Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 221 - 239, 28.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Ahmad, F., Draz, M., Su, L., Ozturk, I., and Rauf, A. (2018). Tourism and environmental pollution: evidence from the one Belt One Road provinces of western China. Sustainability 10 (10), 3580.
  • Ahmad, F., Draz, M., Lijuan, S., and Rauf, A. (2019). Taking the bad with the good: The nexus between tourism and environmental degradation in the lower middle-income Southeast Asian economies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 233, 1240-1249.
  • Akadiri, S., Lasisi, T., Uzuner, G., and Akadiri, A. (2018). Examining the causal impacts of tourism, globalization, economic growth and carbon emissions in tourism island territories: Bootstrap panel granger causality analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–15.
  • Al-Mulali, U., Fereidouni, H., and Mohammed, A. (2015). The effect of tourism arrival on CO2 emissions from transportation sector. Anatolia, 26(2), 230-243.
  • Amzath, A. and Zhao, L. (2014). A study of the relationship between carbon emission and tourism development in Maldives. African Journal of Business Management, 8(20), 962-971.
  • Azam, M., Alam, M., and Hafeez, M., (2018). Effect of tourism on environmental pollution: Further evidence from Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Journal of Cleaner Production, 190, 330-338.
  • Becken, S., Jin, X., Zhang, C. and Gao, J. (2017). Urban air pollution in China: destination image and risk perceptions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25, 130-147.
  • Becken, S., and Simmons, D. G., (2002). Understanding energy consumption patterns of tourist attractions and activities in New Zealand. Tourism Management, 23 (4), 343-354.
  • Becken, S., Simmons, D. G., and Frampton, C., (2003). Energy use associated with different travel choices. Tourism Management, 24 (3), 267-277.
  • Breitung, J. (2000). The local power of some unit root tests for panel data. In Advances in Econometrics: Nonstationary Panels, Panel Cointegration, and Dynamic Panels; Baltagi, B.H., Ed.; JAI Press: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Volume 15, 161-178.
  • Breusch, T., and Pagan, A. (1980). The Lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification in econometrics. Review of Economic Studies 47(1), 239-254.
  • Brida, J. and Pereyra, J. (2009). Tourism taxation and environmental quality in a model with vertical differentiation. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 4(1), 45-62.
  • Bubb, A. (2017). Tourism, Growth and the Environment in Caribbean Small Island Developing States. Master’s Thesis, School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia.
  • Butler, R. (2000). Tourism and the environment: A geographical perspective. Tourism Geographies, 2(3), 337-358.
  • Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) Annual Statistical Report 2018.
  • Crippa, M., Oreggioni, G., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Lo Vullo, E., Solazzo, E., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Olivier, J.G.J., Vignati, E., (2019). Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries - 2019 Report, EUR 29849 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. https://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=booklet2019
  • Dixon, J., Hamilton, K., Pagiola, S., and Segnestam, L. (2001). Tourism and the Environment in the Caribbean: An Economic Framework. Environment Department working papers no. 80. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Dogan, E., Seker, F. and Bulbul, S. (2017). Investigating the impact of energy consumption, real GDP, tourism and trade on CO2 emissions by accounting for cross-sectional dependence: A panel study of OECD countries. Current Issues in Tourism, 20 (16), 1701-1719.
  • Fernandez, J., Garcia, P., and Pulido, J. (2019). Does environmental sustainability contribute to tourism growth? An analysis at the country level. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 309-319.
  • Gossling, S., (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environmental Change, 12(4): 283-302.
  • Granger, C. (2003). Some aspects of causal relationships. Journal of Econometrics, 112(1), 69-71.
  • Gricar, S. and Bojnec, S. (2019), Prices of short-stay accommodation: time series of a Eurozone country. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31 (12), 4500-4519.
  • Gunduz, L., and Hatemi-J., A. (2005). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey? Applied Economics Letters, 12, 499-504.
  • Holden, A. (2007). Environment and tourism, (2nd ed.). London and New York: Routledge Introductions in Environment Series.
  • Hoogendoorn, G., and Fitchett, J. (2018). Tourism and climate change. A review of threats and adaptation strategies for Africa. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(7), 742-759.
  • Jebli, M., Youssef, S., and Apergis, N. (2015) The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 (16), 12050-12061.
  • Kar, M., Nazlogluc, S., and Agr, H, (2010). Financial development and economic growth nexus in the MENA countries: Bootstrap panel granger causality analysis. Economic Modelling, 28, 685-693.
