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Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 1, 69 - 87, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475

Öz

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many sectors have begun to be affected. The tourism sector is one such sector and has been heavily affected by restrictions on international movement of. Affected by this situation, hotels have decided to close their doors or have adopted a limited-service approach. For this reason, tourism employees have become unable to see their way in an uncertain process and have encountered different practices such as hourly paid work, being sent on unpaid leave, and being given a short-term employment allowance. The reflections of this negative impact on the employees are a matter of curiosity. In this context, this study aims to reveal the relationship between job insecurity, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in five-star hotels during the COVID-19. To enable this, data were collected using a questionnaire. The study results support the conceptual model that includes the variables of job insecurity, organizational commitment, turnover intention and organizational response to COVID-19. Organizational Response to COVID-19 was found to have a negative and significant effect on job insecurity and also to have a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. Job insecurity has a negative and significant effect on organizational commitment. Organizational commitment has a negative and significant effect on turnover intention and job insecurity was found to have a positive and significant effect on turnover intention.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, J., N. & Meyer, P., J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.
  • Alyahya, A., M., Elshaer, A., I. & Sobaih, E., A. (2022). The Impact of job insecurity and distributive injustice post COVID-19 on social loafing behavior among hotelworkers: Mediating role of turnover intention. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 19(411), 1-14.
  • Ayyıldız, F., Çam, İ., D. ve Kuş, Y. (2021). Koronavirüs (COVID-19) salgın sürecinde evden çalışma ile işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişkide iş yaşamı kalitesinin aracı rolü. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 13(1), 136-149.
  • Bajrami, D., D., Terzic, A., Petrovic, D., M., Radovanovic, M., Tretiakova, N., T. & Hadoud, A. (2021). Will we have the same employees in hospitality after all? The impact of COVID-19 on employees’ work attitudes and turnover intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-9.
  • Bonfanti, A., Vigolo, V. & Yfantidou, G. (2021). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Customer Experience Design: The Hotel Managers’ Perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-11.
  • Chang, P., C. & Chang, C., W. (2008). Internal marketing practices and employees’ turnover ıntentions in tourism and leisure hotels. The journal of human resource and adult learning, 4(2), 161-172.
  • Chang, S. I. (2008). Work role stressors and turnover intentions: A study of IT personnel in South Korea. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (3), 272-290.
  • Cho, H., D. & Son, M., J. (2012). Job embeddedness and turnover intentions: An empirical investigation of construction IT industries. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 40, 101-110.
  • De Witte, H. (2000). Arbeidsethos en jobonzekerheid: Meting en gevolgen voor welzijn, tevredenheid en inzet op het werk. R. Bouwen, K. De Witte, H. De Witte ve T. Taillieu (Ed.). Van groep tot gemeenschap içinde (s. 325-350). Leuven: Garant. De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity: Review of the international literatüre on definitions, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 1-6.
  • Dijkstra, T.K. & Henseler, J. (2015) Consistent partial least squares path modeling. MIS Quarterly, 39, 297-316. https://doi.org/10.25300/MISQ/2015/39.2.02.
  • Dwivedi, S. (2015). Turnover intentions: Scale Construction & Validation. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 50, No. 3. pp. 452-468. Filimonau, V., Derqui, B. & Matute, J. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and organisational commitment of senior hotel managers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 91, 1-13.
  • Greenhalgh, L. & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 438-448.
  • Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long Range Planning, 46 (1-2), 1-12.
  • Hair, J., Hult, T., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. & Sarstedt, M. (2017) A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). 2nd Edition, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Hair, J.F., Risher, J.J., Sarstedt, M. & Ringle, C.M. (2019), When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203
  • Hwang, J. & Choe, J., Y. (2020). How to enhance the image of edible insect restaurants: Focusing on perceived risk theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 87, 1-11.
  • İstanbul İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü, (2020). Turizm işletmesi ve turizm yatırımı belgeli tesisler ve deniz turizmi araçları, 1 Temmuz 2020. https://istanbul.ktb.gov.tr/TR-276897/turizm-isletmesi-ve-turizm-yatirimi-belgeli-tesisler-ve-.html 29.01.2022 adresinden erişildi.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. J. Acad. Mark. Sci., 43 (1) pp. 115-135.
