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Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Lemon Waste for Commercial Applications

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, 1111 - 1120, 30.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.18596/jotcsa.901973

Öz

The objective of this paper was preliminary to extract and characterization of purified pectin from lemon wastes. Dry lemon waste was extracted applying citric acid solvent or water at various concentrations under a similar condition (85 ºC for 4 h). It was found that the highest yield of pectin (20.8% dry basis) was achieved using hot water extraction with an esterification degree of 47.8%. It contained 63.2 ± 0.74% galacturonic acid, followed by 17.4 ± 0.76% total sugar. The monosaccharides found in pectin were arabinose (2.7 ± 0.20%), galactose (2.3 ± 0.01%), glucose (1.4 ± 0.09%), mannose (0.4 ± 0.01%), fructose (0.4 ± 0.05%), and xylose (0.1 ± 0.01%). The found pectin had a high atomic weight of 2060 kDa with a wide polydispersity index of 4.41, decided by high-Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC). The extricated lemon waste pectin was grouped into low methoxyl pectin, depends on the methoxyl content and degree of esterification affirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and rheological properties. In conclusion, the discoveries of the study show that lemon waste can be investigated as a promising elective for the commercial manufacturing of pectin.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Hosseini SS, Khodaiyan F, Kazemi M, Najari Z. Optimization and characterization of pectin extracted from sour orange peel by ultrasound assisted method. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Mar;125:621–9.
  • 2. Liew SQ, Chin NL, Yusof YA. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Passion Fruit Peels. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 2014;2:231–6.
  • 3. Kpodo FM, Agbenorhevi JK, Alba K, Bingham RJ, Oduro IN, Morris GA, et al. Pectin isolation and characterization from six okra genotypes. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017 Nov;72:323–30.
  • 4. Yeoh S, Shi J, Langrish TAG. Comparisons between different techniques for water-based extraction of pectin from orange peels. Desalination. 2008 Jan;218(1–3):229–37.
  • 5. Grassino AN, Barba FJ, Brnčić M, Lorenzo JM, Lucini L, Brnčić SR. Analytical tools used for the identification and quantification of pectin extracted from plant food matrices, wastes and by-products: A review. Food Chemistry. 2018 Nov;266:47–55.
  • 6. Hosseini SS, Khodaiyan F, Yarmand MS. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2016 Jan;82:920–6.
  • 7. Kazemi M, Khodaiyan F, Hosseini SS. Utilization of food processing wastes of eggplant as a high potential pectin source and characterization of extracted pectin. Food Chemistry. 2019 Oct;294:339–46.
  • 8. Lu J, Li J, Jin R, Li S, Yi J, Huang J. Extraction and characterization of pectin from Premna microphylla Turcz leaves. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Jun;131:323–8.
  • 9. Kurita O, Fujiwara T, Yamazaki E. Characterization of the pectin extracted from citrus peel in the presence of citric acid. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2008 Nov;74(3):725–30.
  • 10. Happi Emaga T, Ronkart SN, Robert C, Wathelet B, Paquot M. Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design. Food Chemistry. 2008 May;108(2):463–71.
  • 11. Yapo BM. Pectin quantity, composition and physicochemical behaviour as influenced by the purification process. Food Research International. 2009 Oct;42(8):1197–202.
