Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Ünlü Etkisi Kullanımı Çerçevesinde Pandemi İletişimi: Instagram Mikro-Ünlüleri Üzerine bir İnceleme

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset, 149 - 178, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037992

Öz

Pandemi sırasında iletişim kurmak pandemi ile savaşmak kadar zordur. Sosyal medya fenomenleri sahip oldukları yol gösterici doğa sayesinde pandemide rol modeller hâline gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada amaç, Türkiye’de en çok tercih edilen sosyal ağlardan biri olan Instagram’daki mikro-ünlülerin salgın döneminde COVID-19’la ilgili içeriklerini, pandemide iletişimlerini Instagram üzerinden nasıl gerçekleştirdiklerini analiz etmektir. Çalışmanın kavramsal çerçevesi, “Ünlü Etkisi Modeli” üzerinden geliştirilmiş ve Instagram üzerinde (Türkiye’de 2019 yılında etki gücü skoruna göre) ilk on sıraya yerleşmiş mikro-ünlülerin pandemi dönemindeki paylaşımları analiz edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre; mikro-ünlülerin karantina döneminde yaptıkları paylaşımların %68,4’ünün COVID-19 ile ilgili olduğu; sponsorlu gönderilerin azaldığı, pandemide kullandıkları mesaj tonunun en çok mizah olduğu; karantina döneminde paylaşılan gönderilerin çoğunun iç mekânda paylaşıldığı, en çok “hayat tarzı” ile ilgili paylaşım yapıldığı; mikro-ünlülerin bu dönemde takipçilerine en çok “eğlenme” değerini sundukları; üstlendikleri temel rolün en çok eğlendirme rolü olduğu görülmüştür. İlaveten, mikro-ünlülerin evde kalma, sosyal mesafe kurallarına uyma, maske takma gibi konularda farkındalık yaratarak takipçilerini bilgilendirmeyi, uyarmayı, yönlendirmeyi ve hatta olumlu davranış değişiklikleri geliştirmeyi amaçladıkları gözlemlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abidin, Crystal and Ots Marts. 2016. “Influencers Tell All? Unravelling Authenticity and Credibility in a Brand Scandal.” In Blurring the Lines, edited by Maria Edström, Andrew, T. Kenyon and Eva-Maria Svensson, 151-163. Göteborg: Nordicom Press. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1051578/FULLTEXT01.pdf#page=155.
  • Abraham, Thomas. 2011. “Lessons from The Pandemic: The Need for New Tools for Risk and Outbreak Communication.” Emerging Health Threats Journal 4 (1): 1-4. 10.3402/ ehtj.v4i0.7160.
  • Acar, Arman. 2020. “United Ad 2020 Influencer Marketing Trendleri.” Last modified 15 January 2020. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://unite.ad/blog/2020-instagram-influencer-marketing-trendleri/
  • Adba Analytics. 2020. “Koronavirüs Sosyal Medyaya Nasıl Yansıdı?” Last modified April 21, 2020. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.adbaanalytics.com/inova_portfolio/covid-19-dijital-mecralar-analizi/ Akyazı, Ayşenur. 2019. “Mahremiyetin Dönüşümü: Ünlülerin Instagram Paylaşımları Üzerine Bir Araştırma” Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences 18 (1): 197-216. https://doi.org/10.21547/jss.431086.
  • Alatas, Vivi, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Markus Mobius, Benjamin A. Olken and Cindy Paladines. 2019. “When Celebrities Speak: A Nationwide Twitter Experiment Promoting Vaccination In Indonesia.” Nber Working Paper Series, Accessed, September 3, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w25589/w25589.pdf
  • Aslan, Alev and Derya Ünlü Gül. 2016. “Instagram Fenomenleri ve Reklam İlişkisi: Instagram Fenomenlerinin Gözünden Bir Değerlendirme” Maltepe Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi 3 (2): 41-65.
  • Austin, John Langshaw. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Baki, Adnan and Tuba Gökçek. 2012. "Karma Yöntem Araştırmalarına Genel Bir Bakış." Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 11(42): 1-21. ISSN: 1304-0278 / 1304-0278.
  • Baltacı, Ali. 2019. “Nitel Araştırma Süreci: Nitel Bir Araştırma Nasıl Yapılır?” Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (2): 368-388. 10.31592/aeusbed.598299.
  • Ballantine, W. Paul and S. A. Brett Martin. 2005. “Forming Parasocial Relationships in Online Communities” Advances in Consumer Research (32): 197-201.
  • BCU Digital. 2021. “Micro-Influencer ve Macro Influencer Nedir?” Last modified September, 3, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.bcudigital.com/micro-influencer-ve-macro-influencer-nedir/.
  • Beck, S. Christina. 2014. “Blurring Personal Health and Public Priorities: An Analysis of Celebrity Health Narratives in the Public Sphere”. Health Communication 29 (3): 244-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2012.741668 PMID: 23548050.
  • Berne-Manero, Carmen and Mercedes Marzo-Navarro. 2020. “Exploring How Influencer and Relationship Marketing Serve Corporate Sustainability” Sustainability 12 (4392): 1-19. 10.3390/su12114392.
  • Bishop, Katie. 2020. The Pandemic and The Influencer: Will the Lifestyle Survive Coronavirus?” The Guardian, May 2, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2020/may/02/influencers-coronavirus-future-income-marketing-lifestyle.
  • Boerman, C. Sophie. 2020. “The Effects of Standardized Instagram Diclosure For Micro And Meso Influencers” Computers in Human Behavior (103): 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.09.015.
  • Boom Social. 2021. “Instagram | Fenomenler Sektörü Hesapları.” Last modified February 4, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.boomsocial.com/instagram/UlkeSektor/turkey/fenomenler
  • Borén, Thomas. 2020. “Governments and Social Media Influencers in Times of Crisis”, M.A. Thesis., Aalborg University. https://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/en/studentthesis/governments-and-social-media-influencers-in-times-of-crisis(e325777f-45f6-4d61-8777-15be0a80563c).html.
  • Brown, J. William and Micheal D. Basil. 1995. “Media Celebrities and Public Health: Responses to 'Magic' Johnson's HIV Disclosure and Its Impact on AIDS Risk And High-Risk Behaviors. Health Communication, 7 (4): 345-370. 10.1207/s15327027hc0704_4C.