  • Jung, S., H., Jung, S., Y. & Yoon, H., H. (2021). COVID-19: The effects of job insecurity on the job engagement and turnover intent of deluxe hotel employees and the moderating role of generational characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 1-9.
  • Kalidass, A. & Bahron, A. (2015). The relationship between perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and employee turnover intention. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(5), 82-89.
  • Kim, S., Tam, L., Kim, J., N. & Rhee, Y. (2017). Determinants of employee turnover intention: Understanding the roles of organizational justice, supervisory justice, authoritarian organizational culture and organization-employee relationship quality. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 22(3), 308–328
  • Le, D. & Phi, G. (2021). Strategic responses of the hotel sector to COVID-19: Toward a refined pandemic crisis management framework. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-5.
  • Lee, C., C., Huang, H., S. & Zhao, Y., C. (2012). A study on factors affecting turnover intention of hotel employees. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2(7), 866-875.
  • Mao, Y., He, J., Morrison, M., A. & Stefaniak, C., A. (2021). Effects of tourism CSR on employee psychological capital in the COVID-19 crisis: From the perspective of conservation of resources theory. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(19), 2716-2734. Meyer, P., J. & Allen, J., N. (2004). TCM employee commitment survey academic users guide. University of Western Ontario.
  • Ministry of Culture and Tourism (2021). Konaklama istatistikleri, https://yigm.ktb.gov.tr/TR-201120/konaklama-istatistikleri.html, 19.03.2021 adresinden erişildi. Mitchell, V., W. (1999). Consumer perceived risk: conceptualizations and models. European Journal of Marketing, 33(1/2), 163-195.
  • Mowday, T., R., Steers, M., R. & Porter, W., L. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.
  • Pienaar, J., De Witte, H., Hellgren, J. & Sverke, M. (2013). The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations. Southern African Business Review, 17(2), 1-22.
  • Porter, W., L., Steers, M., R., Mowday, T., R. & Boulian, V., P. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609.
  • Probst, T., M. (2002). The impact of job insecurity on employee work attitudes, job adaptation, and organizational withdrawal behaviors. In J. M. Brett & F. Drasgow (Eds.) The psychology of work: Theoretically based empirical research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Probst, T., M. (2003). Development and validation of the job security index and the job security satisfaction scale: A classical test theory and IRT approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 451-467.
  • Quintana, T., A, Nguyen, T., H., H., Cabrera, Y., A. & Diaz, J., M., S. (2021). Do job insecurity, anxiety and depression caused by the COVID-19 pandemic influence hotel employees’ self-rated task performance? The moderating role of employee resilience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-10.
  • Reichers, E., A. (1986). Conflict and organizational commitments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 508-514. Rimal, R., N. & Real, K. (2003). Perceived risk and efficacy beliefs as motivators of change use of the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework to understand health behaviors. Human Communication Research, 29(3), 370-399.
  • Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J.-M. (2015). "SmartPLS 3." Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH, http://www.smartpls.com. Salem, E., I., Elkhweskly, Z. & Ramkissoon, H. (2021). A Content Analysis for Government’s and Hotels’ Response to COVID-19 Pandemic in Egypt. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1-18.
  • Sharma, A., Shin, H., Maria, S., J., M. & Nicolau, L., J. (2021). Hotels’ COVID-19 Innovation and Performance. Annals of Tourism Research, 88, 1-12.
  • Shin, H. & Kang, J. (2020). Reducing perceived health risk to attract hotel customers in the COVID-19 pandemic era: Focused on technology innovation for social distancing and cleanliness. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 91, 1-9.
  • Sigala, M. (2020). Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 312-321.
  • Sverke, M., Hellgren, J. & Naswall, K. (2002). No security: A meta analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(3), 242-264.
  • Takase, M. (2010). A concept analysis of turnover intention: Implications for nursing management. Collegian, 17, 3-12. Tett, P., R. & Meyer, P., J. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.
  • Torres, F., P., Pena, A., I., P. & Jamilena, D., M., F. (2021). The effect of COVID-19 on tourist’s intention to resume hotel consumption: The role of resilience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 99, 1-11.
