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Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey

Yıl 2019, Cilt 19, Sayı 1, 95 - 105, 27.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.543539

Öz

Aim of Study: Determination of the snow damage triggering stand and site parameter on trees.
Area of Study: Damaged compartments of Yedicam and Burnuk Forest Directorates, #234 and #116, within Boyabat Forest Enterprise of Kastamonu Regional Directorate of Forestry.
Material and Method: Two damaged and two control compartments from each directorate were compared to find if any site or stand parameters are related to the snow damage occurred in the area during 2014-2015 winter. Statistical analysis were carried out to test the significance of the parameters.
Main results: Age, relative density, the number of trees, basal area and stand volume of the stand parameters, and slope, site class, terrain roughness and soil depth of the site parameters were statistically linked to the snow damage.
Research highlights: The climate is a force to be reckoned with. New strategies must be devised and put into action in forest management. Studies have shown the mishaps. The lessons should be taken from the past experiences. Apparent mistakes must gradually be eliminated.

Kaynakça

  • Altunel, A.O. (2018). Suitability of open-access elevation models for micro-scale watershed planning, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190:512, doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6890-1.
  • Cameron, A.D. (2002). Importance of early selective thinning in the development of long-term stand stability and improved log quality: a review, Forestry, 75(1), 25-35.
  • Castedo-Dorado, F., Crecente-Campo, F., Alvarez-Alvarez, P. & Barrio-Anta, M. (2009). Development of a stand density management diagram for radiata pine stands including assessment of stand stability, Forestry, 82(1), doi: 10.1093/forestry/cpm032.
  • Curtis, R.O., Clendenan, G.W. & Demars, D.J. (1981). A new stand simulator for coast Douglas-fir: DFSIM user’s guide. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-1128. Pasific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portlan, Oregon, USA.
  • Diaz-Yanez, O., Mola-Yudego, B., Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R. & Pukkala, T. (2017). How does forest composition and structure affect the stability against wind and storm?, Forest Ecology and Management, 401, 215-222.
  • Fang, H., Sun, L. & Tang, Z. (2014). Effects of rainfall and slope on runoff, soil erosion and rill development: an experimental study using two loess soils, Hydrological Processes, 29, 2640-2658.
  • Fridman, J. & Valinger, E. (1998). Modelling probability of snow and wind damage using, tree, stand and site characteristics from Pinus sylvestris sample plots, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 13(1-4), 348-356.
  • Gardiner, B.A. & Quine, C.P. (2000). Management of forests to reduce the risk of abiotic damage – a review with particular reference to the effects of strong winds, Forest ecology and Management, 135, 261-277.
  • Hanewinkel, M., Breidenbach, J., Neeff, T. & Kublin, E. (2008). Seventy-seven years of natural disturbances in a mountain forest area — the influence of storm, snow, and insect damage analysed with a long-term time series, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38(8), 2249-2261.
  • Hanna, S.R. (1981). Diurnal variation of horizontal wind direction fluctions in complex terrain at Geyserc, Cal., Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 21(2), 207-213.
  • Hirvela, H. & Hynynen, J. (1990). Effect of fertilization on the growth, top damage and susceptibility to windthrow of Scots pine stands in Lapland, Folia Forestalia, Finnish Forest Research Institute, 764, 16.
  • Kucuk, O., Topaloglu, O., Altunel, A.O. & Cetin, M. (2017). Visibility analysis of fire lookout towers in the Boyabat State Forest Enterprise in Turkey, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189:329, doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6008-1.
  • Martin-Alcon, S., G-Olabarria, J.R. & Coll, L. (2010). Wind and Snow Damage in the Pyrenees Pine Forests: Effect of Stand Attributes and Location, Silva Fennica, 44(3), 399-410.
  • Nguyen, T.T. & Ngheim, N. (2016). Optimal forest rotation for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation by farm income levels, Forest Policy and Economics, 73, 185-194.
