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The Impacts of Lausanne Treaty on British Colonialism

Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 67 - 87, 20.06.2021

Öz

Kaynakça

  • House of Commons Hansard Archives https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/hansard/commons/HC Deb 06 June 1924 vol. 174 cc1617-521635, (accessed, 9 January 2021).
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521617
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521621
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521619
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521632
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521635
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521644
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521647
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521649
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521650
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521651
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521652
  • Barrett, Michèle. "Subalterns at War: First World War Colonial Forces and the Politics of the Imperial War Graves Commission." Interventions 9, no. 3 (2007): 451-474.
  • Ben-Zvi, Abraham. Between Lausanne and Geneva: International Conferences and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. London: Routledge, 2019.
  • Beriker, Nimet and Daniel Druckman. “Simulating the Lausanne Peace Negotiations, 1922-1923: Power Asymmetries in Bargaining.” Simulation & Gaming 27, no. 2 (1996): 162-183.
  • Betts, Raymond F. Decolonization, London: Routledge, 1998.
  • Brown, Judith. The Twentieth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume IV, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Bush, Briton C. Mudros to Lausanne. Albany: SUNY Press, 1976.
  • Darwin, John. Britain and Decolonisation: the Retreat from Empire in the Post-war World. London: Macmillan International Higher Education, 1988.
  • Das, Santanu, (ed.) Race, Empire and First World War Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • Davison, Roderic. “Middle East Nationalism: Lausanne Thirty Years After.” Middle East Journal.7, no.3, (1953): 324-348.
  • Dockrill, Michael. “Britain and the Lausanne Conference: 1922-1923.” The Turkish Yearbook, XXIII, (1993): 1-6.
  • Duara, Prasenjit. Decolonization Perspectives, Now and Then. London: Routledge, 2003.
  • Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2004.
  • Fermont-Barnes, Gregory. The Anglo Afghan Wars, 1839-1919. Oxford; New York: Bloomsburry, 2009.
  • Ferris, John. "'Far too Dangerous a Gamble'? British Intelligence and Policy during the Chanak Crisis, September-October 1922." Diplomacy and Statecraft 14, no. 2 (2003): 139-184.
  • Fitzmaurice, Gerald Gray. “Do Treaties Need Ratification." Brit. YB Int'l L. 15 (1934): 113-115.
  • Gawrych, George W. “Kemal Atatürk's Politico‐Military Strategy in the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–1922: from Guerrilla Warfare to the Decisive Battle.” The Journal of Strategic Studies 11, no. 3 (1988): 318-341.
  • Grew, Joseph C. Turbulent Era; A Diplomatic Record of Forty Years, 1904-1945. Vol. 2. New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.
  • Harris, Percy. Forty Years in and out of Parliament. London: Read Books, 2006.
  • Hayes, Paul M. The Twentieth Century 1880-1939. Michigan: Michigan University Press, 1978.
  • Hopkins, Antony G. "Rethinking Decolonization." Past & Present 200, no. 1 (2008): 211-247.
  • Jenkinson, Jacqueline. “‘All in the Same Uniform’? The Participation of Black Colonial Residents in the British Armed Forces in the First World War." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 40, no. 2 (2012): 207-230.
  • Karvounarakis, Theo. "End of an Empire: Great Britain, Turkey and Greece from the Treaty of Sèvres to the Treaty of Lausanne." Balkan studies 41, no.1 (2000): 171-182.
  • Koller, Christian. "The Recruitment of Colonial Troops in Africa and Asia and their Deployment in Europe during the First World War.” Immigrants & Minorities 26, no. 1-2 (2008): 111-133.
  • Lange, Matthew. Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
  • Lloyd, Trevor Owen. The British Empire 1558–1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Louis, W. Roger. Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez and Decolonization. London, New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006.
  • Macfie, A.L. “The Chanak Affair, September-October 1922.” Balkan Studies 2, (1979): 308-311.
  • Marshall, Paul J. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Papuççular, Hazal. “For the Defence of the British Empire: Edwin Montagu and the Turkish Peace Settlement in a Transnational Context.” Journal of Anglo-Turkish Relations 1, no.2, (2020), pp.30-42.
  • Pearce, Robert. "The Colonial Office and planned decolonization in Africa." African Affairs 83, no. 330 (1984): 77-93.
  • Reynolds, David. “Britain, the Two World Wars, and the Problem of Narrative.” The Historical Journal 60, no. 1 (2017).
  • Reynolds, David. Britannia Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2013.
  • Rose, Kenneth. "Grigg, Edward William Macleay, First Baron Altrincham" in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Smith, Simon. British Imperialism 1750–1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Sonyel, Salahi. “The Anglo-Turkish Conflict Fifty Years Ago.” Belleten XXXVII, no.8, (1972): 113-123.
  • Thurlow, Richard. The Secret State: British Internal Security in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Wiley, 1994.
  • Toynbee, Arnold. “The East After Lausanne.” Foreign Affairs 2, no.1 (1923): 84-98.
  • Umunç, Himmet. “Hemingway in Turkey: Historical Contexts and Cultural Intertexts.” Belleten 69, no. 255 (2005): 229-242.
  • Wagner-Martin, Linda. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. Oxford, New York: 2000.
  • Wrigley, Chris (ed.). British Industrial Relations. Celtenham: E. Elgar, 1996.
  • Wrong, George M. “Canada and the Imperial War Cabinet.” Canadian Historical Review 1, no. 1 (1920): 3-25.
  • Yenen, Alp. “The Other Jihad: Enver Pasha, Bolsheviks, and Politics of Anticolonial Muslim Nationalism during the Baku Congress 1920.” in The First World War and Its Aftermath: The Shaping of the Middle East, edited by Fraser T. G. London: Gingko, 2015.
  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Iraq/British-occupation-and-the-mandatory-regime, (accessed 9 January 2021)

