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Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 3, 29 - 37, 22.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.996891

Öz

Johne’s Disease or paratuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection of ruminants and has a global economical impact. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of this disease. It reduces milk production, cause chronic weight loss leading death and major losses. Acute phase reactions are defined as minimum 25% increase or decrease in serum concentrations of acute phase proteins which are triggered by pro or antiinflammatory cytokines released from various cells or tissues. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis on blood parameters, some acute phase proteins, cytokines and hepcidin in naturally infected goats with paratuberculosis. In this study, total 45 Saanen goats aged 2-5 years from both sex were used as animal material. Study group were included 35 and control group were included 10 animal for evaluation. Complete blood counts were performed on blood taken from all animals. Also interleukin 6, interleukin 10, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and hepcidin levels were evaluated from serum samples. As a result, interleukin 6 (p<0.01), interleukin 10 (p<0.01) serum amyloid A (p<0.001), haptoglobin (p<0.001), fibrinogen (p<0.05), and hepcidin (p<0.05) differences between groups were statistically important and they can be used to support the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

Kaynakça

  • Albay, M.K., Karakurum, M.C., Sahinduran, S., Sezer, K., Yildiz, R., Buyukoglu, T., 2014. Selected serum biochemical parameters and acute phase protein levels in a herd of Saanen goats showing signs of pregnancy toxaemia. Veterinary Medicine Journal-Czech 59(7), 336-342.
  • Ameta, B.N., Hosseini, A., Odhiambo, J.F., Iqbal, S., Sharma, S., Deng, Q., Lam, T.H., Farooq, U., Zebeli, Q., Dunn, S.M., 2011. Application of acute phase proteins for monitoring inflammatory states in cattle. Ed: VEAS F, Acute phase proteins as early non-specific biomarkers of human and veterinary diseases, Croatia 299-354.
  • Arnold, J., Sangwaiya, A., Manglam, V., Geoghegan, F., Thursz, M., Busbridge, M., 2010. Presence of hepcidin-25 in biological fluids: bile, ascitic and pleural fluids. World Jounal of Gastroenterology 16, 2129–2133.
  • Ceciliani, F., Ceron, J.J., Eckersall, P.D., Sauerwein, H., 2012. Acute phase proteins in ruminants. Journal of Proteomics 75, 4207-4231.
  • Ceron, J.J., Eckersall, P.D., Martinez-Subiela, S., 2005. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 34(2), 85-99.
  • Chiodini, R.J., Van Kruiningen, H.J., Merkal, R.S., 1984. Ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease): the current status and future prospects. The Cornell Veterinarian 74, 218-262.
  • Conner, J.G., Eckersall, P.D., Wiseman, A., Aitchison, T.C., Douglas, T.A. 1998. Bovine acute phase response following turpentine injection. Research in Veterinary Science 44, 82–88.
  • Cray, C., Zaias, J., Altman, N.H., 2009. Acute phase response in animals: A review. Comparative Medicine 59(6), 517-526.
  • De Silva, K., Begg, D., Whittington, R., 2011. The interleukin 10 response in ovine Johne’s disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 139, 10–16.
  • Eckersall, P.D., 2000. Recent advances and future prospects for the use of acute phase proteins as markers of disease in animals. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire- Toulouse., 151(7), 577-584.
  • El-Deeb, W.M., 2013. Clinicobiochemical investigations of gangrenous mastitis in does: immunological responses and oxidative stress biomarkers. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B 14, 33–39.
  • Fasulkov, I., Karadaev, M., Vasilev, N., Urumova, V., Mircheva, T., 2014. Determination of plasma fibrinogen and haptoglobin, hematological and blood biochemical changes in Bulgarian local goats with experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences 38, 439-444.
  • Gonzalez, F.H.D., Tacles, F., Martinez-Subiela, S., Tvarijonaviciute, A., Soler, L., Ceron, J.J., 2008. Acute phase protein response in goats. J Vet Diagn Invest., 20, 580–584.
  • Gruys, E., Toussaint. M.J.M., Niewold, T.A., Koopmans, S.J., 2005. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science A 6 (11), 1045-1056.
  • Hajimohammadi, A., Nazifi, S., Ansari-Lari, M., Khoshmanzar, M.R., Bigdeli, S.M., 2013. Identifying relationships among acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin) and clinical findings in dairy calf diarrhea. Comparative Clinical Pathology 22(2), 227-232.
  • Harris, N.B., Barletta, R.G., 2001. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in veterinary medicine. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14(3), 489–512.
  • Heller, M.C., Johns, J.L., 2015. Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: establishment of reference intervals. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 27(2), 177-181.
  • Hirvonen, J., 2000. Hirvonen’s thesis on acute phase response in dairy cattle, Ed: Pyörälä S, University of Helsinki Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Publications, Helsinki 7-67.
  • Jeber, Z.K.H., Mohdjin, Z., Jesse, F.F., Saharee, A.A., Sabri, J., Yusoff, R., Wahid, H., 2016. Influence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection on level of acute phase proteins in goats. BMC Veterinary Research., 12(48), 1-5.
  • Kali, A., Charles, M.V.P., Seetharam, R.S.K., 2015. Hepcidin-A novel biomarker with changing trends. Pharmacognosy Reviews 9(17), 35-40.
  • Kaneko, J.J., Harvey, J.W., Bruss, M.L., 2008. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 6th edition. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Kemna, E.H., Tjalsma, H., Willems, H.L., Swinkels, D.W., 2008. Hepcidin: from discovery to differential diagnosis. Haematologica 93, 90–97.
  • Kulaksiz, H., Fein, E., Redecker, P., Stremmel, W., Adler, G., Cetin, Y., 2008. Pancreatic beta-cells express hepcidin, an iron-uptake regulatory peptide. Journal of Endocrinology 197, 241-249.
  • Laftah, A.H., Ramesh, B., Simpson, R.J., Solanky N, Bahram S, Schumann K, Debnam ES, Sari SKS (2004): Effect of hepcidin on intestinal iron absorption in mice. Blood 103, 3940–3944.
  • Lybeck, K.R., Storset, A.K., Djønne, B., Valheim, M., Olsen, I., 2011. Faecal shedding detected earlier than immune responses in goats naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Research in Veterinary Science 91, 32–39.
  • Lybeck, K.R., Løvoll, M., Johansen, T.B., Olsen, I., Storset, A.K., Valheim, M., 2013. Intestinal strictures, fibrous adhesions and high local interleukin-10 levels in goats infected naturally with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Comparative Pathology 148, 157-172.
  • Merle, U., Fein, E., Gehrke, S.G., Stremmel, W., Kulaksiz, H., 2007. The iron regulatory peptide hepcidin is expressed in the heart and regulated by hypoxia and inflammation. Endocrinology 148, 2663–2668.
  • Murata, H., Shimada, N., Yoshioka, M., 2004. Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Veterinary Journal 168, 28–40.
  • Nemeth, E., Rivera, S., Gabayan, V., Keller. C., Taudorf, S., Pedersen, B.K., Ganz, T., 2004. IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Journal of Clinical Investigation 113(9), 1271-1276.
  • Neurath, M.F., Finotto, S., 2011. IL-6 signaling in autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and inflammation-associated cancer. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews 22, 83–89.
  • Nicolas, G., Viatte, L., Bennoun, M., Kahn, A., Vaulont, S., 2002. Hepcidin, a new iron regulatory peptide. Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases 29, 327–335.
  • O’Garra, A., Murphy, K.M., 2009. From IL-10 to IL-12: how pathogens and their products stimulate APCs to induce T(H)1 development. Nature Immunology 10, 929–932.
  • Park, C.H., Valore, E.V., Waring, A.J., Ganz, T., 2001. Hepcidin, a urinary antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 7806–7810.
  • Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D., 2007. Veterinary Medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horse, sheep, pigs and goats, 10th Ed, Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  • Senturk, S., Metcitoglu, Z., Ulgen, M., Borum, E., Temizel, E., Kasap, S., 2009. Evaluation of serum iron and iron binding capacity in cows with paratuberculosis. Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe Grobtiere Nutztiere 37(6), 375-378.