  • Nykanen, M-L, Peltola, H., Quine, C., Kellomaki, S. & Broadgate, M. (1997). Factors affecting snow damage of trees with particular reference to European conditions, Silva Fennica, 31(2), 193-213.
  • Ozcan, O., Musaoglu, N. & Turkes, M. (2018). Assessing vulnerability of a forest ecosystem to climate change and variability in the western Mediterranean sub-region of Turkey, Journal of Forest Research, 29(3), 709-725.
  • Pellika, P. & Jarvenpaa, E. (2003). Forest Stand Charecteristics and Wind and Snow Induced Forest Damage in Boreal Forest, Proceeding of the International Conference on “Wind Effects on Trees”, 269-276, Karlsruhe, Germany, 16-18 September, 2003.
  • Peltola, H. (1996). Swaying of trees in response to wind and thinning in a stand of Scots pine. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 77(3-4), 285-304.
  • Peltola, H., Kellomaki, S., Hasinen, A. & Granander, M. (2000). Mechanical stability of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch: an analysis of tree-pulling experiments in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, 143-153.
  • Peltola, H., Nykanen, M-L. & Kellomaki, S. (1997). Model computations on the critical combination of snow loading and windspead for snow damage of scots pine, Norway spruce and Birch sp. at stand edge. Forest Ecology and Management, 95, 229-241.
  • Petty, J.A. & Worrell, R. (1981). Stability of Coniferous Tree Stems in Relation to Damageby Snow. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 54(2), 115-128.
  • Riley, S.J., DeGloria, S.D. & Elliot, R. (1999). A Terrain Index That Quantifies Topogrphic Heterogeneity, Intermountain Journal of Science, 5(1-4), 23-27.
  • Scholten et al. (2017). On the combined effect of soil fertility and topography on tree growth in subtropical forest ecosystems—a study from SE China, Journal of Plant Ecology, 10(1): 111-127, doi:10.1093/jpe/rtw065.
  • Schroeder, L.M. & Lindelow, A. (2002). Attacks on living spruce trees by the baark beetle Ips typographus (Col. Scolytidae) following a strom-felling: a comparison between stands with and without removal of wind-felled trees, Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 4, 47-56.
  • Solantie, R. (1994). Effect of Weather and Climatological Background on Snow Damage of Forests in Southern Finland in November 1991, Silva Fennica, 28(3), 203-211.
  • Spathelf, P., Maaten, E. van der., Maaten_Theunissen M. van der., Campioli, M. & Dobrowolska, D. (2014). Climate Change impact in European forests: the expert views of local observers, Annals of Forest Science, 71, 131-137.
  • Tayanc, M., Im, U., Dogruel, M &, Karaca, M. (2009). Climate Change in Turkey fort he last half century, Climate Change, 94(3-4), 483-502.
  • Torun, P. (2018). Modelling of Windstorm damage on Kastamonu Forests Using Maximum Entropy Methodology, Unpublished Msc. Thesis, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu, Turkey, in Turkish, 112 p.
  • Valinger, E. & Fridman, J. (1997). Modelling probability of snow and wind damage in Scots pine stands using tree characteristics, Forest Ecology and Management, 97, 215-222.
  • Valtera, M., Samonil, P., Svoboda, M. & Janda. (2015). Effects of topography and forest stand dynamics on soilmorphology in three natural Picea abiesmountain forests, Plant Soil, 392, 57-69.
  • Wang, Y., Tits, S.J. & LeMay, V.M. (1998). Relationships between tree slenderness coefficients and tree or stand characteristics for major species in boreal mixedwood forests, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(8), 1171-1183.
  • Zeng, H., Peltola, H., Talkkari, A., Venalainen, A., Strandman, H., Kellomaki, S. & Wang, K. (2004). Influence of clear-cutting on the risk of wind damage at the forest edges, Forest Ecology and Management, 203, 77-88.
  • Zhu, J-j., Li, X-f., Liu, Z-g., Cao W., Gonda, Y. & Matsuzaki, T. (2006). Factors Affecting the Snow and Wind Induced Damage of a Montane Secondary Forest in Northestern China, Silva Fennica, 40(1), 37-51.
  • Zubizarreta-Gerendiain, A., Pellikka, P., Garcia-Gonzalo, J., Ikonen, V.P. & Peltola, H.( 2012). Factors Affecting Wind and Snow Damage of Individual Trees in a Small Management Unit in Finland: Assessment Based on Inventoried Damage and Mechaniztic Modelling, Silva Fennica, 46(2), 181-196