  • Katircioglu, S. (2014). International tourism, energy consumption, and environmental pollution: The case of Turkey. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, 36 (2), 180-187.
  • Kocak, E., Ulucak, R., and Ulucak. Z., (2020). The impact of tourism developments on CO2 emissions: An advanced panel data estimation. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 1-10.
  • Konya, L., (2006). Exports and growth: Granger causality analysis on OECD countries with a panel data approach. Economic Modelling. 23(6), 978-992.
  • Lee, J., and Brahmasrene, T. (2013). Investigating the influence of tourism on economic growth and carbon emissions: evidence from panel analysis of the European Union. Tourism Management. 38, 69-76.
  • Lenzen, M., Sun, Y., Faturay, F., Ting, Y., Geschke, A., and Malik, A. (2018). The carbon footprint of global tourism. Nature Climate Change, 8 (6), 522-528, Leon, C., Arana, J., and Hernandez Aleman, A. (2014). CO2 emissions and tourism in developed and less developed countries. Applied Economics Letters, 21(16), 1169-1173.
  • Mutinda, R., and Mayaka, M. (2012). Application of destination choice model: Factors influencing domestic tourists’ destination choice among residents of Nairobi, Kenya. Tourism Management, 33, 1593-1597.
  • Nepal, S., (2008). Tourism-induced rural energy consumption in the Annapurna region of Nepal. Tourism Management, 29(1), 89-100.
  • Nepal, R., Indra al Irsyad, M., and Nepal, S. (2019). Tourist arrivals, energy consumption and pollutant emissions in a developing economy–implications for sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 72(December 2018), 145–154.
  • Ouattara, O., Perez-Barahona, A. and Strobl, E. (2019). The dynamic interaction between tourism and environmental quality. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 21(2), 197-365.
  • Paramati, S., Shahbaz, M. and Alam, M. (2017). Does Tourism Degrade Environmental Quality? A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western European Union? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 50, 1-13.
  • Pesaran, M. (2004). General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels. Munich CESifo Group, CESifo Working Paper No. 1233.
  • Pesaran, M., (2006). Estimation and inference in large heterogeneous panels with multifactor error structure. Econometrica, 74, 967-1012.
  • Pesaran, M., Ullah, A., and Yamagata, T. (2008). A bias adjusted LM test of error cross-section independence. The Econometrics Journal, 11 (1), 105-127.
  • Pesaran, M., and Yamagata, T. (2008). Testing slope homogeneity in large panels. Journal of Econometrics, 142 (1), 50-93.
  • Pigram, J. J. (1980). Environmental implications of tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 7(4), 554-583.
  • Rasekhi, S., Karimi, S., and Mohammadi, S. (2016). Environmental impacts of tourism: A case study of selected developing and developed countries. The Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 5(16): 71-94.
  • Raza, S., Sharif, A., Wong, W., and Karim, M. (2017). Tourism development and environmental degradation in the United States: evidence from wavelet-based analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(16), 1768-17901.
  • Scott, D., Gossling, S., and Hall, C. (2012). International tourism and climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 3(3), 213-232.
  • Sharif, A., Afshan, S., and Nisha, N. (2017). Impact of tourism on CO2 emission: Evidence from Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22 (4), 408-421.
  • Solarin, S. (2014). Tourist arrivals and macroeconomic determinants of CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Anatolia, 25(2), 228-241.
  • Sompholkrang, M. (2014). Tourism expenditures and environment in Thailand. Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance, 2(2), 63-69.
  • Swamy, P. (1970). Efficient inference in a random coefficient regression model. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 38(2), 311-323.
  • Tekin, R. (2012). Economic growth, exports and foreign direct investment in Least Developed Countries: A panel Granger causality analysis, Economic Modelling, 29(3), 868-878.
  • Tovar, C. and Lockwood, M. (2008). Social impacts of tourism: An Australian regional case study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4),365-378.
  • Tugcu, C., and Topcu, M. (2018). The impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on tourism: Does the source of emission matter? Theoretical and Applied Economics, 25(614), 125-136.
  • World Tourism Organization (2018). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2018 Edition, UNWTO, Madrid. https://doi.org/10.18111/978928441987
  • World Tourism Organization (2007). Climate change and tourism: Responding to global challenges.http://sdt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/summarydavose.pdf
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). (2018). Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2018. Caribbean. http://www.wttc.org/research/economicimpact-research/regional-reports/caribbean/
  • Zaman, K., Khan, M., and Ahmad, M. (2011). Exploring the relationship between tourism development indicators and carbon emissions: A case study of Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(5), 690-701.
