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Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 1 - 9, 30.03.2022

Öz

Solid waste generation is inseparable with mankind and the unprecedented increase in population will inevitably be associated with an increase in waste. This study designed household surveys, to assess current waste management practices in Biu. Biu town becomes important particularly due to the establishment of tertiary institutions which recently increased the population of households. Waste disposal approaches indicated that the majority (76%) engaged in unsustainable disposal measures. These measures include burning, disposing of waste along water drains, disposal along roadside, and burying waste. Although the study results indicates that majority (89.4%) of the respondents were aware of the implications of these approaches, only a few practices the reuse of waste (8.6%), recycling (10.4%), and waste segregation (22%). The drawbacks of achieving an effective waste disposal and management system within the study area were the inability of the local authority to provide a waste collection and disposal system (83.3%), lack of a well designated waste disposal site (98%), and the high cost of waste handling charges by unregistered and unmonitored waste collectors within the municipality (57.6%). The results suggests that in Biu LGA, certain aspects of waste management from the government constitutes to most of the issues and, at the same time, there are areas of opportunity to improve the efficiency of management particularly in the physical aspects, such as collection, treatment and safe disposal systems and services.

Kaynakça

  • Abdulredha, M., Kot, P., Al Khaddar, R., Jordan, D. and Abdulridha, A. (2020) 'Investigating municipal solid waste management system performance during the Arba’een event in the city of Kerbala, Iraq', Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22(2), pp. 1431-1454. doi: 10.1007/s10668-018-0256-2.
  • Addo, H.O., Dun-Dery, E., Afoakwa, E., Elizabeth, A., Ellen, A. and Rebecca, M. (2017) 'Correlates of domestic waste management and related health outcomes in Sunyani, Ghana: a protocol towards enhancing policy', BMC public health, 17(1), pp. 615. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4537-8.
  • Ajah, K.C., Ademiluyi, J. and Nnaji, C.C. (2015) 'Spatiality, seasonality and ecological risks of heavy metals in the vicinity of a degenerate municipal central dumpsite in Enugu, Nigeria', Journal of environmental health science and engineering 13(1), pp. 15. doi: 10.1186/s40201-015-0168-0.
  • Alamgir, M., Bidlingmaier, W. and Cossu, R. (2012) 'Successful waste management strategies in developing countries require meaningful involvement of the concerned stakeholders', Waste Management, 32(11), pp. 2007-2008. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.07.028.
  • Asase, M., Yanful, E.K., Mensah, M., Stanford, J. and Amponsah, S. (2009) 'Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana', Waste management, 29(10), pp. 2779-2786. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.06.019.
  • Azevedo, B.D., Scavarda, L.F., Caiado, R.G.G. and Fuss, M. (2021) 'Improving urban household solid waste management in developing countries based on the German experience', Waste management, 120(2021), pp. 772-783. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.001.
  • Azodo A.P, Ismaila S.O. (2016). Effective solid waste management for environmental quality and sustainability: knowledge and practices among Nigerian households. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on SET: A driving force for Sustainable Development Tagged COLENG 2016, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, March 7-11, 289-297.
  • Batista, M., Goyannes Gusmão Caiado, R., Gonçalves Quelhas, O.L., Brito Alves Lima, G., Leal Filho, W. and Rocha Yparraguirre, I.T. (2021) 'A framework for sustainable and integrated municipal solid waste management: Barriers and critical factors to developing countries', Journal of Cleaner Production, 312(2021), pp. 127516. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127516.
  • Boateng, K.S., Agyei-Baffour, P., Boateng, D., Rockson, G.N.K., Mensah, K.A. and Edusei, A.K. (2019) 'Household Willingness-to-Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management Services in Four Major Metropolitan Cities in Ghana', Journal of environmental and public health, 2019(2019), pp. 5468381-9. doi: 10.1155/2019/5468381.
  • Egun N.K. (2012). The waste to wealth concept: waste market operation in Delta State Nigeria. Greener Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2:206-212.
  • Ferronato, N., Guisbert Lizarazu, E.G., Velasco Tudela, J.M., Blanco Callisaya, J.K., Preziosi, G. and Torretta, V. (2020) 'Selective collection of recyclable waste in Universities of low-middle income countries: Lessons learned in Bolivia', Waste management, 105(2020), pp. 198-210. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.02.014.
  • Godfrey, L., Scott, D., Difford, M. and Trois, C. (2012) 'Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: The South African waste information system', Waste management, 32(11), pp. 2154-2162. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.04.019.
  • Gu, B., Wang, H., Chen, Z., Jiang, S., Zhu, W., Liu, M., Chen, Y., Wu, Y., He, S., Cheng, R., Yang, J. and Bi, J. (2015) 'Characterization, quantification and management of household solid waste: A case study in China', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 98(2015), pp. 67-75. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.03.001.