Ağaçlarda Kar Zararını Etkileyen Bazı Meşcere ve Yetişme Ortamı Değişkenlerinin Tespiti: Boyabat Orman Işletme Müdürlüğü Örneği, Türkiye

Yıl 2019, Cilt 19, Sayı 1, 95 - 105, 27.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.543539

Öz

Çalışmanın amacı: Ağaçlarda meydana gelen kar zararına etki eden meşcere ve yetişme ortamı değişkenlerinin tespit edilmesi.
Çalışma alanı: Kastamonu Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü’ne bağlı Boyabat Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü’nün Yediçam ve Bürnük İşletme Şefliklerinde kar zararının tespit edildiği 234 ve 116 numaralı bölmeler.
Meteryal ve Metod: 2014-2015 kış ve erken ilkbahar süresince kar zararı tespit edilen iki bölme, aynı meşcere ve yetişme ortamı özelliklerine haiz ancak zarar görmemiş, kontrol maksatlı seçilen iki bölme ile karşılaştırıldı, istatistiksel analizler yürütüldü.
Sonuçlar: Yaş, ağaç sıklığı, ağaç sayısı, meşcere göğüs yüzeyi ve hacmi gibi meşcere parametrelerine ilaveten, eğim, bonited, engebelilik ve toprak derinliği gibi mevki parametrelerinin, kar zararı üzerinde etkili oldukları tespit edildi.
Dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar: İklim göz ardı edilmemesi gereken bir gerçektir. Bu doğrultuda, sıkıntıların bertaraf edilebilmesi için, yeni yönetimsel tercihler, gerekli görülen yerlerde uygulamaya alınmalıdır. Çalışmalar, aksi durumlarda karşılaşılabilecekleri göstermektedir. Geçmişte yaşananlardan dersler çıkarılmalı, yanlış uygulamalar tekrarlanmamslıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Altunel, A.O. (2018). Suitability of open-access elevation models for micro-scale watershed planning, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190:512, doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6890-1.
  • Cameron, A.D. (2002). Importance of early selective thinning in the development of long-term stand stability and improved log quality: a review, Forestry, 75(1), 25-35.
  • Castedo-Dorado, F., Crecente-Campo, F., Alvarez-Alvarez, P. & Barrio-Anta, M. (2009). Development of a stand density management diagram for radiata pine stands including assessment of stand stability, Forestry, 82(1), doi: 10.1093/forestry/cpm032.
  • Curtis, R.O., Clendenan, G.W. & Demars, D.J. (1981). A new stand simulator for coast Douglas-fir: DFSIM user’s guide. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-1128. Pasific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portlan, Oregon, USA.
  • Diaz-Yanez, O., Mola-Yudego, B., Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R. & Pukkala, T. (2017). How does forest composition and structure affect the stability against wind and storm?, Forest Ecology and Management, 401, 215-222.
  • Fang, H., Sun, L. & Tang, Z. (2014). Effects of rainfall and slope on runoff, soil erosion and rill development: an experimental study using two loess soils, Hydrological Processes, 29, 2640-2658.
  • Fridman, J. & Valinger, E. (1998). Modelling probability of snow and wind damage using, tree, stand and site characteristics from Pinus sylvestris sample plots, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 13(1-4), 348-356.
  • Gardiner, B.A. & Quine, C.P. (2000). Management of forests to reduce the risk of abiotic damage – a review with particular reference to the effects of strong winds, Forest ecology and Management, 135, 261-277.
  • Hanewinkel, M., Breidenbach, J., Neeff, T. & Kublin, E. (2008). Seventy-seven years of natural disturbances in a mountain forest area — the influence of storm, snow, and insect damage analysed with a long-term time series, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38(8), 2249-2261.
  • Hanna, S.R. (1981). Diurnal variation of horizontal wind direction fluctions in complex terrain at Geyserc, Cal., Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 21(2), 207-213.
  • Hirvela, H. & Hynynen, J. (1990). Effect of fertilization on the growth, top damage and susceptibility to windthrow of Scots pine stands in Lapland, Folia Forestalia, Finnish Forest Research Institute, 764, 16.
  • Kucuk, O., Topaloglu, O., Altunel, A.O. & Cetin, M. (2017). Visibility analysis of fire lookout towers in the Boyabat State Forest Enterprise in Turkey, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189:329, doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6008-1.
  • Martin-Alcon, S., G-Olabarria, J.R. & Coll, L. (2010). Wind and Snow Damage in the Pyrenees Pine Forests: Effect of Stand Attributes and Location, Silva Fennica, 44(3), 399-410.