  • Brown, J. William, Micheal D. Basil and Mihai C. Bocarnea. 2003. “The Influence of Famous Athletes on Health Beliefs and Practices: Mark McGwire, Child Abuse Prevention, And Androstenedione” Journal of Health Communication, (8): 41–57. 10.1080/10810730305733.
  • Brown, J. William and Benson P. Fraser. 2004. “Celebrity Idenfication.” In Entertainment-Education: and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice, edited by Arvind Singhal, Micheal J. Cody, Everett M Rogers, Miguel Sabido, 97-111. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Press.
  • Campaign Türkiye. 2020. “Trendyol’dan “Süper İndirim Günleri’ne Özel Reklam Filmi Serisi.” Last modified November 10, 2020. Accessed January 28 2021. https://www.campaigntr.com/trendyoldan-super-indirim-gunlerine-ozel-reklam-filmi-serisi/
  • Cheney, George. 1983. “The Rhetoric of Identification And The Study of Organizational Communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech., 69 (2): 143–158.
  • Christodoulaki, Almperta. 2018. “The Effects of Micro vs Macro Influencers on Brand Awareness, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention, and the Moderating Role of Advertising Appeals.” M.A. Thesis, University of Amsterdam. https://docplayer.net/142524584-Running-head-the-effects-of-micro-vs-macro-influencers-1.html.
  • CNN Turk. 2020. “İşte Koronavirüse Karşı Gece Gündüz Demeden Çalışan 26 Bilim Kurulu Üyesi” Last modified March 27 2020, Accessed January 27 2021 https://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/iste-koronaviruse-karsi-gece-gunduz-demeden-calisan-26-bilim-kurulu-uyesi.
  • Coelho, Rita Magalhães Moreira. 2019. “The Influencer Marketing :The Impact of the Number of Followers on Influencer’s Likability for Young Instagram Users.” M.A. Thesis, The Catholic University of Portugal. https://repositorio.ucp.pt/handle/10400.14/28568.
  • Cretor Den, 2019. “2019 Genel Bakış”, Accessed Februrary 6, 2021. https://creatorden.com/2019da-influencer-marketingde-neler-oldu/
  • Daily Sabah. 2020. “Turkey to Shut Down Social Spaces: Cafes, Theaters, Gyms Vacated Amid Virus Fears.” Last modified March 16, 2020. Accessed January 28, 2021. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/turkey-to-shut-down-social-spaces-cafes-theaters-gyms-vacated-amid-virus-fears/news.
  • Dhanesh, Ganga and Gaelle Duthler. 2019. “Relationship Management Through Social Media Influencers: Effects of Followers’ Awareness Of Paid Endorsement.” Public Relations Review 45 (3): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.03.002.
  • Donald, Horton and Richard Wohl. 1956. “Mass Communication and Para-Social Interaction. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 19(3): 215–229. 10.1080/00332747.1956.11023049
  • Ducharme, Jamie. 2020. “How to Soothe Your 'Re-Entry Anxiety' As COVID-19 Lockdowns Lift.” Time, June, 11, 2020. https://time.com/5850143/covid-19-re-entry-anxiety/. Elli, Diza Maria. 2017. “The Phenomenon and Rise of Influencer Marketing and How it Affects Customer Opinion and Helps or Damages Brands.” M.A. Thesis, The International Hellenic University. https://lk.tc/ass8x.
  • Elmacıoğlu, Lale. 2020. “Koronavirüs Tecridi Sosyal Medya Influencerlarını Nasıl Etkiledi?” Independent Turkey, March 22, 2020. https://lk.tc/hwtau.
  • Francisco, Evelina, Nadira Fardos, Aakash Bhatt and Gulhan Bizel. 2021. “Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Instagram and Influencer Marketing.” International Journal of Marketing Studies 13 (2): 20-35. 10.5539/ijms.v13n2p20
  • Fraser, P. Benson and William J. Brown. 2002. “Media, Celebrities, and Social Influence: Identification with Elvis Presley.” Mass Communication & Society 5 (2): 183–206. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0502_5.
  • Fuchs, Christian. 2020. “Everyday Life and Everyday Communication in Coronavirus Capitalism.” TripleC 18 (1): 375-399. https://doi.org/10.31269/triplec.v18i1.1167.
  • Gilliland, Nikki. 2020. “How the Influencer Marketing Industry Is Adapting to Coronavirus.” Econsultancy, April 2, 2020. https://econsultancy.com/how-the-influencer-marketing-industry-is-adapting-to-coronavirus/.
  • Guruge, Miyuru C. B. 2018. “Comparison Between Attributes Related to Celebrity Endorsement and Social Media Influencer Marketing: a Conceptual Review.” Sri Lanka Journal of Marketing 4 (1):17-37. http://fcms.kln.ac.lk/dep/dmm/images/SLJM/4-1/M.C.B.-Guruge---Online-Publish.pdf.
  • Haleem, Abid, Mohd Javaid and Raju Vaishya. 2018. “Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic in Daily Life.” Current Medicine Research and Practice 10 (2): 78-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011
  • Hartmann, Tilo and Charlotte Goldhoorn. 2011. “Horton and Wohl Revisited: Exploring Viewers’ Experience of Parasocial Interaction.” Journal of Communication (61): 1104–1121. 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01595.x.
  • Hughes,Christian, Vanitha Swaminathan and Gillian Brooks. 2019. “Driving Brand Engagement Through Online Social Influencers: an Empirical Investigation of Sponsored Blogging Campaigns.” Journal of Marketing 83 (5): 1-9.
  • Hurd, Nora. 2018. “Instagram Users’ Meaning Construction Through Micro-Influencer-Generated Content.” M.A. Thesis., Tampere University. https://trepo.tuni.fi/handle/10024/117332.
  • Jackson, J. David. 2018. “The Effects of Celebrity Endorsements of Ideas and Presidential Candidates.” Journal of Political Marketing 17 (4): 301-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2018.1501530.
  • Jackson, David and Thomas Darrow. 2005. “The Influence of Celebrity Endorsements on Young Adults’ Political Opinions.” The International Journal of Press/Politics 10 (3): 80-98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1081180X05279278.