The Impacts of Lausanne Treaty on British Colonialism

Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 67 - 87, 20.06.2021

Öz

This study analyzes the impacts of the Lausanne Treaty upon the British colonial rule. So far, much have been discussed about how the Turkish War of Independence between 1919 and 1922 and the conclusion of Lausanne Treaty in 1923 influenced anti-imperialist or anti-colonial movements on the Middle East. That means the issue was usually studied from the perspective of the colonized. However, the colonizer side of the issue is often neglected. Whereas, the British Parliamentary discussions during the ratification of the Lausanne Treaty expose that this Treaty posed serious questions for the British colonial administration. Specifically, Canada’s challenge to the British colonial rule concerning the ratification of the Lausanne Treaty provoked heated debates in the British Parliament. British colonies’ contribution to the imperial military campaigns and their role in the peace settlements were open to debate. Besides, the administrative approach to the colonies created a dispute in the British domestic politics between the liberals and the conservatives. Thus, it is argued that the Lausanne Treaty generated an immediate impact on the colonial administration and the domestic politics of the British Empire as well. From this point of view, the Lausanne Treaty as a special post-First World War (WWI) agreement is formulated here as a critical stage in the de-colonization movement, which is usually taken as a post-Second World War phenomenon.

Kaynakça

  • House of Commons Hansard Archives https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/hansard/commons/HC Deb 06 June 1924 vol. 174 cc1617-521635, (accessed, 9 January 2021).
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521617
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521621
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521619
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521632
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521635
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521644
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521647
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521649
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521650
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521651
  • HC Archive Deb 06 June 1924 vol 174 cc1617-521652
  • Barrett, Michèle. "Subalterns at War: First World War Colonial Forces and the Politics of the Imperial War Graves Commission." Interventions 9, no. 3 (2007): 451-474.
  • Ben-Zvi, Abraham. Between Lausanne and Geneva: International Conferences and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. London: Routledge, 2019.
  • Beriker, Nimet and Daniel Druckman. “Simulating the Lausanne Peace Negotiations, 1922-1923: Power Asymmetries in Bargaining.” Simulation & Gaming 27, no. 2 (1996): 162-183.
  • Betts, Raymond F. Decolonization, London: Routledge, 1998.
  • Brown, Judith. The Twentieth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume IV, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Bush, Briton C. Mudros to Lausanne. Albany: SUNY Press, 1976.
  • Darwin, John. Britain and Decolonisation: the Retreat from Empire in the Post-war World. London: Macmillan International Higher Education, 1988.
  • Das, Santanu, (ed.) Race, Empire and First World War Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • Davison, Roderic. “Middle East Nationalism: Lausanne Thirty Years After.” Middle East Journal.7, no.3, (1953): 324-348.
  • Dockrill, Michael. “Britain and the Lausanne Conference: 1922-1923.” The Turkish Yearbook, XXIII, (1993): 1-6.
  • Duara, Prasenjit. Decolonization Perspectives, Now and Then. London: Routledge, 2003.
  • Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2004.
  • Fermont-Barnes, Gregory. The Anglo Afghan Wars, 1839-1919. Oxford; New York: Bloomsburry, 2009.
  • Ferris, John. "'Far too Dangerous a Gamble'? British Intelligence and Policy during the Chanak Crisis, September-October 1922." Diplomacy and Statecraft 14, no. 2 (2003): 139-184.
