Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 31 - 41, 30.03.2017
https://doi.org/10.17261/Pressacademia.2017.383

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Atkinson, G., Healey, A. and Mourato, S. 2005, “Valuing the Costs of Violent Crime: A Stated Preference Approach”, Oxford Economic Paper, Vol. 57, pp. 559–585.
  • Aytaç, M., Aytaç, S. and Bayram, N. 2007, “Suç Türlerini Etkileyen Faktörlerin İstatistiksel Analizi”, 8. Türkiye Ekonometri ve İstatistik Kongresi, İnönü University, Malatya, 24-25 May, pp. 1-7.
  • Becker, G. S. 1968, “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 78, pp. 526–536.
  • Beki, C., Zeelenberg, K. and Montfort, K. V. 1999, “An Analysis of the Crime Rate in the Netherlands 1950-93”, British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 39, pp. 401-415.
  • Buonanno, P. and Leonida, L. 2006, “Education and Crime: Evidence from Italian Regions”, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 13, pp. 709-713.
  • Buonanno, P. and Montolio, D. 2008, “Identifying the Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Crime Across Spanish Provinces”, International Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 28, pp. 89-97.
  • Cameron, A. C. and Trivedi, P. K. 2007, “Essentials of Count Data Regression”, in Baltagi B. (ed.), A Companion to Theoretical Econometrics, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, MA, USA.
  • Chang, J. and Wu, C. H. 2012, “Crime, Job Searches, and Economic Growth”, Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 40, pp. 3-19.
  • Chen, S. W. 2009, “Investigating Causality Among Unemployment, Income and Crime in Taiwan: Evidence from the Bounds Test Approach”, Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol. 7, pp. 115-125.
  • Civitas Crime 2012, “Comparisons of Crime in OECD Countries”, Retrieved May 24, 2012. http://www.civitas.org.uk/crime/crime_stats_oecdjan2012.pdf.
  • Conley, J. P. and Wang, P. 2006, “Crime and Ethics”, Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 60, pp. 107-123.
  • Cömertler, N. and Kar, M. 2007, “Türkiye’de Suç Oranının Sosyo-ekonomik Belirleyicileri; Yatay Kesit Analizi”, Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, no: 62, pp. 37-57.
  • Daniele, V. and Ugo, M. 2008, “Organized Crime and Foreign Direct Investment: The Italian Case”, CESifo Working Paper, no: 2416, pp. 128.
  • Deadman, D. and MacDonald, Z. 2002, “Why has Crime Fallen? An Economic Perspective”, Institute of Economic Affairs, Blackwell Publisher, pp. 5-14.
  • Dilulio, J. J. 1996, “Help Wanted: Economists, Crime and Public Policy”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, pp. 3-24.
  • Edmark, K. 2005, “Unemployment and Crime: Is There a Connection?”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, pp. 353-373.
  • Ehrlich, I. 1973, “Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 81, pp. 521–565.
  • Ehrlich, I. 1996, “Crime, Punishment, and the Market for Offenses”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, pp. 43-67.
  • Entorf, H. and Spengler, H. 1998, “Socio-economic and Demographic Factors of Crime in Germany: Evidence from Panel Data of the German States”, Discussion Paper, no. 98-16, pp. 1-43.
  • Entorf, H. and Spengler, H. 2000, “Socioeconomic and Economic Factors of Crime in Germany: Evidence from Panel Data of the German States”, International Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 20, pp. 75–106.
  • Field, S. 1990, Trends in Crime and Their Interpretation. Home Office Research Study 119. Home Office, London.
  • Fleisher, B. 1963, “The Effect of Unemployment on Juvenile Delinquency”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 71, pp. 543-555
  • Fleisher, B. 1966, “The Effects of Income on Delinquency”, American Economic Review, Vol. 56, pp. 118-137
  • Freeman, R. B. 1999, “The Economics of Crime”, in Ashenfelter O. and Card D. (ed.) Handbook of Labor Economics, Chap. 52, Vol. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 3529–3571.
  • Fontenay, C. D. 2008, “The Economics of Crime: The Case of Argentina”, The Melbourne Review, Vol. 4, pp. 70-75. Gould, E. D., Weinberg, B. A. and Mustard, D. B. 2002, “Crime Rates and Local Labor Opportunities in the United States: 1979–1997”, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 84, pp. 45–61.
  • Grogger, J. 1998, “Market Wages and Youth Crime”, Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 16, pp. 756-791.