  • Jin, Venus, Aziz Muqaddam and Ehri Ryu. 2019. “Instafamous and Social MediaInfluencer Marketing.” Marketing Intelligence & Planning (37) 5: 567-579. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-09-2018-0375.
  • Jones, C. S. Louise Waters, Omnia Holland, John Bevins and Don Iverson, 2010. “Developing pandemic communication strategies: Preparation without panic.” Journal of Business Research (63) :126–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.009. Karanikolova, Monika. 2019. “Fashion Influencers Decoded: The Role of Social Media Influencers In Luxury Fashion Houses Development, Marketing and PR Strategies.” Master Thesis., Sapienza University.
  • Kay, Samantha, Rory Mulcahy and Joy Parkinson. 2020. “When Less Is More: The Impact of Macro and Micro Social Media Influencers’ Disclosure.” Journal of Marketing Management 36 (3-4): 239-278. 10.1080/0267257X.2020.1718740.
  • Kırık, Ali Murat and Vahdet Özkoçak. 2020. “Yeni Dünya Düzeni Bağlamında Sosyal Medya ve Yeni Koronavirüs (Covid19) Pandemisi.” The Journal of Social Sciences 7 (45): 133-154. 10.29228/sobider.43146.
  • Kosenko, A. Kami, Andrew R. and Ryan Hurley. 2016. “Celebrity Influence and Identification: A Test of The Angelina Effect.” Journal of Health Communication (21): 318-326. 10.1080/10810730.2015.1064498.
  • Krippendorff, K. 2011. “Computing Krippendorff's Alpha-Reliability. The Basics of Communication Research.” Cengage Learning. https://www.polcomm.org/wp-content/uploads/ICR01022012.pdf.
  • Launch Metrics. 2020. The State of Influencer Marketing Report. https://www.launchmetrics.com/landing/influencer-marketing-report-2020 Accessed September, 3, 2021.
  • Limaye, Jayant Rupali, Molly Sauer, Joseph Ali, Justin Bernstein, Brian Wahl, Anne Barnhill and Alain Labrique. 2020. “Building Trust While Influencing Online COVID-19 Content In The Social Media World.” The Lancet Digital Health 2 (6): 277-278. 10.1016/s2589-7500(20)30084-4.
  • Lin, Leesa, Rachel F. McCloud, Cabral A. Bigman and Kasisomayajula Viswanath. 2017. “Tuning in And Catching on? Examining the Relationship Between Pandemic Communication and Awareness and Knowledge of MERS in the USA.” Journal of Public Health 39 (2): 282–289. 10.1093/pubmed/fdw028.
  • Lin Chen-Hsin, Patrick F. Bruning and Hepsi Swarna. 2018. “Using Online Opinion Leaders to Promote The Hedonic and Utilitarian Value of Products and Services.” Business Horizons 61 (3): 431-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2018.01.010.
  • Longstaff, H.P. and Sung-Un Yang. 2008. “Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to “Surprises” Such as Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, And Terrorism.” Ecology and Society 13 (1): 1-15.
  • Lorenz, Taylor. 2020. “Flight of the Influencers.”, NY Times. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/02/style/influencers-leave-new-york-coronavirus.html.
  • Lorimer, Rowland. 2002. “Mass Communication: Some Redefinitional Notes.” Canadian Journal of Communication (27): 63-72. 10.22230/cjc.2002v27n1a1272.
  • Mahajan, Rajendra. 2015. “The Key Role of Communication Skills in the Life of Professionals.” Journal of Humanities and Social Science 20 (12): 36-39. 10.9790/0837-201223639.
  • Marketing Hub. 2019. “The State of Influencer Marketing 2019: Benchmark Report.” Last modified 14 February, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://influencermarketinghub.com/influencer-marketing-2019-benchmark-report/
  • Marketing Türkiye. 2020. “Koronavirüs Döneminde Sosyal Medya ve Influencer pazarlama çalışmaları arttı.”. Accessed January 30, 2020. https://www.marketingturkiye.com.tr/haberler/pandemi-doneminde-sosyal-medya-ve-influencer-pazarlama-calismalari-artti/
  • Marra, Annachiara, Buonanno Pasquale, Vargas Maria, Iacovazzo Carmine, Ely Wesley Eugene, and Servillo Giuseppe. 2020. “How COVID-19 Pandemic Changed Our Communication with Families: Losing Nonverbal Cues.” Critical Care 24 (297): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03035-w.
  • Mason, Andrew, John Narcum and Kevin Mason. 2021. “Social Media Marketing Gains Importance After Covid-19.” Cogent Business & Management 8 (1) :1-17.
  • McKernan, Bethan. 2020. “Turkey Announces Its First Case of Coronavirus.” The Guardian. March 11, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/11/turkey-announces-its-first-case-of-coronavirus.
  • Nguyen, Ha My. 2020. “The Impact of Influencer Marketing in Vietnamese Customer’s Perceptions.” Bachelor Thesis., Vaasan Ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Science. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk-202002021919
  • Nouri, Melody. 2018. “The Power of Influence: Traditional Celebrity vs Social Media Influencer.” Advanced Writing: Pop Culture Intersections, (32): 1-20. https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/engl_176/32/
  • Obviously. 2020. “The Impact of Coronavirus on Influencer Marketing” Accessed June 2021. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5b1f2ba0b40b9d244893933e/t/5e83608cc927de74e8d5d298/1585668329525/Trends+Report+The+Impact+of+Coronavirus+on+Influencer+Marketing+Obviously.pdf
  • Ogilvy Agency. 2020. “Influencing is Our New Reality”, Accessed February 6, 2021. https://www.ogilvy.com/sites/g/files/dhpsjz106/files/pdfdocuments/Conversations%20that%20Matter%20-%20Influencing%20our%20New%20Reality.pdf
  • Özpınar, Baygüş Şaha and Gülşah Aydın. 2020. “Kriz İletişiminde İnfografik Kullanımı: Covid 19 Pandemi Sürecinde İnfografikler Üzerine Bir İnceleme.” İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Covid 19 Special Issue): 240-261.
