Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı , 1 - 20, 30.12.2020

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Anthoine, E., Moret, L., Regnault, A., Sébille, V. & Hardouin, J.-B. (2014). Sample size used to validate a scale: a review of publications on newly-developed patient reported outcomes measures. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12, 2. DOI: 10.1186/s12955-014-0176-2
  • Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, 5, 307-337. Urdan, T. & Pajares, F. (Eds.). Greenwich, CT: IAP.
  • Berg, D. A. G. & Smith, L. F. (2016). Preservice teacher self-efficacy beliefs: An opportunity to generate “good research” in the asia-pacific region. In S.G Editor & D. P. Editor (Eds.), Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy (1-17). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
  • Brinkman, W-P. (2009). Design of a questionnaire instrument, handbook of mobile technology research methods. ISBN 978-1-60692-767-0, pp. 31-57 Netherlands: Nova Publisher
  • Bursal, M. (2010). Turkish preservice elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding mathematics and science teaching. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8, 649-666.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Clark, L. A. & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7 (3), 309-319.
  • Crawford, A. V., Green, S. B., Levy, R., Lo, W.-J., Scott, L., Svetina, D. & Thompson, M. S. (2010). Evaluation of parallel analysis methods for determining the number of factors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70 (6), 885–901. DOI: 10.1177/0013164410379332
  • Crouch, C. H. & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69 (9), 970–977. DOI: 10.1119/1.1374249 Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th Edition). London: SAGE
  • Franklin, S. B., Gibson, D. J., Robertson, P. A., Pohlmann, J. T. & Fralish, J. S. (1995). Parallel analysis: a method for determining significant principal components. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6 (1), 99-106. DOI: 10.2307/3236261
  • Gözüm, S. & Aksayan, S. (1999). Öz-etkilik-yeterlik ölçeği’nin Türkçe formunun güvenirlik ve geçerliliği. Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokul Dergisi, 2 (1), 21-34.
  • Hakkinen, P., Jarvela, S., Makitalo-Siegl, K., Ahonen, A., Naykki, P. & Valtonen, T. (2017). Preparing teacher-students for twenty-first-century learning practices (PREP21): A framework for enhancing collaborative problem-solving and strategic learning skills. Teachers and Teaching, 23 (1), 25-41. DOI: 10.1080/13540602.2016.1203772
  • Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G. & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor Retention Decisions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: a Tutorial on Parallel Analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7 (2), 191–205. DOI: 10.1177/1094428104263675
  • Hernandez-Padilla, J. M., Granero-Molina, J., Ruiz-Fernandez, M. D., Dobarrio-Sanz, I., Lopez-Rodriguez, M. M., Fernandez-Medina, I. M., Correa-Casado, M. & Fernandez-Sola, C. (2020). Design and psychometric analysis of the covid-19 prevention, recognition and home-management self-efficacy scale. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 4653. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17134653
  • Hesse F., Care E., Buder J., Sassenberg K., Griffin P. (2015) A Framework for Teachable Collaborative Problem Solving Skills. In: Griffin P., Care E. (eds) Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Educational Assessment in an Information Age. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 2 (1), 104-121. DOI: 10.1177/109442819800100106
  • Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B. & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 21(1), 100-120. DOI: 10.1177/109634809702100108
  • Johanson, G. A. & Brooks, G. P. (2010). Initial scale development: Sample size for pilot studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70 (3), 394-400. DOI: 10.1177/0013164409355692
  • Johnson, R. L. & Morgan, G. B. (2016). Survey scales: Investigating scale quality. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Kalaycı, Ş. (2010). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri. (5. Baskı) [SPSS applied various statistical techniques (5th Edition)]. Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım Ltd. Şti. Karabatak, S. & Turhan, M. (2017). Effect of web-based problem learning on school administrators’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards principalship profession. Education and Science, 42 (191), 1-29. DOI: 10.15390/EB.2017.7105
  • Karwowski, M. & Kaufman, J. C. (Eds.). (2017). The Creative Self. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Kato, P.M. (2013). How do you measure self-efficacy? The answer may surprise you. https://pamkato.com/2013/03/14/how-do-you-measure-self-efficacy-the-answer-may-surprise-you/ Retrieved: June 2014.
  • Kot, P., Roznowski, B. & Ertelt, B. J. (2020). Construction and validation of the life roles self-efficacy scale for young adults in school-to-work transition. Current Psychology, DOI: 10.1007/s12144-020-01083-7