  • Güvel, E. A. 2004, Suç ve Ceza Ekonomisi, Roma Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Hall, A. 2007, “Socio-economic Theories of Crime”, Working Paper, Capella University, pp. 1-18. (www.arichall.com/academic/papers/hs8373-paper.pdf)
  • Hamzah, S., Zahara, N. and Lau, E. 2013, “The Role of Social Factors in Explaining Crime”, Theoretical and Applied Economics, Vol. 20, pp. 99-118.
  • Hausman, J. A., Hall, B. H., and Griliches, Z. 1984, “Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents_R&D Relationship”, Econometrica, Vol. 52, pp. 909-938.
  • Hu, Q. 2002, Analysis of Panel Patent Data Using Poisson, Negative Binomial and GMM Estimation, Simon Fraser University, Master Thesis.
  • Ivaschenko, O., Nivorozhkin, A. and Nivorozhkin, E. 2012, “The Role of Economic Crisis and Social Spending in Explaining Crime in Russia Regional Panel Data Analysis”, Eastern European Economics, Vol. 50, pp. 21–41.
  • Kesteren, J. N. V., Mayhew, P., Nieuwbeerta, P. 2000, “Criminal victimization in seventeen industrialized countries: key findings from the 2000”, International Crime Victim Survey, pp. 98–99. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  • Krüger, N. A. 2011, “The Impact of Economic Fluctuations on Crime: A Multiscale Analysis”, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 18, pp. 179-182.
  • Levitt, S. D. 1996, “The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, pp. 319–351.
  • Levitt, S. 1999, “The Changing Relationship between Income and Crime Victimization”, Federal Reserve Bank of New York Policy Review, Vol. 5, pp. 87-98.
  • Lochner, L. 1999, “Education, Work, and Crime: Theory and Evidence”, Working Paper, no: 465, University of Rochester.
  • Machin, S. and Meghir, C. 2004, “Crime and Economic Incentives”, Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 39, pp. 958-979.
  • Marvell, T. B. and Moody, C. E. 1996, “Specification Problems, Police Levels, and Crime Rates”, Criminology, Vol. 34, pp. 609-646.
  • Masih, A. M. M. and Masih, R. 1996, “Temporal Causality and the Dynamics of Different Categories of Crime and Their Socioeconomic Determinants: Evidence from Australia”, Applied Economics, Vol. 28, pp. 1093-1104.
  • Mehlum, H., Moene, K. and Torvik, R. 2005, “Crime-Induced Poverty Traps”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 77, pp. 325–340.
  • Narayan, P. K. and Smyth, R. 2004, “Crime Rates, Male Youth Unemployment and Real Income in Australia: Evidence from Granger Causality Tests”, Applied Economics, Vol. 36, pp. 2079-2095.
  • Nikolaos, D. and Alexandros, G. 2009, “The Effect of Ssocio-economic Determinants on Crime Rates: An Empirical Research in the case of Greece with Cointegration Analysis”, International Journal of Economic Science and Applied Research, Vol. 2, pp. 51-64.
  • Pyle, D. and Deadman, D. 1994, “Forecasting recorded property crime using a time-series econometric model”, British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 37, pp. 437-445.
  • Raphael, S. and Winter-Ebmer, R. 2001, “Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime”, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 44, pp. 259–283.
  • Saridakis, G. and Spengler, H. 2009, Crime, Deterrence and Unemployment in Greece: A Panel Data Approach, Discussion Papers, no. 853, pp. 1-9.
  • Scorcu, A. E. and Cellini, R. 1998, “Economic Activity and Crime in the Long Run: An Empirical Investigation on Aggregate Data from Italy, 1951–1994”, International Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 18, pp. 279–292.
  • Tang, C. F. and Lean, H. H. 2007, “Will Inflation Increase Crime Rate? New Evidence from Bounds and Modified Wald Tests”, Gobal Crime, Vol. 8, pp. 311-323.
  • Teles, V. K. 2004, “The Effects of Macroeconomic Policies on Crime”, Economics Bulletin, Vol. 11, pp. 1-9.
  • Van Dijk, J. J. M., Manchin, R., Van Kesteren, J., Nevala, S. and Hideg, G. 2005, The Burden of Crime in the EU. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005. pp. 21–23. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  • Van Dijk, J. J. M., Van Kesteren, J. and Smit, P. 2008, Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective, Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS. The Hague: Boom Legal Publishers. pp. 99–104. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  • Wu, D. and Wu, Z. 2012, “Crime, Inequality and Unemployment in England and Wales”, Applied Economics, Vol. 44, pp. 3765-3775.
  • Yıldız, R., Öcal, O. and Yıldırım, E. 2010, “Suçun Sosyoekonomik Belirleyicileri: Kayseri Üzerine Bir Uygulama”, Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, no. 36, pp. 15-31.

SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF CRIME BY PANEL COUNT DATA ANALYSIS: THE CASE OF EU 28 AND TURKEY

Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 31 - 41, 30.03.2017
https://doi.org/10.17261/Pressacademia.2017.383

Öz

Purpose- Aim of this paper is to examine factors that affect the total number of crimes recorded by the police for EU 28 and Turkey in 2001-2010, which is not used previously in the literature dealing with the developments and changes during a certain period in this study. Methodology- We used panel count data in analysis of this paper. Count data models are appropriate to determine factors on the number of crimes because of the nature of the dependent variable.

Findings- we used growth rate, GDP per capita, inflation, unemployment rate, urban overpopulation, enrollment rate and the number of the police variables to examine effect on crimes. The results demonstrate that GDP per capita, inflation, unemployment rate and urban overpopulation has a positive on the number of crimes. The increases on the enrollment rate and the number of police decrease the number of crimes.

Conclusion- We observe higher crime rates in highly urbanized areas.

Kaynakça

  • Atkinson, G., Healey, A. and Mourato, S. 2005, “Valuing the Costs of Violent Crime: A Stated Preference Approach”, Oxford Economic Paper, Vol. 57, pp. 559–585.
  • Aytaç, M., Aytaç, S. and Bayram, N. 2007, “Suç Türlerini Etkileyen Faktörlerin İstatistiksel Analizi”, 8. Türkiye Ekonometri ve İstatistik Kongresi, İnönü University, Malatya, 24-25 May, pp. 1-7.
  • Becker, G. S. 1968, “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 78, pp. 526–536.
  • Beki, C., Zeelenberg, K. and Montfort, K. V. 1999, “An Analysis of the Crime Rate in the Netherlands 1950-93”, British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 39, pp. 401-415.
  • Buonanno, P. and Leonida, L. 2006, “Education and Crime: Evidence from Italian Regions”, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 13, pp. 709-713.
  • Buonanno, P. and Montolio, D. 2008, “Identifying the Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Crime Across Spanish Provinces”, International Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 28, pp. 89-97.
  • Cameron, A. C. and Trivedi, P. K. 2007, “Essentials of Count Data Regression”, in Baltagi B. (ed.), A Companion to Theoretical Econometrics, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, MA, USA.
  • Chang, J. and Wu, C. H. 2012, “Crime, Job Searches, and Economic Growth”, Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 40, pp. 3-19.
  • Chen, S. W. 2009, “Investigating Causality Among Unemployment, Income and Crime in Taiwan: Evidence from the Bounds Test Approach”, Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol. 7, pp. 115-125.
  • Civitas Crime 2012, “Comparisons of Crime in OECD Countries”, Retrieved May 24, 2012. http://www.civitas.org.uk/crime/crime_stats_oecdjan2012.pdf.
  • Conley, J. P. and Wang, P. 2006, “Crime and Ethics”, Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 60, pp. 107-123.
  • Cömertler, N. and Kar, M. 2007, “Türkiye’de Suç Oranının Sosyo-ekonomik Belirleyicileri; Yatay Kesit Analizi”, Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, no: 62, pp. 37-57.
  • Daniele, V. and Ugo, M. 2008, “Organized Crime and Foreign Direct Investment: The Italian Case”, CESifo Working Paper, no: 2416, pp. 128.
  • Deadman, D. and MacDonald, Z. 2002, “Why has Crime Fallen? An Economic Perspective”, Institute of Economic Affairs, Blackwell Publisher, pp. 5-14.