  • Gunarathne, A.D.N., Gunarathne, A.D.N., Tennakoon, T P. Y. C., Tennakoon, T P. Y. C., Weragoda, J.R. and Weragoda, J.R. (2019) 'Challenges and opportunities for the recycling industry in developing countries: the case of Sri Lanka', Journal of material cycles and waste management, 21(1), pp. 181-190. doi: 10.1007/s10163-018-0782-x.
  • Hettiarachchi, H., Caucci, S. and Schwärzel, K. (2020) Organic Waste Composting through Nexus Thinking Practices, Policies, and Trends. 1st edn. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Ikhlayel, M. (2018) 'Development of management systems for sustainable municipal solid waste in developing countries: a systematic life cycle thinking approach', Journal of Cleaner Production, 180(2018), pp. 571-586. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.057.
  • Jalil A. (2010). Sustainable Development in Malaysia: a case study on household waste management. Sustainable Development. 3(3), pp.91-102.
  • James, E.B., Joe, W.K. and Chadwick, C.H. (2001) 'Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research', Information technology, learning, and performance journal, 19(1), pp. 43.
  • Joseph, L.P. and Prasad, R. (2020) 'Assessing the sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW) to electricity generation potentials in selected Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS)', Journal of Cleaner Production, 248(2020), pp. 119222. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119222.
  • Joshua W.K. (2021). Assessing rural water quality: comparing improved and unimproved drinking water sources in Hawul LGA. SNRU Journal of Science and Technology. 13(2), pp.55-62.
  • Kabera, T. and Nishimwe, H. (2019) 'Systems analysis of municipal solid waste management and recycling system in east Africa: benchmarking performance in Kigali city, Rwanda', E3S web of conferences, 80(2019), pp. 3004. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20198003004.
  • Khan, D., Kumar, A. and Samadder, S.R. (2016) 'Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate', Waste management, 49(2016), pp. 15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.019.
  • Mekonnen, G.B. and Tokai, A. (2020) 'A Historical Perspective of Municipal Solid Waste Management and Recycling System in Japan: Learning for Developing Countries', Journal of sustainable development, 13(3), pp. 85. doi: 10.5539/jsd.v13n3p85.
  • Miezah, K., Obiri-Danso, K., Kádár, Z., Fei-Baffoe, B. and Mensah, M.Y. (2015) 'Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana', Waste management, 46(2015), pp. 15-27. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.09.009.
  • National Bureau of Statistics, (NBS) (2012) Nigeria - General Household Survey-Panel 2010-2011 (Postharvest), First Round (wave one), Abuja, Nigeria: NBS.
  • Ndum, A.E. (2013) Bottom-Up Approach to Sustainable Solid Waste Management in African Countries. PhD Thesis . Brandenburg University of Technology.
  • Nguyen, T.D.T., Kawai, K. and Nakakubo, T. (2021) 'Drivers and constraints of waste-to-energy incineration for sustainable municipal solid waste management in developing countries', Journal of material cycles and waste management, 23(4), pp. 1688-1697. doi: 10.1007/s10163-021-01227-2.
  • Obongo, T., Okotto, L. and Kinaro, Z. (2021) 'Solid Waste Management Along Lake Victoria Beeches', World Environment, 11(1), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.5923/j.env.20211101.01.
  • Ohaka A.R, Ozor P.E, Ohaka C.C. (2013). Household waste disposal practices in Owerri municipal council of Imo State. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 9(4), pp. 32-36.
  • Oumarou M.B, Dauda M, Abdulrahim A.T, Abubakar A.B. (2012). Characterization, and generation of municipal solid waste in North central Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research. 2(5), pp.3669-3672.
  • Salau, O., Fatusi, O. and Bwala, S. (2021) 'Assessment of household waste disposal system in tudun-wada area of billiri local government, Gombe state. Nigeria', IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, 15(1), pp. 59-62. doi: 10.9790/2402-1501015962.
  • Sandelowski, M. (1995) 'Sample size in qualitative research', Research in Nursing & Health, 18(2), pp. 179-183. doi: 10.1002/nur.4770180211.
  • Schoot Uiterkamp, B.J., Azadi, H. and Ho, P. (2011) 'Sustainable recycling model: A comparative analysis between India and Tanzania', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55(3), pp. 344-355. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.10.009.
  • Sim, J., Saunders, B., Waterfield, J. and Kingstone, T. (2018) 'Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori?', International journal of social research methodology, 21(5), pp. 619-634. doi: 10.1080/13645579.2018.1454643.
  • Singh, R.K., Yabar, H., Mizunoya, T., Higano, Y. and Rakwal, R. (2014) 'Potential Benefits of Introducing Integrated Solid Waste Management Approach in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Kathmandu City', Journal of sustainable development, 7(6), pp. 70-83. doi: 10.5539/jsd.v7n6p70.
  • Wilson, D.C., Rodic, L., Cowing, M.J., Velis, C.A., Whiteman, A.D., Scheinberg, A., Vilches, R., Masterson, D., Stretz, J. and Oelz, B. (2015) '‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities', Waste management, 35(2015), pp. 329-342. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.10.006.
  • Wilson, D.C., Velis, C.A. and Rodic, L. (2013) 'Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Waste and resource management, 166(2), pp. 52-68. doi: 10.1680/warm.12.00005.
  • Zhang, H., Liu, G., Xue, L., Zuo, J., Chen, T., Vuppaladadiyam, A. and Duan, H. (2020) 'Anaerobic digestion-based waste-to-energy technologies can halve the climate impact of China’s fast-growing food waste by 2040', Journal of Cleaner Production, 277(2020), pp. 123490. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123490.

