şahin, Osman. 1996. Toroslarda Sinema Çerçileri. In Türk Sineması Üzerine Düşünceler, edited by Süleyman M. Dinçer, 301-307. Ankara: Doruk Yayınları.
  • Tören, Tolga. 2007. Yeniden Yapılanan Dünya Ekonomisinde Marshall Planı ve Türkiye Uygulaması. İstanbul: SAV.
  • Truman acts to save nations from red rule; asks 400 million to aid Greece and Turkey. (1947, March 12). New York Times, 1.
  • Whelan, Bernadette. 2003. “Marshall Plan Publicity and Propaganda in Italy and Ireland, 1947–1951.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 23, no. 4: 311 – 328.

Marshall Planı Filmleri, Belgeselleri: Kalkınma Amaçlı İletişimin Türkiye’deki Kökeni Üzerine Düşünmek

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset, 9 - 32, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037941

Öz

İletişim araçlarını kalkınma hedefleri doğrultusunda kullanma olarak özetlenebilecek Kalkınma Amaçlı İletişim, bir akademik araştırma alanı olarak tesis edilip kabul görmeden önce İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonrası dönemin kendine has bağlamında bir uygulama alanı ve müdahale aracı-yaklaşımı olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Aynı yıllar, İkinci Dünya Savaş yorgunu Avrupa ülkeleriyle birlikte Türkiye’yi de kapsayan Amerika Birleşik Devletleri kaynaklı Marshall Planı’nın uygulandığı oldukça önemli bir döneme denk gelir. Bu araştırma, Marshall Planı ve Türkiye hakkındaki filmlere yoğunlaşmakta; Marshall Planı iletişimini merkeze alarak hem Türkiye özelinde Marshall Planı iletişimi, hem de Kalkınma Amaçlı İletişim’in Türkiye’deki seyriyle ilgili sınırlı alan yazına katkıda bulunmayı hedeflemektedir. Planın sebepleri, sonuçları, iletişim stratejileri, yöntemleri ve özel olarak da filmler derinlemesine incelenmiş ve Türkiye ile ilgili Marshall Planı filmleri, modernleşme paradigmasının hâkim olduğu dönem Kalkınma Amaçlı İletişim bağlamında ele alınmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Agnew, John, and Nicholas Entrikin. 2004. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. New York: Routledge.
  • Ascroft, Joseph,and Sipho Masilela. 1989. From top-down to co-equal communication: Popular participation in development decision-making. Paper presented at the seminar on Participation: A Key concept in Communication and Change. University of Poona, Pune, India.
  • Aytaç, İren Dicle. 2008. “Marshall Plan Filmleri (1948-1953): Türkiye Örneği.” Master of Arts Thesis, Gazi University.
  • Belgil, Vehbi. 1952. “Issues of Our National Film-making.” Yıldız, February 9, 1952.
  • Birinci, Burcu. 2007. “The Marshall Plan in Turkey: A Critical Evaluation of United States’ Interests in the Plan and Its Effects on the Republic.” Masters’ Thesis, Bogazici University.
  • Burk, Kathleen. 2001. “The Marshall Plan: Filling in some of the blanks.” Contemporary European History 10(2), 267-294.
  • Ellwood, David W. 1998. “You too can be like us: Selling the Marshall Plan.” History Today 48 (October): 33-39.
  • Ellwood, David W. 2001. “Italian modernization and propaganda of the Marshall Plan.” In The art of persuasion: Political communication in Italy from 1945 to 1990s, edited by Cheles, Luciano., and Ponza, Lucio., 23-45. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Ellwood, David W. 2006. “The Marshall Plan: A Strategy that Worked.” Foreign Policy Agenda, April: 17-22.
  • Escobar, Arturo. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. New Jersey: Princeton Press.
  • Fair, Jo Ellen .1989. “29 Years of Theory and Research on Media and Development: The Dominant Paradigm Impact.” Gazette, 44: 129–150.
  • Fair, Jo Ellen and Hemant Shah .1997. “Continuities and Discontinuities in Communication and Development Research since 1958.” Journal of International Communication, 4: 3-25.
  • Garret, C. Amy. 2004. “Marketing America: Public culture and public diplomacy in the Marshall Plan era 1947-1954.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Hemer, Oscar and Tomas Tufte. 2005. “The challenge of the glocal.” In Media & Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, edited by Oscar Hemer and Tomas Tufte, 13-25. Sweden: Nordicom.
  • Hemsing, Albert. 1994. “The Marshall Plan’s European Film Unit, 1948–1955: A memoir and filmography.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 14: 269-297.
  • Kozat, Burçak. 2007. “Negotiating Modernization through U.S Foreign Assistance: Turkey’s Marshall Plan (1948-52) Re-interpreted.” PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • Lerner, Daniel. 1958. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. London: Collier-Macmillan Ltd.
  • Mendi, Ahmet. 2002. “İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın Türk dış politikasına etkileri, Truman Doktrini, Marshall Planı ve Türkiye”. PhD dissertation, Istanbul University.