  • Vo-Thanh, T., Vu, V., T., Nguyen, P., N., Nguyen, V., D., Zaman, M. & Chi, H. (2021a). COVID-19, frontline hotel employees’ perceived job insecurity and emotional exhaustion: Does trade union support matter? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-19.
  • Vo-Thanh, T., Vu, V., T., Nguyen, P., N., Nguyen, V., D., Zaman, M. & Chi, H. (2021b). How does Hotel Employees’ Satisfaction with the Organization’s COVID-19 Responses Affect Job Insecurity and Job Performance? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(6), 907-925.
  • Vujicic, D., Jovicic, A., Lalic, D., Gagic, S. & Cvejanov, A. (2015). The relation between job insecurity, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the tourism sector in Novi Sad. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36(4), 633-652.
  • Wong, A., K., F., Kim, S., Kim, J. & Han, H. (2021). How the COVID-19 pandemic affected hotel Employee stress: Employee perceptions of occupational stressors and their consequences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93, 1-10.
  • Yu, J., Lee, K. & Hyun, S., S. (2021). Understanding the influence of the perceived risk of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the post-traumatic stress disorder and revisit intention of hotel guests. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 46, 327-335.
  • Zhang, J., Xie, C., Wang, J., Morrison, M., A. & Stefaniak, C., A., J. (2020). Responding to a majör global crisis: The effects of hotel safety leadership on employee safety behavior during COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(11), 3365-3389.

Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 1, 69 - 87, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Allen, J., N. & Meyer, P., J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.
  • Alyahya, A., M., Elshaer, A., I. & Sobaih, E., A. (2022). The Impact of job insecurity and distributive injustice post COVID-19 on social loafing behavior among hotelworkers: Mediating role of turnover intention. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 19(411), 1-14.
  • Ayyıldız, F., Çam, İ., D. ve Kuş, Y. (2021). Koronavirüs (COVID-19) salgın sürecinde evden çalışma ile işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişkide iş yaşamı kalitesinin aracı rolü. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 13(1), 136-149.
  • Bajrami, D., D., Terzic, A., Petrovic, D., M., Radovanovic, M., Tretiakova, N., T. & Hadoud, A. (2021). Will we have the same employees in hospitality after all? The impact of COVID-19 on employees’ work attitudes and turnover intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-9.
  • Bonfanti, A., Vigolo, V. & Yfantidou, G. (2021). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Customer Experience Design: The Hotel Managers’ Perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-11.
  • Chang, P., C. & Chang, C., W. (2008). Internal marketing practices and employees’ turnover ıntentions in tourism and leisure hotels. The journal of human resource and adult learning, 4(2), 161-172.
  • Chang, S. I. (2008). Work role stressors and turnover intentions: A study of IT personnel in South Korea. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (3), 272-290.
  • Cho, H., D. & Son, M., J. (2012). Job embeddedness and turnover intentions: An empirical investigation of construction IT industries. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 40, 101-110.
  • De Witte, H. (2000). Arbeidsethos en jobonzekerheid: Meting en gevolgen voor welzijn, tevredenheid en inzet op het werk. R. Bouwen, K. De Witte, H. De Witte ve T. Taillieu (Ed.). Van groep tot gemeenschap içinde (s. 325-350). Leuven: Garant. De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity: Review of the international literatüre on definitions, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 1-6.
  • Dijkstra, T.K. & Henseler, J. (2015) Consistent partial least squares path modeling. MIS Quarterly, 39, 297-316. https://doi.org/10.25300/MISQ/2015/39.2.02.
  • Dwivedi, S. (2015). Turnover intentions: Scale Construction & Validation. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 50, No. 3. pp. 452-468. Filimonau, V., Derqui, B. & Matute, J. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and organisational commitment of senior hotel managers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 91, 1-13.
  • Greenhalgh, L. & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 438-448.
  • Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long Range Planning, 46 (1-2), 1-12.
  • Hair, J., Hult, T., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. & Sarstedt, M. (2017) A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). 2nd Edition, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Hair, J.F., Risher, J.J., Sarstedt, M. & Ringle, C.M. (2019), When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203
  • Hwang, J. & Choe, J., Y. (2020). How to enhance the image of edible insect restaurants: Focusing on perceived risk theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 87, 1-11.