  • Köseoğlu, P. (2010). The influence of jigsaw technique-based teaching on academic achievement, self-efficacy and attitudes in biology education. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 39, 244-254.
  • Larry G, E. & Iris M, R. (1990). Further development of an elementary science teaching efficacy belief instrument: a preservice elementary scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the national association for research in science teaching (63rd, Atlanta, GA, April 8-11). ED319601
  • Ledesma, R. D. & Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in EFA: An easy-to-use computer program for carrying out Parallel Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 12 (2). DOI: 10.7275/wjnc-nm63
  • Lind, N., Hansson, H. & Lagerkvist, C. J. (2019). Development and validation of a measurement scale for self-efficacy for farmers’ mastitis prevention in dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 167 (1), 53-60. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.03.025
  • Lovelace, M. & Brickman, P. (2013). Best practices for measuring students’ attitudes toward learning science. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 12 (4), 606-617. DOI: 10.1187/cbe.12-11-0197
  • Moore, R. W. & Foy, R. L. H. (1997). The scientific attitude inventory: A revision (SAI II). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34 (4), 327-336.
  • Muris, P. (2001). A brief questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy in youths. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 145-149.
  • Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 337-348.
  • Nguyen, H., Johnson, A., Collins, C. & Parker, S. K. (2017). Confidence matters: Self-efficacy moderates the credit that supervisors give to adaptive and proactive role behaviors. British Journal of Management, 28, 315-330. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8551.12149
  • Nissen, J. M. & Shemwell, J. T. (2016). Gender, experience and self-efficacy in introductory physics. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 12 (2), 1-16. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.12.020105
  • Özgen, K. & Bayram, B. (2019). Developing Problem Posing Self-Efficacy Scale. Elementary Education, 18 (2), 663-680. DOI: 10.17051/ilkonline.2019.562029
  • Robnett, R. D., Chemers, M. M. & Zurbriggen, E. L. (2015). Longitudinal associations among undergraduates’ research experience, self-efficacy and identity. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52 (6), 847-867. DOI: 10.1002/tea.21221
  • Rose, S., Spinks, N. & Canhoto, A. (2014). Management research: Applying the principles. (1st edition). London: Routledge
  • Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In: Weinman, J., Wright, S. & Johnston, M., Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
  • Snieehotta, F. F., Schwarzer, R., Scholz, U. & Schuz, B. (2005). Action planning and coping planning for long-term lifestyle change: Theory and assessment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 565-576. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.258
  • Troia, G. A., Harbaugh, A. G., Shankland, R. K., Wolbers, K. A. & Lawrence, A. M. (2013). Relationship between writing motivation, writing activity, and performance: Effects of grade, sex and ability. Reading and Writing, 26 (1), 17-44. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-012-9379-2
  • Tsai, M.-J., Wang, C.-Y. & Hsu, P.-F. (2019). Developing the computer programming self-efficacy scale for computer literacy education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56 (8), 1345–1360. DOI: 10.1177/0735633117746747
  • Tucker, S., Zadvinskis, I. M. & Connor, L. (2020). Development and Psychometric Testing of the Implementation Self-efficacy for EBP (ISE4EBP) Scale. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 43 (1), 45–52. DOI: 10.1177/0193945920925032
  • Turner, N. E. (1998). The Effect of Common Variance and Structure Pattern on Random Data Eigenvalues: Implications for the Accuracy of Parallel Analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58 (4), 541–568. DOI: 10.1177/0013164498058004001
  • Watt, H. M. G., Ehrich, J., Stewart, S. E., Snell, T., Bucich, M., Jacobs, N., Furlonger, B. & English, D. (2019). Development of the psychologist and counsellor self-efficacy scale. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 9 (3), 485-509. DOI: 10.1108/HESWBL-07-2018-0069
  • Wong., M. & Lian, S. (2003). Development of a self-efficacy scale for assessing secondary school students’ science self-efficacy beliefs.
  • http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.472.8479, Retrieved October 2014.
  • Yasan Ak, N., (2020). Development of Internet literacy self-efficacy scale for pre-service teachers. Turkish Journal of Education, 9 (2), 179-204. DOI: 10.19128/turje.664706
  • Yeşilay, A., Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Genelleştirilmiş öz-yetki beklentisi. http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/turk.htm, Retrieved: October 2014.
  • Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S. & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. American psychological association, Washington, DC.