  • Zaman, K., Shahbaz, M., Loganathan, N. and Raza, S. (2016) Tourism development, energy consumption and environmental Kuznets curve: trivariate analysis in the panel of developed and developing countries. Tourism Management, 54, 275-283.
  • Zellner, A. (1962). An efficient method of estimating seemingly unrelated regressions and tests for aggregation bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 57(298), 348-368.
  • Zhang, A., Zhong, L., Xu, Y., Wang, H. and Dang, L. (2015). Tourists’ Perception of Haze Pollution and the Potential Impacts on Travel: Reshaping the Features of Tourism Seasonality in Beijing, China. Sustainability, 7, 2397-2414.
  • Zhang, L. and Gao, J. (2016). Exploring the effects of international tourism on China's economic growth, energy consumption and environmental pollution: evidence from a regional panel analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 53(1), 225-234.

Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis

Yıl 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 221 - 239, 28.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012

Öz

This paper investigates the possibility of Granger causality between tourism development and air pollution in twelve Caribbean small island developing states (SIDs) over the period 1995-2017 in a panel-based model that both allows for the assessment of causality in countries with cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity and avoids the problem of incorrect specification associated with conventional panel unit root and cointegration tests. The empirical results indicate bidirectional causality between tourism and air pollution for Barbados, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago; unidirectional causality running from tourism to air pollution in Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, and Guyana; reverse causality from air pollution to tourism in The Bahamas, British Virgin Islands and Haiti, while no causality is found for St. Kitts and Nevis. Our empirical findings provide important policy implications for the Caribbean countries being studied.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmad, F., Draz, M., Su, L., Ozturk, I., and Rauf, A. (2018). Tourism and environmental pollution: evidence from the one Belt One Road provinces of western China. Sustainability 10 (10), 3580.
  • Ahmad, F., Draz, M., Lijuan, S., and Rauf, A. (2019). Taking the bad with the good: The nexus between tourism and environmental degradation in the lower middle-income Southeast Asian economies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 233, 1240-1249.
  • Akadiri, S., Lasisi, T., Uzuner, G., and Akadiri, A. (2018). Examining the causal impacts of tourism, globalization, economic growth and carbon emissions in tourism island territories: Bootstrap panel granger causality analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–15.
  • Al-Mulali, U., Fereidouni, H., and Mohammed, A. (2015). The effect of tourism arrival on CO2 emissions from transportation sector. Anatolia, 26(2), 230-243.
  • Amzath, A. and Zhao, L. (2014). A study of the relationship between carbon emission and tourism development in Maldives. African Journal of Business Management, 8(20), 962-971.
  • Azam, M., Alam, M., and Hafeez, M., (2018). Effect of tourism on environmental pollution: Further evidence from Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Journal of Cleaner Production, 190, 330-338.
  • Becken, S., Jin, X., Zhang, C. and Gao, J. (2017). Urban air pollution in China: destination image and risk perceptions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25, 130-147.
  • Becken, S., and Simmons, D. G., (2002). Understanding energy consumption patterns of tourist attractions and activities in New Zealand. Tourism Management, 23 (4), 343-354.
  • Becken, S., Simmons, D. G., and Frampton, C., (2003). Energy use associated with different travel choices. Tourism Management, 24 (3), 267-277.
  • Breitung, J. (2000). The local power of some unit root tests for panel data. In Advances in Econometrics: Nonstationary Panels, Panel Cointegration, and Dynamic Panels; Baltagi, B.H., Ed.; JAI Press: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Volume 15, 161-178.
  • Breusch, T., and Pagan, A. (1980). The Lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification in econometrics. Review of Economic Studies 47(1), 239-254.
  • Brida, J. and Pereyra, J. (2009). Tourism taxation and environmental quality in a model with vertical differentiation. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 4(1), 45-62.
  • Bubb, A. (2017). Tourism, Growth and the Environment in Caribbean Small Island Developing States. Master’s Thesis, School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Australia.
  • Butler, R. (2000). Tourism and the environment: A geographical perspective. Tourism Geographies, 2(3), 337-358.
  • Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) Annual Statistical Report 2018.
  • Crippa, M., Oreggioni, G., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Lo Vullo, E., Solazzo, E., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Olivier, J.G.J., Vignati, E., (2019). Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries - 2019 Report, EUR 29849 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. https://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=booklet2019
  • Dixon, J., Hamilton, K., Pagiola, S., and Segnestam, L. (2001). Tourism and the Environment in the Caribbean: An Economic Framework. Environment Department working papers no. 80. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Dogan, E., Seker, F. and Bulbul, S. (2017). Investigating the impact of energy consumption, real GDP, tourism and trade on CO2 emissions by accounting for cross-sectional dependence: A panel study of OECD countries. Current Issues in Tourism, 20 (16), 1701-1719.