  • Pan American Health Organization. 2009. “Creating a Communication Strategy for Pandemic Influenza”. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2010/PAHO_CommStrategy_Eng.pdf
  • Plus. 2019. “Denebunu 2019 Ödülleri Sahiplerini Buldu”. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.plusdergisi.com/denebunu-2019-odulleri-sahiplerini-buldu/
  • Podschuweit, Nicole. 2017. “Interpersonal Communication: Media Influence on.” The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects, 1–12. 10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0137
  • Potter, J. M. 2009. Arguing for a Genaral Framework for Mass Media Scholarship. California: SAGE Public.
  • Reitere, Sarma. 2020. “What Social Media Platforms are Doing to Help During the Coronavirus.” Accessed January 31 2021. https://www.socialbakers.com/blog/social-media-platforms-during-coronavirus
  • Romana, Andò. 2016. “The Ordinary Celebrity: Italian Young Vloggers and the Definition Of Girlhood.” Film, Fashion & Consumption 5 (1): 123–139. 10.1386/ffc.5.1.123_1
  • Sarıtaş, Ayşe. 2018. “Sosyal Medya Reklamlarında Fenomen Kullanımı ve Reklam İzleme Tercihi.” The Journal of International Scientific Researches 3 (4): 62-74. https://doi.org/10.23834/isrjournal.473169.
  • Shiromani, Gupta and Rachna Mahajan. 2019. “Role of Micro-Influencers in Affecting Behavioural Intentions.” International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 8 (5): 189-192. 10.35940/ijrte.D1045.1284S519.
  • Social Bakers. 2020. “State of Influencer Marketing Report: Effects of Coronavirus”. Accessed January 31 2021. https://www.socialbakers.com/blog/influencer-marketing-report
  • Solak, Bahadır Burak. 2016. “Televizyon Reklamlarında Ünlü Kullanımının Satın Alma Davranışı Üzerine Etkisi: Akdeniz Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Öğrencilerine Yönelik Bir Araştırma.” Gumushane University E-Journal of Faculty of Communication 4 (1): 253-178. https://doi.org/10.19145/guifd.84587.
  • Statista. 2020a. “Number and Change of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Cases and Deaths Among the Most Impacted Countries Worldwide as of February 1, 2021.” Accessed September 3, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1105264/coronavirus-covid-19-cases-most-affected-countries-worldwide/
  • Statista. 2020b. “Share of Adults in the United States Who Have Used Digital Communication Services to Connect with Others During the Coronavirus Outbreak as of March 2020.” Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.statista.com/statistics/1108828/usa-coronavirus-digital-communications-usage/ .
  • Stemler, Steve. 2001. “An Overview of Content Analysis.” Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation: 7 (17): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.7275/z6fm-2e34.
  • Suciu, Peter. 2020. “Social Media Health Influencers Continue to Be Resource During Covid-19 Pandemic.” Forbes, Jul 16, 2020. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petersuciu/2020/07/16/social-media-health-influencers-continue-to-be-resource-during-covid-19-pandemic/#1b7fa93d1462
  • Thomas, Richard. 2006. Health Communication. Berlin: Springer Press. United. Ad. 2020. “COVID-19 X Influencer Marketing”, Accessed 27 January 2021, https://unite.ad/files/Covid-19XInfluencerMarketing.pdf We Are Social. 2020. “2020 Türkiye İnternet Kullanımı ve Sosyal Medya İstatistikleri”. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://dijilopedi.com/2020-turkiye-internet-kullanimi-ve-sosyal-medya-istatistikleri/.
  • Wen, Nainan. 2017. “Celebrity Influence and Young People’s Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery in Singapore: The Role of Parasocial Relationships And Identification.” International Journal of Communication (11): 1234–1252.
  • Wen, Tiffanie. 2020. “Our Relationship with Voice and Video Chat is Changing in the Covid-19 Era. How Should Those Who Dislike Phone and Video Chat Handle the Influx of Calls?.” BBC, April 9, 2020. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200408-coronavirus-how-lockdown-helps-those-who-fear-the-phone. WHO. “Archived: WHO Timeline–COVID-19”. Accessed Nov 4, 2021 https://www.who.int/news/item/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19
  • Vaughan, Elaine and Timothy Tinker. 2009. “Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations.” American Journal of Public Health 2 (99): 323-334. 10.2105/AJPH.2009.162537
  • Velentaz, John and Georgia Broni. 2014. “Communication Cycle: Definition, Process, Models and Examples.” In Recent Advances in Financial Planning and Product Development. Edited by Josef Börcsök, Micheal Schwarz, İstanbul: WSEAS Press, 117-131.
  • Yaylagül, Şinasi. 2017. “Sosyal Medya Fenomenlerine Bağlanmışlığın Belirlenmesi: Yükseköğretim Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir Uygulama.” Adnan Menderes University, Journal of Institute of Social Sciences 4 (3): 219-235. https://doi.org/10.30803/adusobed.349934.
  • Yavuz, Kübra. 2020. “Effects of COVID 19 Pandemic on the Future of Social Policy.” The Journal of Social Sciences 7 (45): 181-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/SOBIDER.42843. Youtube. 2021. “Head&Shoulders Reklam Çekimi Vlog. (Kaç Saat Sürdü İnanamadım)” filmed at January 2021 at YouTube, İstanbul. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cg0aqMSTyyQ&feature=youtu.be.
  • Zikmund, William, Barry J. Babin, B. J Jon C. Carr and Mitch Griffin. 2003. “Research Methods.” Health Economics Research Method (2). https://lk.tc/YJhjU.

The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts

Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset, 149 - 178, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037992

Öz

Communicating during a pandemic is as difficult as fighting it. Social media influencers have become role models in the pandemic due to the guiding nature of social media. The aim of this study is to analyze how micro-celebrities on Instagram, one of the most preferred social networks in Turkey, carry out their COVID-19-related content and how they communicate through Instagram during the pandemic. The conceptual framework of based on “Celebrity Influence Model”, the top 10 micro-celebrities posts were examined. Results show that 68.4% of the posts are related to COVID-19; their sponsored posts were decreased; they mostly preferred a “humorous” tone in their messages, they preferred their posts as “indoors”, and the most shared topic is “lifestyle”. “Fun” is the most used value by micro-influencers. The primary role they assumed was “entertainer”. It has been observed that micro-celebrities aim to inform, warn, direct and even develop positive behavioral changes by raising awareness on issues, such as staying at home, complying with social distance rules and wearing masks.