  • İstanbul İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü, (2020). Turizm işletmesi ve turizm yatırımı belgeli tesisler ve deniz turizmi araçları, 1 Temmuz 2020. https://istanbul.ktb.gov.tr/TR-276897/turizm-isletmesi-ve-turizm-yatirimi-belgeli-tesisler-ve-.html 29.01.2022 adresinden erişildi.
  • Henseler, J., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. J. Acad. Mark. Sci., 43 (1) pp. 115-135.
  • Jung, S., H., Jung, S., Y. & Yoon, H., H. (2021). COVID-19: The effects of job insecurity on the job engagement and turnover intent of deluxe hotel employees and the moderating role of generational characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92, 1-9.
  • Kalidass, A. & Bahron, A. (2015). The relationship between perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and employee turnover intention. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(5), 82-89.
  • Kim, S., Tam, L., Kim, J., N. & Rhee, Y. (2017). Determinants of employee turnover intention: Understanding the roles of organizational justice, supervisory justice, authoritarian organizational culture and organization-employee relationship quality. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 22(3), 308–328
  • Le, D. & Phi, G. (2021). Strategic responses of the hotel sector to COVID-19: Toward a refined pandemic crisis management framework. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-5.
  • Lee, C., C., Huang, H., S. & Zhao, Y., C. (2012). A study on factors affecting turnover intention of hotel employees. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2(7), 866-875.
  • Mao, Y., He, J., Morrison, M., A. & Stefaniak, C., A. (2021). Effects of tourism CSR on employee psychological capital in the COVID-19 crisis: From the perspective of conservation of resources theory. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(19), 2716-2734. Meyer, P., J. & Allen, J., N. (2004). TCM employee commitment survey academic users guide. University of Western Ontario.
  • Ministry of Culture and Tourism (2021). Konaklama istatistikleri, https://yigm.ktb.gov.tr/TR-201120/konaklama-istatistikleri.html, 19.03.2021 adresinden erişildi. Mitchell, V., W. (1999). Consumer perceived risk: conceptualizations and models. European Journal of Marketing, 33(1/2), 163-195.
  • Mowday, T., R., Steers, M., R. & Porter, W., L. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.
  • Pienaar, J., De Witte, H., Hellgren, J. & Sverke, M. (2013). The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations. Southern African Business Review, 17(2), 1-22.
  • Porter, W., L., Steers, M., R., Mowday, T., R. & Boulian, V., P. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609.
  • Probst, T., M. (2002). The impact of job insecurity on employee work attitudes, job adaptation, and organizational withdrawal behaviors. In J. M. Brett & F. Drasgow (Eds.) The psychology of work: Theoretically based empirical research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Probst, T., M. (2003). Development and validation of the job security index and the job security satisfaction scale: A classical test theory and IRT approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 451-467.
  • Quintana, T., A, Nguyen, T., H., H., Cabrera, Y., A. & Diaz, J., M., S. (2021). Do job insecurity, anxiety and depression caused by the COVID-19 pandemic influence hotel employees’ self-rated task performance? The moderating role of employee resilience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94, 1-10.
  • Reichers, E., A. (1986). Conflict and organizational commitments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 508-514. Rimal, R., N. & Real, K. (2003). Perceived risk and efficacy beliefs as motivators of change use of the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework to understand health behaviors. Human Communication Research, 29(3), 370-399.
  • Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J.-M. (2015). "SmartPLS 3." Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH, http://www.smartpls.com. Salem, E., I., Elkhweskly, Z. & Ramkissoon, H. (2021). A Content Analysis for Government’s and Hotels’ Response to COVID-19 Pandemic in Egypt. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1-18.
  • Sharma, A., Shin, H., Maria, S., J., M. & Nicolau, L., J. (2021). Hotels’ COVID-19 Innovation and Performance. Annals of Tourism Research, 88, 1-12.
  • Shin, H. & Kang, J. (2020). Reducing perceived health risk to attract hotel customers in the COVID-19 pandemic era: Focused on technology innovation for social distancing and cleanliness. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 91, 1-9.