  • 12. Xue Z, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Liu J, Wang Y, Chen D, et al. Optimization of pectin extraction from citrus peel by response surface methodology. Food Science. 2011;18:128–32.
  • 13. Vriesmann LC, de Mello Castanho Amboni RD, de Oliveira Petkowicz CL. Cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.): Composition and hot-water-soluble pectins. Industrial Crops and Products. 2011 Jul;34(1):1173–81.
  • 14. Alba K, Laws AP, Kontogiorgos V. Isolation and characterization of acetylated LM-pectins extracted from okra pods. Food Hydrocolloids. 2015 Jan;43:726–35.
  • 15. Bagde PP, Dhenge S, Bhivgade S. Extraction of pectin from orange peel and lemon peel. International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research. 2017;4(3):1–7.
  • 16. Kulkarni SG, Vijayanand P. Effect of extraction conditions on the quality characteristics of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa L.). LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2010 Sep;43(7):1026–31.
  • 17. Forni E, Penci M, Polesello A. A preliminary characterization of some pectins from quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) peel. Carbohydrate Polymers. 1994 Jan;23(4):231–4.
  • 18. Shafie MH, Yusof R, Gan C-Y. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) mediated extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi: Optimization and characterization studies. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2019 Jul;216:303–11.
  • 19. Yapo BM, Lerouge P, Thibault J-F, Ralet M-C. Pectins from citrus peel cell walls contain homogalacturonans homogenous with respect to molar mass, rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2007 Jun;69(3):426–35.
  • 20. Alba K, MacNaughtan W, Laws AP, Foster TJ, Campbell GM, Kontogiorgos V. Fractionation and characterisation of dietary fibre from blackcurrant pomace. Food Hydrocolloids. 2018 Aug;81:398–408.
  • 21. Rahmani Z, Khodaiyan F, Kazemi M, Sharifan A. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and structural characterization of pectin from sweet lemon peel. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020 Mar;147:1107–15.
  • 22. Lim J, Yoo J, Ko S, Lee S. Extraction and characterization of pectin from Yuza (Citrus junos) pomace: A comparison of conventional-chemical and combined physical–enzymatic extractions. Food Hydrocolloids. 2012 Oct;29(1):160–5.
  • 23. Liu Y, Shi J, Langrish T. Water-based extraction of pectin from flavedo and albedo of orange peels. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2006 Jul 15;120(3):203–9.
  • 24. Ros JM, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ. Extraction, characterisation, and enzymatic degradation of lemon peel pectins. Carbohydrate Research. 1996 Feb;282(2):271–84.
  • 25. Adetunji LR, Adekunle A, Orsat V, Raghavan V. Advances in the pectin production process using novel extraction techniques: A review. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017 Jan;62:239–50.
  • 26. Liew SQ, Ngoh GC, Yusoff R, Teoh WH. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction (UMAE) of pectin from pomelo peels. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2016 Dec;93:426–35.
  • 27. Muthusamy S, Manickam LP, Murugesan V, Muthukumaran C, Pugazhendhi A. Pectin extraction from Helianthus annuus (sunflower) heads using RSM and ANN modelling by a genetic algorithm approach. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Mar;124:750–8.
  • 28. Yuliarti O, Goh KKT, Matia-Merino L, Mawson J, Brennan C. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Food Chemistry. 2015 Nov;187:290–6.
  • 29. Colodel C, Vriesmann LC, Lucia de Oliveira Petkowicz C. Rheological characterization of a pectin extracted from ponkan (Citrus reticulata blanco cv. ponkan) peel. Food Hydrocolloids. 2019 Sep;94:326–32.