Kaynakça

  • Abidin, Crystal and Ots Marts. 2016. “Influencers Tell All? Unravelling Authenticity and Credibility in a Brand Scandal.” In Blurring the Lines, edited by Maria Edström, Andrew, T. Kenyon and Eva-Maria Svensson, 151-163. Göteborg: Nordicom Press. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1051578/FULLTEXT01.pdf#page=155.
  • Abraham, Thomas. 2011. “Lessons from The Pandemic: The Need for New Tools for Risk and Outbreak Communication.” Emerging Health Threats Journal 4 (1): 1-4. 10.3402/ ehtj.v4i0.7160.
  • Acar, Arman. 2020. “United Ad 2020 Influencer Marketing Trendleri.” Last modified 15 January 2020. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://unite.ad/blog/2020-instagram-influencer-marketing-trendleri/
  • Adba Analytics. 2020. “Koronavirüs Sosyal Medyaya Nasıl Yansıdı?” Last modified April 21, 2020. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.adbaanalytics.com/inova_portfolio/covid-19-dijital-mecralar-analizi/ Akyazı, Ayşenur. 2019. “Mahremiyetin Dönüşümü: Ünlülerin Instagram Paylaşımları Üzerine Bir Araştırma” Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences 18 (1): 197-216. https://doi.org/10.21547/jss.431086.
  • Alatas, Vivi, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Markus Mobius, Benjamin A. Olken and Cindy Paladines. 2019. “When Celebrities Speak: A Nationwide Twitter Experiment Promoting Vaccination In Indonesia.” Nber Working Paper Series, Accessed, September 3, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w25589/w25589.pdf
  • Aslan, Alev and Derya Ünlü Gül. 2016. “Instagram Fenomenleri ve Reklam İlişkisi: Instagram Fenomenlerinin Gözünden Bir Değerlendirme” Maltepe Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Dergisi 3 (2): 41-65.
  • Austin, John Langshaw. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Baki, Adnan and Tuba Gökçek. 2012. "Karma Yöntem Araştırmalarına Genel Bir Bakış." Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 11(42): 1-21. ISSN: 1304-0278 / 1304-0278.
  • Baltacı, Ali. 2019. “Nitel Araştırma Süreci: Nitel Bir Araştırma Nasıl Yapılır?” Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (2): 368-388. 10.31592/aeusbed.598299.
  • Ballantine, W. Paul and S. A. Brett Martin. 2005. “Forming Parasocial Relationships in Online Communities” Advances in Consumer Research (32): 197-201.
  • BCU Digital. 2021. “Micro-Influencer ve Macro Influencer Nedir?” Last modified September, 3, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.bcudigital.com/micro-influencer-ve-macro-influencer-nedir/.
  • Beck, S. Christina. 2014. “Blurring Personal Health and Public Priorities: An Analysis of Celebrity Health Narratives in the Public Sphere”. Health Communication 29 (3): 244-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2012.741668 PMID: 23548050.
  • Berne-Manero, Carmen and Mercedes Marzo-Navarro. 2020. “Exploring How Influencer and Relationship Marketing Serve Corporate Sustainability” Sustainability 12 (4392): 1-19. 10.3390/su12114392.
  • Bishop, Katie. 2020. The Pandemic and The Influencer: Will the Lifestyle Survive Coronavirus?” The Guardian, May 2, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2020/may/02/influencers-coronavirus-future-income-marketing-lifestyle.
  • Boerman, C. Sophie. 2020. “The Effects of Standardized Instagram Diclosure For Micro And Meso Influencers” Computers in Human Behavior (103): 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.09.015.
  • Boom Social. 2021. “Instagram | Fenomenler Sektörü Hesapları.” Last modified February 4, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.boomsocial.com/instagram/UlkeSektor/turkey/fenomenler
  • Borén, Thomas. 2020. “Governments and Social Media Influencers in Times of Crisis”, M.A. Thesis., Aalborg University. https://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/en/studentthesis/governments-and-social-media-influencers-in-times-of-crisis(e325777f-45f6-4d61-8777-15be0a80563c).html.
  • Brown, J. William and Micheal D. Basil. 1995. “Media Celebrities and Public Health: Responses to 'Magic' Johnson's HIV Disclosure and Its Impact on AIDS Risk And High-Risk Behaviors. Health Communication, 7 (4): 345-370. 10.1207/s15327027hc0704_4C.
  • Brown, J. William, Micheal D. Basil and Mihai C. Bocarnea. 2003. “The Influence of Famous Athletes on Health Beliefs and Practices: Mark McGwire, Child Abuse Prevention, And Androstenedione” Journal of Health Communication, (8): 41–57. 10.1080/10810730305733.
  • Brown, J. William and Benson P. Fraser. 2004. “Celebrity Idenfication.” In Entertainment-Education: and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice, edited by Arvind Singhal, Micheal J. Cody, Everett M Rogers, Miguel Sabido, 97-111. New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Press.
  • Campaign Türkiye. 2020. “Trendyol’dan “Süper İndirim Günleri’ne Özel Reklam Filmi Serisi.” Last modified November 10, 2020. Accessed January 28 2021. https://www.campaigntr.com/trendyoldan-super-indirim-gunlerine-ozel-reklam-filmi-serisi/
  • Cheney, George. 1983. “The Rhetoric of Identification And The Study of Organizational Communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech., 69 (2): 143–158.
  • Christodoulaki, Almperta. 2018. “The Effects of Micro vs Macro Influencers on Brand Awareness, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention, and the Moderating Role of Advertising Appeals.” M.A. Thesis, University of Amsterdam. https://docplayer.net/142524584-Running-head-the-effects-of-micro-vs-macro-influencers-1.html.
  • CNN Turk. 2020. “İşte Koronavirüse Karşı Gece Gündüz Demeden Çalışan 26 Bilim Kurulu Üyesi” Last modified March 27 2020, Accessed January 27 2021 https://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/iste-koronaviruse-karsi-gece-gunduz-demeden-calisan-26-bilim-kurulu-uyesi.