  • Nguyen, T.T. & Ngheim, N. (2016). Optimal forest rotation for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation by farm income levels, Forest Policy and Economics, 73, 185-194.
  • Nykanen, M-L, Peltola, H., Quine, C., Kellomaki, S. & Broadgate, M. (1997). Factors affecting snow damage of trees with particular reference to European conditions, Silva Fennica, 31(2), 193-213.
  • Ozcan, O., Musaoglu, N. & Turkes, M. (2018). Assessing vulnerability of a forest ecosystem to climate change and variability in the western Mediterranean sub-region of Turkey, Journal of Forest Research, 29(3), 709-725.
  • Pellika, P. & Jarvenpaa, E. (2003). Forest Stand Charecteristics and Wind and Snow Induced Forest Damage in Boreal Forest, Proceeding of the International Conference on “Wind Effects on Trees”, 269-276, Karlsruhe, Germany, 16-18 September, 2003.
  • Peltola, H. (1996). Swaying of trees in response to wind and thinning in a stand of Scots pine. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 77(3-4), 285-304.
  • Peltola, H., Kellomaki, S., Hasinen, A. & Granander, M. (2000). Mechanical stability of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch: an analysis of tree-pulling experiments in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management, 135, 143-153.
  • Peltola, H., Nykanen, M-L. & Kellomaki, S. (1997). Model computations on the critical combination of snow loading and windspead for snow damage of scots pine, Norway spruce and Birch sp. at stand edge. Forest Ecology and Management, 95, 229-241.
  • Petty, J.A. & Worrell, R. (1981). Stability of Coniferous Tree Stems in Relation to Damageby Snow. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 54(2), 115-128.
  • Riley, S.J., DeGloria, S.D. & Elliot, R. (1999). A Terrain Index That Quantifies Topogrphic Heterogeneity, Intermountain Journal of Science, 5(1-4), 23-27.
  • Scholten et al. (2017). On the combined effect of soil fertility and topography on tree growth in subtropical forest ecosystems—a study from SE China, Journal of Plant Ecology, 10(1): 111-127, doi:10.1093/jpe/rtw065.
  • Schroeder, L.M. & Lindelow, A. (2002). Attacks on living spruce trees by the baark beetle Ips typographus (Col. Scolytidae) following a strom-felling: a comparison between stands with and without removal of wind-felled trees, Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 4, 47-56.
  • Solantie, R. (1994). Effect of Weather and Climatological Background on Snow Damage of Forests in Southern Finland in November 1991, Silva Fennica, 28(3), 203-211.
  • Spathelf, P., Maaten, E. van der., Maaten_Theunissen M. van der., Campioli, M. & Dobrowolska, D. (2014). Climate Change impact in European forests: the expert views of local observers, Annals of Forest Science, 71, 131-137.
  • Tayanc, M., Im, U., Dogruel, M &, Karaca, M. (2009). Climate Change in Turkey fort he last half century, Climate Change, 94(3-4), 483-502.
  • Torun, P. (2018). Modelling of Windstorm damage on Kastamonu Forests Using Maximum Entropy Methodology, Unpublished Msc. Thesis, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu, Turkey, in Turkish, 112 p.
  • Valinger, E. & Fridman, J. (1997). Modelling probability of snow and wind damage in Scots pine stands using tree characteristics, Forest Ecology and Management, 97, 215-222.
  • Valtera, M., Samonil, P., Svoboda, M. & Janda. (2015). Effects of topography and forest stand dynamics on soilmorphology in three natural Picea abiesmountain forests, Plant Soil, 392, 57-69.
  • Wang, Y., Tits, S.J. & LeMay, V.M. (1998). Relationships between tree slenderness coefficients and tree or stand characteristics for major species in boreal mixedwood forests, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(8), 1171-1183.
  • Zeng, H., Peltola, H., Talkkari, A., Venalainen, A., Strandman, H., Kellomaki, S. & Wang, K. (2004). Influence of clear-cutting on the risk of wind damage at the forest edges, Forest Ecology and Management, 203, 77-88.
  • Zhu, J-j., Li, X-f., Liu, Z-g., Cao W., Gonda, Y. & Matsuzaki, T. (2006). Factors Affecting the Snow and Wind Induced Damage of a Montane Secondary Forest in Northestern China, Silva Fennica, 40(1), 37-51.
  • Zubizarreta-Gerendiain, A., Pellikka, P., Garcia-Gonzalo, J., Ikonen, V.P. & Peltola, H.( 2012). Factors Affecting Wind and Snow Damage of Individual Trees in a Small Management Unit in Finland: Assessment Based on Inventoried Damage and Mechaniztic Modelling, Silva Fennica, 46(2), 181-196