Development and Validation Study of a General Self-Efficacy Scale

Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı , 1 - 20, 30.12.2020

Öz

Self-efficacy measures might be used for different purposes. However, self-efficacy scales rely on their respective cultural values. For that reason, aim of this study was to create a new self-efficacy scale (SES). The Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) was prepared with 27 items. Prepared SES consisted items with likert type. Sample of the study consisted of 271 university students. Principal axis factoring with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was used for exploratory factor analysis. Parallel analysis was used to determine the number of factors. Items with low reliability coefficient and low factor loading values were omitted from the SES. Factor analysis with same procedure was reconducted and SES emerged with one factor and had 14 items along with Cronbach’s alpha =.908 reliability value. A confirmatory factor (CFA) analysis was carried out with data which was obtained from a different sample (N=198). Thus total sample of the study was 469. SES model was approved by most common fit indice values. Finalized SES consisted of 21 items with seven (7) filler and nine (9) reverse coded items. It was decided that created SES might be used for cultures which have similar values.

Kaynakça

  • Anthoine, E., Moret, L., Regnault, A., Sébille, V. & Hardouin, J.-B. (2014). Sample size used to validate a scale: a review of publications on newly-developed patient reported outcomes measures. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12, 2. DOI: 10.1186/s12955-014-0176-2
  • Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, 5, 307-337. Urdan, T. & Pajares, F. (Eds.). Greenwich, CT: IAP.
  • Berg, D. A. G. & Smith, L. F. (2016). Preservice teacher self-efficacy beliefs: An opportunity to generate “good research” in the asia-pacific region. In S.G Editor & D. P. Editor (Eds.), Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy (1-17). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
  • Brinkman, W-P. (2009). Design of a questionnaire instrument, handbook of mobile technology research methods. ISBN 978-1-60692-767-0, pp. 31-57 Netherlands: Nova Publisher
  • Bursal, M. (2010). Turkish preservice elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs regarding mathematics and science teaching. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8, 649-666.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Clark, L. A. & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7 (3), 309-319.
  • Crawford, A. V., Green, S. B., Levy, R., Lo, W.-J., Scott, L., Svetina, D. & Thompson, M. S. (2010). Evaluation of parallel analysis methods for determining the number of factors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70 (6), 885–901. DOI: 10.1177/0013164410379332
  • Crouch, C. H. & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69 (9), 970–977. DOI: 10.1119/1.1374249 Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th Edition). London: SAGE
  • Franklin, S. B., Gibson, D. J., Robertson, P. A., Pohlmann, J. T. & Fralish, J. S. (1995). Parallel analysis: a method for determining significant principal components. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6 (1), 99-106. DOI: 10.2307/3236261
  • Gözüm, S. & Aksayan, S. (1999). Öz-etkilik-yeterlik ölçeği’nin Türkçe formunun güvenirlik ve geçerliliği. Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokul Dergisi, 2 (1), 21-34.
  • Hakkinen, P., Jarvela, S., Makitalo-Siegl, K., Ahonen, A., Naykki, P. & Valtonen, T. (2017). Preparing teacher-students for twenty-first-century learning practices (PREP21): A framework for enhancing collaborative problem-solving and strategic learning skills. Teachers and Teaching, 23 (1), 25-41. DOI: 10.1080/13540602.2016.1203772
  • Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G. & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor Retention Decisions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: a Tutorial on Parallel Analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7 (2), 191–205. DOI: 10.1177/1094428104263675
  • Hernandez-Padilla, J. M., Granero-Molina, J., Ruiz-Fernandez, M. D., Dobarrio-Sanz, I., Lopez-Rodriguez, M. M., Fernandez-Medina, I. M., Correa-Casado, M. & Fernandez-Sola, C. (2020). Design and psychometric analysis of the covid-19 prevention, recognition and home-management self-efficacy scale. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 4653. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17134653
  • Hesse F., Care E., Buder J., Sassenberg K., Griffin P. (2015) A Framework for Teachable Collaborative Problem Solving Skills. In: Griffin P., Care E. (eds) Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills. Educational Assessment in an Information Age. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 2 (1), 104-121. DOI: 10.1177/109442819800100106
  • Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B. & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 21(1), 100-120. DOI: 10.1177/109634809702100108
  • Johanson, G. A. & Brooks, G. P. (2010). Initial scale development: Sample size for pilot studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70 (3), 394-400. DOI: 10.1177/0013164409355692
  • Johnson, R. L. & Morgan, G. B. (2016). Survey scales: Investigating scale quality. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Kalaycı, Ş. (2010). SPSS uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistik teknikleri. (5. Baskı) [SPSS applied various statistical techniques (5th Edition)]. Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım Ltd. Şti. Karabatak, S. & Turhan, M. (2017). Effect of web-based problem learning on school administrators’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards principalship profession. Education and Science, 42 (191), 1-29. DOI: 10.15390/EB.2017.7105
  • Karwowski, M. & Kaufman, J. C. (Eds.). (2017). The Creative Self. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Kato, P.M. (2013). How do you measure self-efficacy? The answer may surprise you. https://pamkato.com/2013/03/14/how-do-you-measure-self-efficacy-the-answer-may-surprise-you/ Retrieved: June 2014.