  • Fernandez, J., Garcia, P., and Pulido, J. (2019). Does environmental sustainability contribute to tourism growth? An analysis at the country level. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 309-319.
  • Gossling, S., (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environmental Change, 12(4): 283-302.
  • Granger, C. (2003). Some aspects of causal relationships. Journal of Econometrics, 112(1), 69-71.
  • Gricar, S. and Bojnec, S. (2019), Prices of short-stay accommodation: time series of a Eurozone country. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31 (12), 4500-4519.
  • Gunduz, L., and Hatemi-J., A. (2005). Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey? Applied Economics Letters, 12, 499-504.
  • Holden, A. (2007). Environment and tourism, (2nd ed.). London and New York: Routledge Introductions in Environment Series.
  • Hoogendoorn, G., and Fitchett, J. (2018). Tourism and climate change. A review of threats and adaptation strategies for Africa. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(7), 742-759.
  • Jebli, M., Youssef, S., and Apergis, N. (2015) The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22 (16), 12050-12061.
  • Kar, M., Nazlogluc, S., and Agr, H, (2010). Financial development and economic growth nexus in the MENA countries: Bootstrap panel granger causality analysis. Economic Modelling, 28, 685-693.
  • Katircioglu, S. (2014). International tourism, energy consumption, and environmental pollution: The case of Turkey. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, 36 (2), 180-187.
  • Kocak, E., Ulucak, R., and Ulucak. Z., (2020). The impact of tourism developments on CO2 emissions: An advanced panel data estimation. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 1-10.
  • Konya, L., (2006). Exports and growth: Granger causality analysis on OECD countries with a panel data approach. Economic Modelling. 23(6), 978-992.
  • Lee, J., and Brahmasrene, T. (2013). Investigating the influence of tourism on economic growth and carbon emissions: evidence from panel analysis of the European Union. Tourism Management. 38, 69-76.
  • Lenzen, M., Sun, Y., Faturay, F., Ting, Y., Geschke, A., and Malik, A. (2018). The carbon footprint of global tourism. Nature Climate Change, 8 (6), 522-528, Leon, C., Arana, J., and Hernandez Aleman, A. (2014). CO2 emissions and tourism in developed and less developed countries. Applied Economics Letters, 21(16), 1169-1173.
  • Mutinda, R., and Mayaka, M. (2012). Application of destination choice model: Factors influencing domestic tourists’ destination choice among residents of Nairobi, Kenya. Tourism Management, 33, 1593-1597.
  • Nepal, S., (2008). Tourism-induced rural energy consumption in the Annapurna region of Nepal. Tourism Management, 29(1), 89-100.
  • Nepal, R., Indra al Irsyad, M., and Nepal, S. (2019). Tourist arrivals, energy consumption and pollutant emissions in a developing economy–implications for sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 72(December 2018), 145–154.
  • Ouattara, O., Perez-Barahona, A. and Strobl, E. (2019). The dynamic interaction between tourism and environmental quality. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 21(2), 197-365.
  • Paramati, S., Shahbaz, M. and Alam, M. (2017). Does Tourism Degrade Environmental Quality? A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western European Union? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 50, 1-13.
  • Pesaran, M. (2004). General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels. Munich CESifo Group, CESifo Working Paper No. 1233.
  • Pesaran, M., (2006). Estimation and inference in large heterogeneous panels with multifactor error structure. Econometrica, 74, 967-1012.
  • Pesaran, M., Ullah, A., and Yamagata, T. (2008). A bias adjusted LM test of error cross-section independence. The Econometrics Journal, 11 (1), 105-127.
  • Pesaran, M., and Yamagata, T. (2008). Testing slope homogeneity in large panels. Journal of Econometrics, 142 (1), 50-93.
  • Pigram, J. J. (1980). Environmental implications of tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 7(4), 554-583.
  • Rasekhi, S., Karimi, S., and Mohammadi, S. (2016). Environmental impacts of tourism: A case study of selected developing and developed countries. The Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 5(16): 71-94.
  • Raza, S., Sharif, A., Wong, W., and Karim, M. (2017). Tourism development and environmental degradation in the United States: evidence from wavelet-based analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(16), 1768-17901.
  • Scott, D., Gossling, S., and Hall, C. (2012). International tourism and climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 3(3), 213-232.