  • Dilulio, J. J. 1996, “Help Wanted: Economists, Crime and Public Policy”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, pp. 3-24.
  • Edmark, K. 2005, “Unemployment and Crime: Is There a Connection?”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, pp. 353-373.
  • Ehrlich, I. 1973, “Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 81, pp. 521–565.
  • Ehrlich, I. 1996, “Crime, Punishment, and the Market for Offenses”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, pp. 43-67.
  • Entorf, H. and Spengler, H. 1998, “Socio-economic and Demographic Factors of Crime in Germany: Evidence from Panel Data of the German States”, Discussion Paper, no. 98-16, pp. 1-43.
  • Entorf, H. and Spengler, H. 2000, “Socioeconomic and Economic Factors of Crime in Germany: Evidence from Panel Data of the German States”, International Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 20, pp. 75–106.
  • Field, S. 1990, Trends in Crime and Their Interpretation. Home Office Research Study 119. Home Office, London.
  • Fleisher, B. 1963, “The Effect of Unemployment on Juvenile Delinquency”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 71, pp. 543-555
  • Fleisher, B. 1966, “The Effects of Income on Delinquency”, American Economic Review, Vol. 56, pp. 118-137
  • Freeman, R. B. 1999, “The Economics of Crime”, in Ashenfelter O. and Card D. (ed.) Handbook of Labor Economics, Chap. 52, Vol. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 3529–3571.
  • Fontenay, C. D. 2008, “The Economics of Crime: The Case of Argentina”, The Melbourne Review, Vol. 4, pp. 70-75. Gould, E. D., Weinberg, B. A. and Mustard, D. B. 2002, “Crime Rates and Local Labor Opportunities in the United States: 1979–1997”, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 84, pp. 45–61.
  • Grogger, J. 1998, “Market Wages and Youth Crime”, Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 16, pp. 756-791.
  • Güvel, E. A. 2004, Suç ve Ceza Ekonomisi, Roma Yayınları, Ankara.
  • Hall, A. 2007, “Socio-economic Theories of Crime”, Working Paper, Capella University, pp. 1-18. (www.arichall.com/academic/papers/hs8373-paper.pdf)
  • Hamzah, S., Zahara, N. and Lau, E. 2013, “The Role of Social Factors in Explaining Crime”, Theoretical and Applied Economics, Vol. 20, pp. 99-118.
  • Hausman, J. A., Hall, B. H., and Griliches, Z. 1984, “Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents_R&D Relationship”, Econometrica, Vol. 52, pp. 909-938.
  • Hu, Q. 2002, Analysis of Panel Patent Data Using Poisson, Negative Binomial and GMM Estimation, Simon Fraser University, Master Thesis.
  • Ivaschenko, O., Nivorozhkin, A. and Nivorozhkin, E. 2012, “The Role of Economic Crisis and Social Spending in Explaining Crime in Russia Regional Panel Data Analysis”, Eastern European Economics, Vol. 50, pp. 21–41.
  • Kesteren, J. N. V., Mayhew, P., Nieuwbeerta, P. 2000, “Criminal victimization in seventeen industrialized countries: key findings from the 2000”, International Crime Victim Survey, pp. 98–99. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  • Krüger, N. A. 2011, “The Impact of Economic Fluctuations on Crime: A Multiscale Analysis”, Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 18, pp. 179-182.
  • Levitt, S. D. 1996, “The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, pp. 319–351.
  • Levitt, S. 1999, “The Changing Relationship between Income and Crime Victimization”, Federal Reserve Bank of New York Policy Review, Vol. 5, pp. 87-98.
