Cutaneous leishmaniasis is gradually becoming an increasing public health concern. Therefore, it is essential to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease. Environmental changes, the immune status of the host, and treatment failure are the three most important risk factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis at the ALERT center, over a five-year (2014-2018). A total of 2329 study participants comprising 1174 (50.4%) males and 1155 (49.6%,) females participated. The data was collected retrospectively from ALERT center clinical laboratory records within the study period (2014-2018).
The overall prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis among the study participants was 33%. Of this, the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis among male and female study participants was 34.9% and 31.1%, respectively. The prevalence in the age group less than 18, 19-28, 29-38, and greater than 39 years was 37.0%, 26.6%, 13.3%, and 23.1%, respectively.
Generally, this study showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis, prevalent in the study area, is still a public health problem associated with many risk factors. Hence, there is a need to implement a sound control program, strengthened behavioral change, communication, and social mobilization-related activities.