  • Coelho, Rita Magalhães Moreira. 2019. “The Influencer Marketing :The Impact of the Number of Followers on Influencer’s Likability for Young Instagram Users.” M.A. Thesis, The Catholic University of Portugal. https://repositorio.ucp.pt/handle/10400.14/28568.
  • Cretor Den, 2019. “2019 Genel Bakış”, Accessed Februrary 6, 2021. https://creatorden.com/2019da-influencer-marketingde-neler-oldu/
  • Daily Sabah. 2020. “Turkey to Shut Down Social Spaces: Cafes, Theaters, Gyms Vacated Amid Virus Fears.” Last modified March 16, 2020. Accessed January 28, 2021. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/turkey-to-shut-down-social-spaces-cafes-theaters-gyms-vacated-amid-virus-fears/news.
  • Dhanesh, Ganga and Gaelle Duthler. 2019. “Relationship Management Through Social Media Influencers: Effects of Followers’ Awareness Of Paid Endorsement.” Public Relations Review 45 (3): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.03.002.
  • Donald, Horton and Richard Wohl. 1956. “Mass Communication and Para-Social Interaction. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 19(3): 215–229. 10.1080/00332747.1956.11023049
  • Ducharme, Jamie. 2020. “How to Soothe Your 'Re-Entry Anxiety' As COVID-19 Lockdowns Lift.” Time, June, 11, 2020. https://time.com/5850143/covid-19-re-entry-anxiety/. Elli, Diza Maria. 2017. “The Phenomenon and Rise of Influencer Marketing and How it Affects Customer Opinion and Helps or Damages Brands.” M.A. Thesis, The International Hellenic University. https://lk.tc/ass8x.
  • Elmacıoğlu, Lale. 2020. “Koronavirüs Tecridi Sosyal Medya Influencerlarını Nasıl Etkiledi?” Independent Turkey, March 22, 2020. https://lk.tc/hwtau.
  • Francisco, Evelina, Nadira Fardos, Aakash Bhatt and Gulhan Bizel. 2021. “Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Instagram and Influencer Marketing.” International Journal of Marketing Studies 13 (2): 20-35. 10.5539/ijms.v13n2p20
  • Fraser, P. Benson and William J. Brown. 2002. “Media, Celebrities, and Social Influence: Identification with Elvis Presley.” Mass Communication & Society 5 (2): 183–206. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0502_5.
  • Fuchs, Christian. 2020. “Everyday Life and Everyday Communication in Coronavirus Capitalism.” TripleC 18 (1): 375-399. https://doi.org/10.31269/triplec.v18i1.1167.
  • Gilliland, Nikki. 2020. “How the Influencer Marketing Industry Is Adapting to Coronavirus.” Econsultancy, April 2, 2020. https://econsultancy.com/how-the-influencer-marketing-industry-is-adapting-to-coronavirus/.
  • Guruge, Miyuru C. B. 2018. “Comparison Between Attributes Related to Celebrity Endorsement and Social Media Influencer Marketing: a Conceptual Review.” Sri Lanka Journal of Marketing 4 (1):17-37. http://fcms.kln.ac.lk/dep/dmm/images/SLJM/4-1/M.C.B.-Guruge---Online-Publish.pdf.
  • Haleem, Abid, Mohd Javaid and Raju Vaishya. 2018. “Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic in Daily Life.” Current Medicine Research and Practice 10 (2): 78-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011
  • Hartmann, Tilo and Charlotte Goldhoorn. 2011. “Horton and Wohl Revisited: Exploring Viewers’ Experience of Parasocial Interaction.” Journal of Communication (61): 1104–1121. 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01595.x.
  • Hughes,Christian, Vanitha Swaminathan and Gillian Brooks. 2019. “Driving Brand Engagement Through Online Social Influencers: an Empirical Investigation of Sponsored Blogging Campaigns.” Journal of Marketing 83 (5): 1-9.
  • Hurd, Nora. 2018. “Instagram Users’ Meaning Construction Through Micro-Influencer-Generated Content.” M.A. Thesis., Tampere University. https://trepo.tuni.fi/handle/10024/117332.
  • Jackson, J. David. 2018. “The Effects of Celebrity Endorsements of Ideas and Presidential Candidates.” Journal of Political Marketing 17 (4): 301-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2018.1501530.
  • Jackson, David and Thomas Darrow. 2005. “The Influence of Celebrity Endorsements on Young Adults’ Political Opinions.” The International Journal of Press/Politics 10 (3): 80-98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1081180X05279278.
  • Jin, Venus, Aziz Muqaddam and Ehri Ryu. 2019. “Instafamous and Social MediaInfluencer Marketing.” Marketing Intelligence & Planning (37) 5: 567-579. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-09-2018-0375.
  • Jones, C. S. Louise Waters, Omnia Holland, John Bevins and Don Iverson, 2010. “Developing pandemic communication strategies: Preparation without panic.” Journal of Business Research (63) :126–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.009. Karanikolova, Monika. 2019. “Fashion Influencers Decoded: The Role of Social Media Influencers In Luxury Fashion Houses Development, Marketing and PR Strategies.” Master Thesis., Sapienza University.
  • Kay, Samantha, Rory Mulcahy and Joy Parkinson. 2020. “When Less Is More: The Impact of Macro and Micro Social Media Influencers’ Disclosure.” Journal of Marketing Management 36 (3-4): 239-278. 10.1080/0267257X.2020.1718740.
  • Kırık, Ali Murat and Vahdet Özkoçak. 2020. “Yeni Dünya Düzeni Bağlamında Sosyal Medya ve Yeni Koronavirüs (Covid19) Pandemisi.” The Journal of Social Sciences 7 (45): 133-154. 10.29228/sobider.43146.
  • Kosenko, A. Kami, Andrew R. and Ryan Hurley. 2016. “Celebrity Influence and Identification: A Test of The Angelina Effect.” Journal of Health Communication (21): 318-326. 10.1080/10810730.2015.1064498.
  • Krippendorff, K. 2011. “Computing Krippendorff's Alpha-Reliability. The Basics of Communication Research.” Cengage Learning. https://www.polcomm.org/wp-content/uploads/ICR01022012.pdf.