  • Sigala, M. (2020). Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 312-321.
  • Sverke, M., Hellgren, J. & Naswall, K. (2002). No security: A meta analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(3), 242-264.
  • Takase, M. (2010). A concept analysis of turnover intention: Implications for nursing management. Collegian, 17, 3-12. Tett, P., R. & Meyer, P., J. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.
  • Torres, F., P., Pena, A., I., P. & Jamilena, D., M., F. (2021). The effect of COVID-19 on tourist’s intention to resume hotel consumption: The role of resilience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 99, 1-11.
  • Vo-Thanh, T., Vu, V., T., Nguyen, P., N., Nguyen, V., D., Zaman, M. & Chi, H. (2021a). COVID-19, frontline hotel employees’ perceived job insecurity and emotional exhaustion: Does trade union support matter? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-19.
  • Vo-Thanh, T., Vu, V., T., Nguyen, P., N., Nguyen, V., D., Zaman, M. & Chi, H. (2021b). How does Hotel Employees’ Satisfaction with the Organization’s COVID-19 Responses Affect Job Insecurity and Job Performance? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(6), 907-925.
  • Vujicic, D., Jovicic, A., Lalic, D., Gagic, S. & Cvejanov, A. (2015). The relation between job insecurity, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the tourism sector in Novi Sad. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36(4), 633-652.
  • Wong, A., K., F., Kim, S., Kim, J. & Han, H. (2021). How the COVID-19 pandemic affected hotel Employee stress: Employee perceptions of occupational stressors and their consequences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93, 1-10.
  • Yu, J., Lee, K. & Hyun, S., S. (2021). Understanding the influence of the perceived risk of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the post-traumatic stress disorder and revisit intention of hotel guests. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 46, 327-335.
  • Zhang, J., Xie, C., Wang, J., Morrison, M., A. & Stefaniak, C., A., J. (2020). Responding to a majör global crisis: The effects of hotel safety leadership on employee safety behavior during COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(11), 3365-3389.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Serap ÖZDEMİR GÜZEL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0002-9409-2801
Türkiye


Fatma Doğanay ERGEN>
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2818-8944
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 25 Şubat 2022
Kabul Tarihi 24 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 8, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { iuturizmoloji1078475, journal = {Journal of Tourismology}, eissn = {2459-1939}, address = {}, publisher = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {1}, pages = {69 - 87}, doi = {10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475}, title = {Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process}, key = {cite}, author = {Özdemir Güzel, Serap and Ergen, Fatma Doğanay} }
APA Özdemir Güzel, S. & Ergen, F. D. (2022). Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process . Journal of Tourismology , 8 (1) , 69-87 . DOI: 10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475
MLA Özdemir Güzel, S. , Ergen, F. D. "Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process" . Journal of Tourismology 8 (2022 ): 69-87 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iuturizmoloji/issue/69816/1078475>
Chicago Özdemir Güzel, S. , Ergen, F. D. "Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process". Journal of Tourismology 8 (2022 ): 69-87
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process AU - SerapÖzdemir Güzel, Fatma DoğanayErgen Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475 DO - 10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475 T2 - Journal of Tourismology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 69 EP - 87 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - -2459-1939 M3 - doi: 10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475 UR - https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Tourismology Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process %A Serap Özdemir Güzel , Fatma Doğanay Ergen %T Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process %D 2022 %J Journal of Tourismology %P -2459-1939 %V 8 %N 1 %R doi: 10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475 %U 10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475
ISNAD Özdemir Güzel, Serap , Ergen, Fatma Doğanay . "Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process". Journal of Tourismology 8 / 1 (Haziran 2022): 69-87 . https://doi.org/10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475
AMA Özdemir Güzel S. , Ergen F. D. Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process. Journal of Tourismology. 2022; 8(1): 69-87.
Vancouver Özdemir Güzel S. , Ergen F. D. Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process. Journal of Tourismology. 2022; 8(1): 69-87.
IEEE S. Özdemir Güzel ve F. D. Ergen , "Examining the Relationship Between Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the COVID-19 Process", Journal of Tourismology, c. 8, sayı. 1, ss. 69-87, Haz. 2022, doi:10.26650/jot.2022.8.1.1078475