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 1 - 9, 30.03.2022

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Abdulredha, M., Kot, P., Al Khaddar, R., Jordan, D. and Abdulridha, A. (2020) 'Investigating municipal solid waste management system performance during the Arba’een event in the city of Kerbala, Iraq', Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22(2), pp. 1431-1454. doi: 10.1007/s10668-018-0256-2.
  • Addo, H.O., Dun-Dery, E., Afoakwa, E., Elizabeth, A., Ellen, A. and Rebecca, M. (2017) 'Correlates of domestic waste management and related health outcomes in Sunyani, Ghana: a protocol towards enhancing policy', BMC public health, 17(1), pp. 615. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4537-8.
  • Ajah, K.C., Ademiluyi, J. and Nnaji, C.C. (2015) 'Spatiality, seasonality and ecological risks of heavy metals in the vicinity of a degenerate municipal central dumpsite in Enugu, Nigeria', Journal of environmental health science and engineering 13(1), pp. 15. doi: 10.1186/s40201-015-0168-0.
  • Alamgir, M., Bidlingmaier, W. and Cossu, R. (2012) 'Successful waste management strategies in developing countries require meaningful involvement of the concerned stakeholders', Waste Management, 32(11), pp. 2007-2008. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.07.028.
  • Asase, M., Yanful, E.K., Mensah, M., Stanford, J. and Amponsah, S. (2009) 'Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana', Waste management, 29(10), pp. 2779-2786. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.06.019.
  • Azevedo, B.D., Scavarda, L.F., Caiado, R.G.G. and Fuss, M. (2021) 'Improving urban household solid waste management in developing countries based on the German experience', Waste management, 120(2021), pp. 772-783. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.001.
  • Azodo A.P, Ismaila S.O. (2016). Effective solid waste management for environmental quality and sustainability: knowledge and practices among Nigerian households. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on SET: A driving force for Sustainable Development Tagged COLENG 2016, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, March 7-11, 289-297.
  • Batista, M., Goyannes Gusmão Caiado, R., Gonçalves Quelhas, O.L., Brito Alves Lima, G., Leal Filho, W. and Rocha Yparraguirre, I.T. (2021) 'A framework for sustainable and integrated municipal solid waste management: Barriers and critical factors to developing countries', Journal of Cleaner Production, 312(2021), pp. 127516. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127516.
  • Boateng, K.S., Agyei-Baffour, P., Boateng, D., Rockson, G.N.K., Mensah, K.A. and Edusei, A.K. (2019) 'Household Willingness-to-Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management Services in Four Major Metropolitan Cities in Ghana', Journal of environmental and public health, 2019(2019), pp. 5468381-9. doi: 10.1155/2019/5468381.
  • Egun N.K. (2012). The waste to wealth concept: waste market operation in Delta State Nigeria. Greener Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2:206-212.
  • Ferronato, N., Guisbert Lizarazu, E.G., Velasco Tudela, J.M., Blanco Callisaya, J.K., Preziosi, G. and Torretta, V. (2020) 'Selective collection of recyclable waste in Universities of low-middle income countries: Lessons learned in Bolivia', Waste management, 105(2020), pp. 198-210. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.02.014.
  • Godfrey, L., Scott, D., Difford, M. and Trois, C. (2012) 'Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: The South African waste information system', Waste management, 32(11), pp. 2154-2162. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.04.019.
  • Gu, B., Wang, H., Chen, Z., Jiang, S., Zhu, W., Liu, M., Chen, Y., Wu, Y., He, S., Cheng, R., Yang, J. and Bi, J. (2015) 'Characterization, quantification and management of household solid waste: A case study in China', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 98(2015), pp. 67-75. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.03.001.
  • Gunarathne, A.D.N., Gunarathne, A.D.N., Tennakoon, T P. Y. C., Tennakoon, T P. Y. C., Weragoda, J.R. and Weragoda, J.R. (2019) 'Challenges and opportunities for the recycling industry in developing countries: the case of Sri Lanka', Journal of material cycles and waste management, 21(1), pp. 181-190. doi: 10.1007/s10163-018-0782-x.
  • Hettiarachchi, H., Caucci, S. and Schwärzel, K. (2020) Organic Waste Composting through Nexus Thinking Practices, Policies, and Trends. 1st edn. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  • Ikhlayel, M. (2018) 'Development of management systems for sustainable municipal solid waste in developing countries: a systematic life cycle thinking approach', Journal of Cleaner Production, 180(2018), pp. 571-586. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.057.
  • Jalil A. (2010). Sustainable Development in Malaysia: a case study on household waste management. Sustainable Development. 3(3), pp.91-102.