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Arif Oğuz ALTUNEL (Sorumlu Yazar)
0000-0003-2597-5587

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Mart 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 19, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kastorman543539, journal = {Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty}, issn = {1303-2399}, eissn = {1309-4181}, address = {}, publisher = {Kastamonu Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {19}, pages = {95 - 105}, doi = {10.17475/kastorman.543539}, title = {Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Altunel, Arif Oğuz} }
APA Altunel, A. O. (2019). Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey . Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty , 19 (1) , 95-105 . DOI: 10.17475/kastorman.543539
MLA Altunel, A. O. "Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey" . Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 19 (2019 ): 95-105 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kastorman/issue/44096/543539>
Chicago Altunel, A. O. "Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey". Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 19 (2019 ): 95-105
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey AU - Arif Oğuz Altunel Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.17475/kastorman.543539 DO - 10.17475/kastorman.543539 T2 - Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 95 EP - 105 VL - 19 IS - 1 SN - 1303-2399-1309-4181 M3 - doi: 10.17475/kastorman.543539 UR - https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.543539 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey %A Arif Oğuz Altunel %T Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey %D 2019 %J Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty %P 1303-2399-1309-4181 %V 19 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17475/kastorman.543539 %U 10.17475/kastorman.543539
ISNAD Altunel, Arif Oğuz . "Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey". Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 19 / 1 (Mart 2019): 95-105 . https://doi.org/10.17475/kastorman.543539
AMA Altunel A. O. Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty. 2019; 19(1): 95-105.
Vancouver Altunel A. O. Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty. 2019; 19(1): 95-105.
IEEE A. O. Altunel , "Determination of Some Stand and Site Parameters Influencing the Snow Damage in Trees: A Case Study of Boyabat Forest Enterprise, Turkey", Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty, c. 19, sayı. 1, ss. 95-105, Mar. 2019, doi:10.17475/kastorman.543539

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