  • Sharif, A., Afshan, S., and Nisha, N. (2017). Impact of tourism on CO2 emission: Evidence from Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22 (4), 408-421.
  • Solarin, S. (2014). Tourist arrivals and macroeconomic determinants of CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Anatolia, 25(2), 228-241.
  • Sompholkrang, M. (2014). Tourism expenditures and environment in Thailand. Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance, 2(2), 63-69.
  • Swamy, P. (1970). Efficient inference in a random coefficient regression model. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 38(2), 311-323.
  • Tekin, R. (2012). Economic growth, exports and foreign direct investment in Least Developed Countries: A panel Granger causality analysis, Economic Modelling, 29(3), 868-878.
  • Tovar, C. and Lockwood, M. (2008). Social impacts of tourism: An Australian regional case study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4),365-378.
  • Tugcu, C., and Topcu, M. (2018). The impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on tourism: Does the source of emission matter? Theoretical and Applied Economics, 25(614), 125-136.
  • World Tourism Organization (2018). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2018 Edition, UNWTO, Madrid. https://doi.org/10.18111/978928441987
  • World Tourism Organization (2007). Climate change and tourism: Responding to global challenges.http://sdt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/summarydavose.pdf
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). (2018). Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2018. Caribbean. http://www.wttc.org/research/economicimpact-research/regional-reports/caribbean/
  • Zaman, K., Khan, M., and Ahmad, M. (2011). Exploring the relationship between tourism development indicators and carbon emissions: A case study of Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(5), 690-701.
  • Zaman, K., Shahbaz, M., Loganathan, N. and Raza, S. (2016) Tourism development, energy consumption and environmental Kuznets curve: trivariate analysis in the panel of developed and developing countries. Tourism Management, 54, 275-283.
  • Zellner, A. (1962). An efficient method of estimating seemingly unrelated regressions and tests for aggregation bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 57(298), 348-368.
  • Zhang, A., Zhong, L., Xu, Y., Wang, H. and Dang, L. (2015). Tourists’ Perception of Haze Pollution and the Potential Impacts on Travel: Reshaping the Features of Tourism Seasonality in Beijing, China. Sustainability, 7, 2397-2414.
  • Zhang, L. and Gao, J. (2016). Exploring the effects of international tourism on China's economic growth, energy consumption and environmental pollution: evidence from a regional panel analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 53(1), 225-234.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Olugbenga A. ONAFOWORA Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
Susquehanna University
0000-0002-0761-7244
United States


Oluwole OWOYE Bu kişi benim
Western Connecticut State University
0000-0003-4278-6171
United States

Destekleyen Kurum The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 17 Temmuz 2020
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { iuturizmoloji848681, journal = {Journal of Tourismology}, issn = {}, eissn = {2459-1939}, address = {}, publisher = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {6}, pages = {221 - 239}, doi = {10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012}, title = {Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis}, key = {cite}, author = {Onafowora, Olugbenga A. and Owoye, Oluwole} }
APA Onafowora, O. A. & Owoye, O. (2020). Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis . Journal of Tourismology , 6 (2) , 221-239 . DOI: 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012
MLA Onafowora, O. A. , Owoye, O. "Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis" . Journal of Tourismology 6 (2020 ): 221-239 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iuturizmoloji/issue/57255/848681>
Chicago Onafowora, O. A. , Owoye, O. "Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis". Journal of Tourismology 6 (2020 ): 221-239
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis AU - Olugbenga A. Onafowora , Oluwole Owoye Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 DO - 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 T2 - Journal of Tourismology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 221 EP - 239 VL - 6 IS - 2 SN - -2459-1939 M3 - doi: 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 UR - https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Tourismology Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis %A Olugbenga A. Onafowora , Oluwole Owoye %T Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis %D 2020 %J Journal of Tourismology %P -2459-1939 %V 6 %N 2 %R doi: 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012 %U 10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012
ISNAD Onafowora, Olugbenga A. , Owoye, Oluwole . "Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis". Journal of Tourismology 6 / 2 (Aralık 2020): 221-239 . https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012
AMA Onafowora O. A. , Owoye O. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis. Journal of Tourismology. 2020; 6(2): 221-239.
Vancouver Onafowora O. A. , Owoye O. Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis. Journal of Tourismology. 2020; 6(2): 221-239.
IEEE O. A. Onafowora ve O. Owoye , "Tourism Development and Air Pollution in Caribbean SIDs: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis", Journal of Tourismology, c. 6, sayı. 2, ss. 221-239, Ara. 2021, doi:10.26650/jot.2020.6.2.0012