  • James, E.B., Joe, W.K. and Chadwick, C.H. (2001) 'Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research', Information technology, learning, and performance journal, 19(1), pp. 43.
  • Joseph, L.P. and Prasad, R. (2020) 'Assessing the sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW) to electricity generation potentials in selected Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS)', Journal of Cleaner Production, 248(2020), pp. 119222. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119222.
  • Joshua W.K. (2021). Assessing rural water quality: comparing improved and unimproved drinking water sources in Hawul LGA. SNRU Journal of Science and Technology. 13(2), pp.55-62.
  • Kabera, T. and Nishimwe, H. (2019) 'Systems analysis of municipal solid waste management and recycling system in east Africa: benchmarking performance in Kigali city, Rwanda', E3S web of conferences, 80(2019), pp. 3004. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20198003004.
  • Khan, D., Kumar, A. and Samadder, S.R. (2016) 'Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate', Waste management, 49(2016), pp. 15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.019.
  • Mekonnen, G.B. and Tokai, A. (2020) 'A Historical Perspective of Municipal Solid Waste Management and Recycling System in Japan: Learning for Developing Countries', Journal of sustainable development, 13(3), pp. 85. doi: 10.5539/jsd.v13n3p85.
  • Miezah, K., Obiri-Danso, K., Kádár, Z., Fei-Baffoe, B. and Mensah, M.Y. (2015) 'Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana', Waste management, 46(2015), pp. 15-27. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.09.009.
  • National Bureau of Statistics, (NBS) (2012) Nigeria - General Household Survey-Panel 2010-2011 (Postharvest), First Round (wave one), Abuja, Nigeria: NBS.
  • Ndum, A.E. (2013) Bottom-Up Approach to Sustainable Solid Waste Management in African Countries. PhD Thesis . Brandenburg University of Technology.
  • Nguyen, T.D.T., Kawai, K. and Nakakubo, T. (2021) 'Drivers and constraints of waste-to-energy incineration for sustainable municipal solid waste management in developing countries', Journal of material cycles and waste management, 23(4), pp. 1688-1697. doi: 10.1007/s10163-021-01227-2.
  • Obongo, T., Okotto, L. and Kinaro, Z. (2021) 'Solid Waste Management Along Lake Victoria Beeches', World Environment, 11(1), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.5923/j.env.20211101.01.
  • Ohaka A.R, Ozor P.E, Ohaka C.C. (2013). Household waste disposal practices in Owerri municipal council of Imo State. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 9(4), pp. 32-36.
  • Oumarou M.B, Dauda M, Abdulrahim A.T, Abubakar A.B. (2012). Characterization, and generation of municipal solid waste in North central Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research. 2(5), pp.3669-3672.
  • Salau, O., Fatusi, O. and Bwala, S. (2021) 'Assessment of household waste disposal system in tudun-wada area of billiri local government, Gombe state. Nigeria', IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, 15(1), pp. 59-62. doi: 10.9790/2402-1501015962.
  • Sandelowski, M. (1995) 'Sample size in qualitative research', Research in Nursing & Health, 18(2), pp. 179-183. doi: 10.1002/nur.4770180211.
  • Schoot Uiterkamp, B.J., Azadi, H. and Ho, P. (2011) 'Sustainable recycling model: A comparative analysis between India and Tanzania', Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55(3), pp. 344-355. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.10.009.
  • Sim, J., Saunders, B., Waterfield, J. and Kingstone, T. (2018) 'Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori?', International journal of social research methodology, 21(5), pp. 619-634. doi: 10.1080/13645579.2018.1454643.
  • Singh, R.K., Yabar, H., Mizunoya, T., Higano, Y. and Rakwal, R. (2014) 'Potential Benefits of Introducing Integrated Solid Waste Management Approach in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Kathmandu City', Journal of sustainable development, 7(6), pp. 70-83. doi: 10.5539/jsd.v7n6p70.
  • Wilson, D.C., Rodic, L., Cowing, M.J., Velis, C.A., Whiteman, A.D., Scheinberg, A., Vilches, R., Masterson, D., Stretz, J. and Oelz, B. (2015) '‘Wasteaware’ benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities', Waste management, 35(2015), pp. 329-342. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.10.006.
  • Wilson, D.C., Velis, C.A. and Rodic, L. (2013) 'Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries', Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Waste and resource management, 166(2), pp. 52-68. doi: 10.1680/warm.12.00005.
  • Zhang, H., Liu, G., Xue, L., Zuo, J., Chen, T., Vuppaladadiyam, A. and Duan, H. (2020) 'Anaerobic digestion-based waste-to-energy technologies can halve the climate impact of China’s fast-growing food waste by 2040', Journal of Cleaner Production, 277(2020), pp. 123490. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123490.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Çevre Çalışmaları
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Titus Yusuf JİBATSWEN>
Federal University Wukari
0000-0002-1392-3264
Nigeria