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, 1111 - 1120, 30.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.18596/jotcsa.901973

Öz

Kaynakça

  • 1. Hosseini SS, Khodaiyan F, Kazemi M, Najari Z. Optimization and characterization of pectin extracted from sour orange peel by ultrasound assisted method. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Mar;125:621–9.
  • 2. Liew SQ, Chin NL, Yusof YA. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Passion Fruit Peels. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 2014;2:231–6.
  • 3. Kpodo FM, Agbenorhevi JK, Alba K, Bingham RJ, Oduro IN, Morris GA, et al. Pectin isolation and characterization from six okra genotypes. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017 Nov;72:323–30.
  • 4. Yeoh S, Shi J, Langrish TAG. Comparisons between different techniques for water-based extraction of pectin from orange peels. Desalination. 2008 Jan;218(1–3):229–37.
  • 5. Grassino AN, Barba FJ, Brnčić M, Lorenzo JM, Lucini L, Brnčić SR. Analytical tools used for the identification and quantification of pectin extracted from plant food matrices, wastes and by-products: A review. Food Chemistry. 2018 Nov;266:47–55.
  • 6. Hosseini SS, Khodaiyan F, Yarmand MS. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2016 Jan;82:920–6.
  • 7. Kazemi M, Khodaiyan F, Hosseini SS. Utilization of food processing wastes of eggplant as a high potential pectin source and characterization of extracted pectin. Food Chemistry. 2019 Oct;294:339–46.
  • 8. Lu J, Li J, Jin R, Li S, Yi J, Huang J. Extraction and characterization of pectin from Premna microphylla Turcz leaves. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Jun;131:323–8.
  • 9. Kurita O, Fujiwara T, Yamazaki E. Characterization of the pectin extracted from citrus peel in the presence of citric acid. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2008 Nov;74(3):725–30.
  • 10. Happi Emaga T, Ronkart SN, Robert C, Wathelet B, Paquot M. Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design. Food Chemistry. 2008 May;108(2):463–71.
  • 11. Yapo BM. Pectin quantity, composition and physicochemical behaviour as influenced by the purification process. Food Research International. 2009 Oct;42(8):1197–202.
  • 12. Xue Z, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Liu J, Wang Y, Chen D, et al. Optimization of pectin extraction from citrus peel by response surface methodology. Food Science. 2011;18:128–32.
  • 13. Vriesmann LC, de Mello Castanho Amboni RD, de Oliveira Petkowicz CL. Cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.): Composition and hot-water-soluble pectins. Industrial Crops and Products. 2011 Jul;34(1):1173–81.
  • 14. Alba K, Laws AP, Kontogiorgos V. Isolation and characterization of acetylated LM-pectins extracted from okra pods. Food Hydrocolloids. 2015 Jan;43:726–35.
  • 15. Bagde PP, Dhenge S, Bhivgade S. Extraction of pectin from orange peel and lemon peel. International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research. 2017;4(3):1–7.
  • 16. Kulkarni SG, Vijayanand P. Effect of extraction conditions on the quality characteristics of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa L.). LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2010 Sep;43(7):1026–31.
  • 17. Forni E, Penci M, Polesello A. A preliminary characterization of some pectins from quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) peel. Carbohydrate Polymers. 1994 Jan;23(4):231–4.
  • 18. Shafie MH, Yusof R, Gan C-Y. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) mediated extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi: Optimization and characterization studies. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2019 Jul;216:303–11.
  • 19. Yapo BM, Lerouge P, Thibault J-F, Ralet M-C. Pectins from citrus peel cell walls contain homogalacturonans homogenous with respect to molar mass, rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2007 Jun;69(3):426–35.
  • 20. Alba K, MacNaughtan W, Laws AP, Foster TJ, Campbell GM, Kontogiorgos V. Fractionation and characterisation of dietary fibre from blackcurrant pomace. Food Hydrocolloids. 2018 Aug;81:398–408.
  • 21. Rahmani Z, Khodaiyan F, Kazemi M, Sharifan A. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and structural characterization of pectin from sweet lemon peel. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020 Mar;147:1107–15.
  • 22. Lim J, Yoo J, Ko S, Lee S. Extraction and characterization of pectin from Yuza (Citrus junos) pomace: A comparison of conventional-chemical and combined physical–enzymatic extractions. Food Hydrocolloids. 2012 Oct;29(1):160–5.
  • 23. Liu Y, Shi J, Langrish T. Water-based extraction of pectin from flavedo and albedo of orange peels. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2006 Jul 15;120(3):203–9.
  • 24. Ros JM, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ. Extraction, characterisation, and enzymatic degradation of lemon peel pectins. Carbohydrate Research. 1996 Feb;282(2):271–84.
  • 25. Adetunji LR, Adekunle A, Orsat V, Raghavan V. Advances in the pectin production process using novel extraction techniques: A review. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017 Jan;62:239–50.
  • 26. Liew SQ, Ngoh GC, Yusoff R, Teoh WH. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction (UMAE) of pectin from pomelo peels. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2016 Dec;93:426–35.
  • 27. Muthusamy S, Manickam LP, Murugesan V, Muthukumaran C, Pugazhendhi A. Pectin extraction from Helianthus annuus (sunflower) heads using RSM and ANN modelling by a genetic algorithm approach. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Mar;124:750–8.
  • 28. Yuliarti O, Goh KKT, Matia-Merino L, Mawson J, Brennan C. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Food Chemistry. 2015 Nov;187:290–6.
  • 29. Colodel C, Vriesmann LC, Lucia de Oliveira Petkowicz C. Rheological characterization of a pectin extracted from ponkan (Citrus reticulata blanco cv. ponkan) peel. Food Hydrocolloids. 2019 Sep;94:326–32.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Kimya, Uygulamalı
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ketema BEYECH HUNDİE (Sorumlu Yazar)
jimmaa univeristy
0000-0003-4018-7343
Ethiopia


Desalegn ABDİSSA
Jimma University institue of technology
0000-0001-7177-7587
Ethiopia

Destekleyen Kurum Jimma institute of technology, Addis ababa univerisity institute of technology
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Kasım 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Mart 2021
Kabul Tarihi 21 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Beyech Hundie K. , Abdissa D. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Lemon Waste for Commercial Applications. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry. 2021; 8(4): 1111-1120.
J. Turk. Chem. Soc., Sect. A: Chem.