  • Lochner, L. 1999, “Education, Work, and Crime: Theory and Evidence”, Working Paper, no: 465, University of Rochester.
  • Machin, S. and Meghir, C. 2004, “Crime and Economic Incentives”, Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 39, pp. 958-979.
  • Marvell, T. B. and Moody, C. E. 1996, “Specification Problems, Police Levels, and Crime Rates”, Criminology, Vol. 34, pp. 609-646.
  • Masih, A. M. M. and Masih, R. 1996, “Temporal Causality and the Dynamics of Different Categories of Crime and Their Socioeconomic Determinants: Evidence from Australia”, Applied Economics, Vol. 28, pp. 1093-1104.
  • Mehlum, H., Moene, K. and Torvik, R. 2005, “Crime-Induced Poverty Traps”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 77, pp. 325–340.
  • Narayan, P. K. and Smyth, R. 2004, “Crime Rates, Male Youth Unemployment and Real Income in Australia: Evidence from Granger Causality Tests”, Applied Economics, Vol. 36, pp. 2079-2095.
  • Nikolaos, D. and Alexandros, G. 2009, “The Effect of Ssocio-economic Determinants on Crime Rates: An Empirical Research in the case of Greece with Cointegration Analysis”, International Journal of Economic Science and Applied Research, Vol. 2, pp. 51-64.
  • Pyle, D. and Deadman, D. 1994, “Forecasting recorded property crime using a time-series econometric model”, British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 37, pp. 437-445.
  • Raphael, S. and Winter-Ebmer, R. 2001, “Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime”, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 44, pp. 259–283.
  • Saridakis, G. and Spengler, H. 2009, Crime, Deterrence and Unemployment in Greece: A Panel Data Approach, Discussion Papers, no. 853, pp. 1-9.
  • Scorcu, A. E. and Cellini, R. 1998, “Economic Activity and Crime in the Long Run: An Empirical Investigation on Aggregate Data from Italy, 1951–1994”, International Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 18, pp. 279–292.
  • Tang, C. F. and Lean, H. H. 2007, “Will Inflation Increase Crime Rate? New Evidence from Bounds and Modified Wald Tests”, Gobal Crime, Vol. 8, pp. 311-323.
  • Teles, V. K. 2004, “The Effects of Macroeconomic Policies on Crime”, Economics Bulletin, Vol. 11, pp. 1-9.
  • Van Dijk, J. J. M., Manchin, R., Van Kesteren, J., Nevala, S. and Hideg, G. 2005, The Burden of Crime in the EU. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005. pp. 21–23. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  • Van Dijk, J. J. M., Van Kesteren, J. and Smit, P. 2008, Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective, Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS. The Hague: Boom Legal Publishers. pp. 99–104. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  • Wu, D. and Wu, Z. 2012, “Crime, Inequality and Unemployment in England and Wales”, Applied Economics, Vol. 44, pp. 3765-3775.
  • Yıldız, R., Öcal, O. and Yıldırım, E. 2010, “Suçun Sosyoekonomik Belirleyicileri: Kayseri Üzerine Bir Uygulama”, Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, no. 36, pp. 15-31.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Ozlem KİZİLGOL>


Sibel SELİM>

0000-0002-8464-588X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mart 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Kizilgol, O. & Selim, S. (2017). SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF CRIME BY PANEL COUNT DATA ANALYSIS: THE CASE OF EU 28 AND TURKEY . Journal of Business Economics and Finance , 6 (1) , 31-41 . DOI: 10.17261/Pressacademia.2017.383

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