Williams JOSHUA> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Federal University Wukari
0000-0002-5135-8681
Nigeria


Adinife AZODO>
Federal University Wukari
0000-0002-2373-1477
Nigeria


Femi OWOEYE>
Yaba College of Technology, Lagos
0000-0002-4535-1459
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jieas1078165, journal = {Journal of International Environmental Application and Science}, issn = {1307-0428}, eissn = {2636-7661}, address = {}, publisher = {Selçuk Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {17}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 9}, title = {Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria}, key = {cite}, author = {Jibatswen, Titus Yusuf and Joshua, Williams and Azodo, Adinife and Owoeye, Femi} }
APA Jibatswen, T. Y. , Joshua, W. , Azodo, A. & Owoeye, F. (2022). Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science , 17 (1) , 1-9 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jieas/issue/69211/1078165
MLA Jibatswen, T. Y. , Joshua, W. , Azodo, A. , Owoeye, F. "Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria" . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 (2022 ): 1-9 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jieas/issue/69211/1078165>
Chicago Jibatswen, T. Y. , Joshua, W. , Azodo, A. , Owoeye, F. "Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 (2022 ): 1-9
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria AU - Titus YusufJibatswen, WilliamsJoshua, AdinifeAzodo, FemiOwoeye Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of International Environmental Application and Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 9 VL - 17 IS - 1 SN - 1307-0428-2636-7661 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of International Environmental Application and Science Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria %A Titus Yusuf Jibatswen , Williams Joshua , Adinife Azodo , Femi Owoeye %T Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria %D 2022 %J Journal of International Environmental Application and Science %P 1307-0428-2636-7661 %V 17 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Jibatswen, Titus Yusuf , Joshua, Williams , Azodo, Adinife , Owoeye, Femi . "Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 / 1 (Mart 2022): 1-9 .
AMA Jibatswen T. Y. , Joshua W. , Azodo A. , Owoeye F. Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria. JIEAS. 2022; 17(1): 1-9.
Vancouver Jibatswen T. Y. , Joshua W. , Azodo A. , Owoeye F. Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science. 2022; 17(1): 1-9.
IEEE T. Y. Jibatswen , W. Joshua , A. Azodo ve F. Owoeye , "Assessing Household Solid Waste Management and Disposal Practices within Biu Local Government Area – Nigeria", Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, c. 17, sayı. 1, ss. 1-9, Mar. 2022

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