  • Launch Metrics. 2020. The State of Influencer Marketing Report. https://www.launchmetrics.com/landing/influencer-marketing-report-2020 Accessed September, 3, 2021.
  • Limaye, Jayant Rupali, Molly Sauer, Joseph Ali, Justin Bernstein, Brian Wahl, Anne Barnhill and Alain Labrique. 2020. “Building Trust While Influencing Online COVID-19 Content In The Social Media World.” The Lancet Digital Health 2 (6): 277-278. 10.1016/s2589-7500(20)30084-4.
  • Lin, Leesa, Rachel F. McCloud, Cabral A. Bigman and Kasisomayajula Viswanath. 2017. “Tuning in And Catching on? Examining the Relationship Between Pandemic Communication and Awareness and Knowledge of MERS in the USA.” Journal of Public Health 39 (2): 282–289. 10.1093/pubmed/fdw028.
  • Lin Chen-Hsin, Patrick F. Bruning and Hepsi Swarna. 2018. “Using Online Opinion Leaders to Promote The Hedonic and Utilitarian Value of Products and Services.” Business Horizons 61 (3): 431-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2018.01.010.
  • Longstaff, H.P. and Sung-Un Yang. 2008. “Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to “Surprises” Such as Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, And Terrorism.” Ecology and Society 13 (1): 1-15.
  • Lorenz, Taylor. 2020. “Flight of the Influencers.”, NY Times. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/02/style/influencers-leave-new-york-coronavirus.html.
  • Lorimer, Rowland. 2002. “Mass Communication: Some Redefinitional Notes.” Canadian Journal of Communication (27): 63-72. 10.22230/cjc.2002v27n1a1272.
  • Mahajan, Rajendra. 2015. “The Key Role of Communication Skills in the Life of Professionals.” Journal of Humanities and Social Science 20 (12): 36-39. 10.9790/0837-201223639.
  • Marketing Hub. 2019. “The State of Influencer Marketing 2019: Benchmark Report.” Last modified 14 February, 2021. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://influencermarketinghub.com/influencer-marketing-2019-benchmark-report/
  • Marketing Türkiye. 2020. “Koronavirüs Döneminde Sosyal Medya ve Influencer pazarlama çalışmaları arttı.”. Accessed January 30, 2020. https://www.marketingturkiye.com.tr/haberler/pandemi-doneminde-sosyal-medya-ve-influencer-pazarlama-calismalari-artti/
  • Marra, Annachiara, Buonanno Pasquale, Vargas Maria, Iacovazzo Carmine, Ely Wesley Eugene, and Servillo Giuseppe. 2020. “How COVID-19 Pandemic Changed Our Communication with Families: Losing Nonverbal Cues.” Critical Care 24 (297): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03035-w.
  • Mason, Andrew, John Narcum and Kevin Mason. 2021. “Social Media Marketing Gains Importance After Covid-19.” Cogent Business & Management 8 (1) :1-17.
  • McKernan, Bethan. 2020. “Turkey Announces Its First Case of Coronavirus.” The Guardian. March 11, 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/11/turkey-announces-its-first-case-of-coronavirus.
  • Nguyen, Ha My. 2020. “The Impact of Influencer Marketing in Vietnamese Customer’s Perceptions.” Bachelor Thesis., Vaasan Ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Science. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk-202002021919
  • Nouri, Melody. 2018. “The Power of Influence: Traditional Celebrity vs Social Media Influencer.” Advanced Writing: Pop Culture Intersections, (32): 1-20. https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/engl_176/32/
  • Obviously. 2020. “The Impact of Coronavirus on Influencer Marketing” Accessed June 2021. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5b1f2ba0b40b9d244893933e/t/5e83608cc927de74e8d5d298/1585668329525/Trends+Report+The+Impact+of+Coronavirus+on+Influencer+Marketing+Obviously.pdf
  • Ogilvy Agency. 2020. “Influencing is Our New Reality”, Accessed February 6, 2021. https://www.ogilvy.com/sites/g/files/dhpsjz106/files/pdfdocuments/Conversations%20that%20Matter%20-%20Influencing%20our%20New%20Reality.pdf
  • Özpınar, Baygüş Şaha and Gülşah Aydın. 2020. “Kriz İletişiminde İnfografik Kullanımı: Covid 19 Pandemi Sürecinde İnfografikler Üzerine Bir İnceleme.” İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Covid 19 Special Issue): 240-261.
  • Pan American Health Organization. 2009. “Creating a Communication Strategy for Pandemic Influenza”. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2010/PAHO_CommStrategy_Eng.pdf
  • Plus. 2019. “Denebunu 2019 Ödülleri Sahiplerini Buldu”. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.plusdergisi.com/denebunu-2019-odulleri-sahiplerini-buldu/
  • Podschuweit, Nicole. 2017. “Interpersonal Communication: Media Influence on.” The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects, 1–12. 10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0137
  • Potter, J. M. 2009. Arguing for a Genaral Framework for Mass Media Scholarship. California: SAGE Public.
  • Reitere, Sarma. 2020. “What Social Media Platforms are Doing to Help During the Coronavirus.” Accessed January 31 2021. https://www.socialbakers.com/blog/social-media-platforms-during-coronavirus
  • Romana, Andò. 2016. “The Ordinary Celebrity: Italian Young Vloggers and the Definition Of Girlhood.” Film, Fashion & Consumption 5 (1): 123–139. 10.1386/ffc.5.1.123_1
  • Sarıtaş, Ayşe. 2018. “Sosyal Medya Reklamlarında Fenomen Kullanımı ve Reklam İzleme Tercihi.” The Journal of International Scientific Researches 3 (4): 62-74. https://doi.org/10.23834/isrjournal.473169.
  • Shiromani, Gupta and Rachna Mahajan. 2019. “Role of Micro-Influencers in Affecting Behavioural Intentions.” International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 8 (5): 189-192. 10.35940/ijrte.D1045.1284S519.