  • Fitzmaurice, Gerald Gray. “Do Treaties Need Ratification." Brit. YB Int'l L. 15 (1934): 113-115.
  • Gawrych, George W. “Kemal Atatürk's Politico‐Military Strategy in the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–1922: from Guerrilla Warfare to the Decisive Battle.” The Journal of Strategic Studies 11, no. 3 (1988): 318-341.
  • Grew, Joseph C. Turbulent Era; A Diplomatic Record of Forty Years, 1904-1945. Vol. 2. New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.
  • Harris, Percy. Forty Years in and out of Parliament. London: Read Books, 2006.
  • Hayes, Paul M. The Twentieth Century 1880-1939. Michigan: Michigan University Press, 1978.
  • Hopkins, Antony G. "Rethinking Decolonization." Past & Present 200, no. 1 (2008): 211-247.
  • Jenkinson, Jacqueline. “‘All in the Same Uniform’? The Participation of Black Colonial Residents in the British Armed Forces in the First World War." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 40, no. 2 (2012): 207-230.
  • Karvounarakis, Theo. "End of an Empire: Great Britain, Turkey and Greece from the Treaty of Sèvres to the Treaty of Lausanne." Balkan studies 41, no.1 (2000): 171-182.
  • Koller, Christian. "The Recruitment of Colonial Troops in Africa and Asia and their Deployment in Europe during the First World War.” Immigrants & Minorities 26, no. 1-2 (2008): 111-133.
  • Lange, Matthew. Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
  • Lloyd, Trevor Owen. The British Empire 1558–1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Louis, W. Roger. Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez and Decolonization. London, New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006.
  • Macfie, A.L. “The Chanak Affair, September-October 1922.” Balkan Studies 2, (1979): 308-311.
  • Marshall, Paul J. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Papuççular, Hazal. “For the Defence of the British Empire: Edwin Montagu and the Turkish Peace Settlement in a Transnational Context.” Journal of Anglo-Turkish Relations 1, no.2, (2020), pp.30-42.
  • Pearce, Robert. "The Colonial Office and planned decolonization in Africa." African Affairs 83, no. 330 (1984): 77-93.
  • Reynolds, David. “Britain, the Two World Wars, and the Problem of Narrative.” The Historical Journal 60, no. 1 (2017).
  • Reynolds, David. Britannia Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2013.
  • Rose, Kenneth. "Grigg, Edward William Macleay, First Baron Altrincham" in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Smith, Simon. British Imperialism 1750–1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Sonyel, Salahi. “The Anglo-Turkish Conflict Fifty Years Ago.” Belleten XXXVII, no.8, (1972): 113-123.
  • Thurlow, Richard. The Secret State: British Internal Security in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Wiley, 1994.
  • Toynbee, Arnold. “The East After Lausanne.” Foreign Affairs 2, no.1 (1923): 84-98.
  • Umunç, Himmet. “Hemingway in Turkey: Historical Contexts and Cultural Intertexts.” Belleten 69, no. 255 (2005): 229-242.
  • Wagner-Martin, Linda. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. Oxford, New York: 2000.
  • Wrigley, Chris (ed.). British Industrial Relations. Celtenham: E. Elgar, 1996.
  • Wrong, George M. “Canada and the Imperial War Cabinet.” Canadian Historical Review 1, no. 1 (1920): 3-25.
  • Yenen, Alp. “The Other Jihad: Enver Pasha, Bolsheviks, and Politics of Anticolonial Muslim Nationalism during the Baku Congress 1920.” in The First World War and Its Aftermath: The Shaping of the Middle East, edited by Fraser T. G. London: Gingko, 2015.
  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Iraq/British-occupation-and-the-mandatory-regime, (accessed 9 January 2021)

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Emine Tutku VARDAĞLI (Sorumlu Yazar)
İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi
0000-0001-6466-7881
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 13 Mayıs 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Chicago Vardağlı, E. T. "The Impacts of Lausanne Treaty on British Colonialism". Journal of Anglo-Turkish Relations 2 (2021 ): 67-87

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