  • Kot, P., Roznowski, B. & Ertelt, B. J. (2020). Construction and validation of the life roles self-efficacy scale for young adults in school-to-work transition. Current Psychology, DOI: 10.1007/s12144-020-01083-7
  • Köseoğlu, P. (2010). The influence of jigsaw technique-based teaching on academic achievement, self-efficacy and attitudes in biology education. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 39, 244-254.
  • Larry G, E. & Iris M, R. (1990). Further development of an elementary science teaching efficacy belief instrument: a preservice elementary scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the national association for research in science teaching (63rd, Atlanta, GA, April 8-11). ED319601
  • Ledesma, R. D. & Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in EFA: An easy-to-use computer program for carrying out Parallel Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 12 (2). DOI: 10.7275/wjnc-nm63
  • Lind, N., Hansson, H. & Lagerkvist, C. J. (2019). Development and validation of a measurement scale for self-efficacy for farmers’ mastitis prevention in dairy cows. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 167 (1), 53-60. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.03.025
  • Lovelace, M. & Brickman, P. (2013). Best practices for measuring students’ attitudes toward learning science. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 12 (4), 606-617. DOI: 10.1187/cbe.12-11-0197
  • Moore, R. W. & Foy, R. L. H. (1997). The scientific attitude inventory: A revision (SAI II). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34 (4), 327-336.
  • Muris, P. (2001). A brief questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy in youths. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 145-149.
  • Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 337-348.
  • Nguyen, H., Johnson, A., Collins, C. & Parker, S. K. (2017). Confidence matters: Self-efficacy moderates the credit that supervisors give to adaptive and proactive role behaviors. British Journal of Management, 28, 315-330. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8551.12149
  • Nissen, J. M. & Shemwell, J. T. (2016). Gender, experience and self-efficacy in introductory physics. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 12 (2), 1-16. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.12.020105
  • Özgen, K. & Bayram, B. (2019). Developing Problem Posing Self-Efficacy Scale. Elementary Education, 18 (2), 663-680. DOI: 10.17051/ilkonline.2019.562029
  • Robnett, R. D., Chemers, M. M. & Zurbriggen, E. L. (2015). Longitudinal associations among undergraduates’ research experience, self-efficacy and identity. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52 (6), 847-867. DOI: 10.1002/tea.21221
  • Rose, S., Spinks, N. & Canhoto, A. (2014). Management research: Applying the principles. (1st edition). London: Routledge
  • Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In: Weinman, J., Wright, S. & Johnston, M., Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
  • Snieehotta, F. F., Schwarzer, R., Scholz, U. & Schuz, B. (2005). Action planning and coping planning for long-term lifestyle change: Theory and assessment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 565-576. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.258
  • Troia, G. A., Harbaugh, A. G., Shankland, R. K., Wolbers, K. A. & Lawrence, A. M. (2013). Relationship between writing motivation, writing activity, and performance: Effects of grade, sex and ability. Reading and Writing, 26 (1), 17-44. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-012-9379-2
  • Tsai, M.-J., Wang, C.-Y. & Hsu, P.-F. (2019). Developing the computer programming self-efficacy scale for computer literacy education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56 (8), 1345–1360. DOI: 10.1177/0735633117746747
  • Tucker, S., Zadvinskis, I. M. & Connor, L. (2020). Development and Psychometric Testing of the Implementation Self-efficacy for EBP (ISE4EBP) Scale. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 43 (1), 45–52. DOI: 10.1177/0193945920925032
  • Turner, N. E. (1998). The Effect of Common Variance and Structure Pattern on Random Data Eigenvalues: Implications for the Accuracy of Parallel Analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58 (4), 541–568. DOI: 10.1177/0013164498058004001
  • Watt, H. M. G., Ehrich, J., Stewart, S. E., Snell, T., Bucich, M., Jacobs, N., Furlonger, B. & English, D. (2019). Development of the psychologist and counsellor self-efficacy scale. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 9 (3), 485-509. DOI: 10.1108/HESWBL-07-2018-0069
  • Wong., M. & Lian, S. (2003). Development of a self-efficacy scale for assessing secondary school students’ science self-efficacy beliefs.
  • http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.472.8479, Retrieved October 2014.
  • Yasan Ak, N., (2020). Development of Internet literacy self-efficacy scale for pre-service teachers. Turkish Journal of Education, 9 (2), 179-204. DOI: 10.19128/turje.664706
  • Yeşilay, A., Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Genelleştirilmiş öz-yetki beklentisi. http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/turk.htm, Retrieved: October 2014.
  • Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S. & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. American psychological association, Washington, DC.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Adem AKKUŞ (Sorumlu Yazar)
MUS ALPARSLAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9570-3582
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 24 Ekim 2020
Kabul Tarihi 22 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı

Kaynak Göster

APA Akkuş, A. (2020). Development and Validation Study of a General Self-Efficacy Scale . Journal of Anatolian Education Research , 4 , 1-20 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jaer/issue/59121/815990

JAER Uluslararası İndekslerde taranan dergi statüsündedir.