  • Social Bakers. 2020. “State of Influencer Marketing Report: Effects of Coronavirus”. Accessed January 31 2021. https://www.socialbakers.com/blog/influencer-marketing-report
  • Solak, Bahadır Burak. 2016. “Televizyon Reklamlarında Ünlü Kullanımının Satın Alma Davranışı Üzerine Etkisi: Akdeniz Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Öğrencilerine Yönelik Bir Araştırma.” Gumushane University E-Journal of Faculty of Communication 4 (1): 253-178. https://doi.org/10.19145/guifd.84587.
  • Statista. 2020a. “Number and Change of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Cases and Deaths Among the Most Impacted Countries Worldwide as of February 1, 2021.” Accessed September 3, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1105264/coronavirus-covid-19-cases-most-affected-countries-worldwide/
  • Statista. 2020b. “Share of Adults in the United States Who Have Used Digital Communication Services to Connect with Others During the Coronavirus Outbreak as of March 2020.” Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://www.statista.com/statistics/1108828/usa-coronavirus-digital-communications-usage/ .
  • Stemler, Steve. 2001. “An Overview of Content Analysis.” Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation: 7 (17): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.7275/z6fm-2e34.
  • Suciu, Peter. 2020. “Social Media Health Influencers Continue to Be Resource During Covid-19 Pandemic.” Forbes, Jul 16, 2020. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petersuciu/2020/07/16/social-media-health-influencers-continue-to-be-resource-during-covid-19-pandemic/#1b7fa93d1462
  • Thomas, Richard. 2006. Health Communication. Berlin: Springer Press. United. Ad. 2020. “COVID-19 X Influencer Marketing”, Accessed 27 January 2021, https://unite.ad/files/Covid-19XInfluencerMarketing.pdf We Are Social. 2020. “2020 Türkiye İnternet Kullanımı ve Sosyal Medya İstatistikleri”. Accessed date 3 December 2021 https://dijilopedi.com/2020-turkiye-internet-kullanimi-ve-sosyal-medya-istatistikleri/.
  • Wen, Nainan. 2017. “Celebrity Influence and Young People’s Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery in Singapore: The Role of Parasocial Relationships And Identification.” International Journal of Communication (11): 1234–1252.
  • Wen, Tiffanie. 2020. “Our Relationship with Voice and Video Chat is Changing in the Covid-19 Era. How Should Those Who Dislike Phone and Video Chat Handle the Influx of Calls?.” BBC, April 9, 2020. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200408-coronavirus-how-lockdown-helps-those-who-fear-the-phone. WHO. “Archived: WHO Timeline–COVID-19”. Accessed Nov 4, 2021 https://www.who.int/news/item/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19
  • Vaughan, Elaine and Timothy Tinker. 2009. “Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations.” American Journal of Public Health 2 (99): 323-334. 10.2105/AJPH.2009.162537
  • Velentaz, John and Georgia Broni. 2014. “Communication Cycle: Definition, Process, Models and Examples.” In Recent Advances in Financial Planning and Product Development. Edited by Josef Börcsök, Micheal Schwarz, İstanbul: WSEAS Press, 117-131.
  • Yaylagül, Şinasi. 2017. “Sosyal Medya Fenomenlerine Bağlanmışlığın Belirlenmesi: Yükseköğretim Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir Uygulama.” Adnan Menderes University, Journal of Institute of Social Sciences 4 (3): 219-235. https://doi.org/10.30803/adusobed.349934.
  • Yavuz, Kübra. 2020. “Effects of COVID 19 Pandemic on the Future of Social Policy.” The Journal of Social Sciences 7 (45): 181-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/SOBIDER.42843. Youtube. 2021. “Head&Shoulders Reklam Çekimi Vlog. (Kaç Saat Sürdü İnanamadım)” filmed at January 2021 at YouTube, İstanbul. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cg0aqMSTyyQ&feature=youtu.be.
  • Zikmund, William, Barry J. Babin, B. J Jon C. Carr and Mitch Griffin. 2003. “Research Methods.” Health Economics Research Method (2). https://lk.tc/YJhjU.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Özlem ALİKILIÇ Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
YAŞAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6311-2622
Türkiye


Asuman ÖZER Bu kişi benim
YAŞAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6597-6563
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ilef1037992, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi}, issn = {2148-7219}, eissn = {2458-9209}, address = {}, publisher = {Ankara Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {}, pages = {149 - 178}, doi = {10.24955/ilef.1037992}, title = {The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts}, key = {cite}, author = {Alikılıç, Özlem and Özer, Asuman} }
APA Alikılıç, Ö. & Özer, A. (2021). The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts . Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi , 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset , 149-178 . DOI: 10.24955/ilef.1037992
MLA Alikılıç, Ö. , Özer, A. "The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts" . Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi (2021 ): 149-178 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ilef/issue/67404/1037992>
Chicago Alikılıç, Ö. , Özer, A. "The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts". Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi (2021 ): 149-178
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts AU - Özlem Alikılıç , Asuman Özer Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.24955/ilef.1037992 DO - 10.24955/ilef.1037992 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 149 EP - 178 VL - IS - 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset SN - 2148-7219-2458-9209 M3 - doi: 10.24955/ilef.1037992 UR - https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037992 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts %A Özlem Alikılıç , Asuman Özer %T The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts %D 2021 %J Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi %P 2148-7219-2458-9209 %V %N 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset %R doi: 10.24955/ilef.1037992 %U 10.24955/ilef.1037992
ISNAD Alikılıç, Özlem , Özer, Asuman . "The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts". Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi / 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset (Aralık 2021): 149-178 . https://doi.org/10.24955/ilef.1037992
AMA Alikılıç Ö. , Özer A. The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2021; (2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset): 149-178.
Vancouver Alikılıç Ö. , Özer A. The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts. Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi. 2021; (2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset): 149-178.
IEEE Ö. Alikılıç ve A. Özer , "The Use of Celebrity Influence Model in Pandemic Communication: Examining Micro-Celebrities’ Instagram Accounts", Ankara Üniversitesi İlef Dergisi, sayı. 2021 Özel Sayı: 2. Uluslararası Dijital Çağda İletişim Sempozyumu, Süreklilikler ve Kesintiler: Kültürler, Pazarlar ve Siyaset, ss. 149-178, Ara. 2021, doi:10.24955/ilef.1037992