  • Melkote, Raj Srinivas. 1991. Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
  • Melkote, Raj Srinivas and Steeves, Leslie. 2001. Communication for Development in the Third World: Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
  • MPF. 2020. Marshall Plan Filmography. Accessed 15 November 2020 http://www.marshallfilms.org/mpf.asp
  • Noble, S. Evan. 2006. “Marshall Plan films and Americanization.” Master of Arts Thesis, Virginia Tech.
  • Robinson, Robinson D. 1956. The Impact of American Military and Economic Assistance Programs in Turkey. New York: American Universities Field Staff Report.
  • Rogers, Everett. 1976. Communication and Development: Critical Perspectives. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.
  • Rother, Rainer, Sandra Schulberg, Gunter Agde, and Jeanpaul Goergen. 2005. Selling Democracy: Winning the Peace. Program for 55th Berlin International Film Festival. Berlin: KBB.
  • Servaes, Jan. 1999. Communication for Development. One World, Multiple Cultures. Cresskill: Hampton Press.
  • Servaes, Jan. 2008. Communication for Social Change and Development. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Servaes, Jan, and Patchanee Malikhao. 2005. “Participatory Communication: the new paradigm?” In Media & Glocal Change: Rethinking Communication for Development, edited by Oscar Hemer and Tomas Tufte, 91-95. Sweden: Nordicom.
  • Şahin, Osman. 1996. Toroslarda Sinema Çerçileri. In Türk Sineması Üzerine Düşünceler, edited by Süleyman M. Dinçer, 301-307. Ankara: Doruk Yayınları.
  • Tören, Tolga. 2007. Yeniden Yapılanan Dünya Ekonomisinde Marshall Planı ve Türkiye Uygulaması. İstanbul: SAV.
  • Truman acts to save nations from red rule; asks 400 million to aid Greece and Turkey. (1947, March 12). New York Times, 1.
  • Whelan, Bernadette. 2003. “Marshall Plan Publicity and Propaganda in Italy and Ireland, 1947–1951.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 23, no. 4: 311 – 328.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Altuğ AKIN Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
İZMİR EKONOMİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8903-5733
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ilef1037941, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi}, issn = {2148-7219}, eissn = {2458-9209}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, number = {2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset}, pages = {9 - 32}, doi = {10.24955/ilef.1037941}, title = {Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Akın, Altuğ} }
APA Akın, A. (2021). Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey . Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi , 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset , 9-32 . DOI: 10.24955/ilef.1037941
MLA Akın, A. "Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey" . Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi (2021 ): 9-32 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ilef/issue/67404/1037941>
Chicago Akın, A. "Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey". Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi (2021 ): 9-32
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey AU - Altuğ Akın Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.24955/ilef.1037941 DO - 10.24955/ilef.1037941 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 9 EP - 32 VL - IS - 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset SN - 2148-7219-2458-9209 M3 - doi: 10.24955/ilef.1037941 UR - https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037941 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey %A Altuğ Akın %T Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey %D 2021 %J Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi %P 2148-7219-2458-9209 %V %N 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset %R doi: 10.24955/ilef.1037941 %U 10.24955/ilef.1037941
ISNAD Akın, Altuğ . "Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey". Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi / 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset (Aralık 2021): 9-32 . https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037941
AMA Akın A. Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2021; (2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset): 9-32.
Vancouver Akın A. Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2021; (2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset): 9-32.
IEEE A. Akın , "Marshall Plan Films and Documentaries: A Meditation on Origin of Communication for Development in Turkey", Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, sayı. 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset, ss. 9-32, Ara. 2021, doi:10.24955/ilef.1037941