Evaluation of Some Acute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 3, 29 - 37, 22.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.996891

Öz

Johne’s Disease or paratuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection of ruminants and has a global economical impact. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of this disease. It reduces milk production, cause chronic weight loss leading death and major losses. Acute phase reactions are defined as minimum 25% increase or decrease in serum concentrations of acute phase proteins which are triggered by pro or antiinflammatory cytokines released from various cells or tissues. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis on blood parameters, some acute phase proteins, cytokines and hepcidin in naturally infected goats with paratuberculosis. In this study, total 45 Saanen goats aged 2-5 years from both sex were used as animal material. Study group were included 35 and control group were included 10 animal for evaluation. Complete blood counts were performed on blood taken from all animals. Also interleukin 6, interleukin 10, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and hepcidin levels were evaluated from serum samples. As a result, interleukin 6 (p<0.01), interleukin 10 (p<0.01) serum amyloid A (p<0.001), haptoglobin (p<0.001), fibrinogen (p<0.05), and hepcidin (p<0.05) differences between groups were statistically important and they can be used to support the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

Kaynakça

  • Albay, M.K., Karakurum, M.C., Sahinduran, S., Sezer, K., Yildiz, R., Buyukoglu, T., 2014. Selected serum biochemical parameters and acute phase protein levels in a herd of Saanen goats showing signs of pregnancy toxaemia. Veterinary Medicine Journal-Czech 59(7), 336-342.
  • Ameta, B.N., Hosseini, A., Odhiambo, J.F., Iqbal, S., Sharma, S., Deng, Q., Lam, T.H., Farooq, U., Zebeli, Q., Dunn, S.M., 2011. Application of acute phase proteins for monitoring inflammatory states in cattle. Ed: VEAS F, Acute phase proteins as early non-specific biomarkers of human and veterinary diseases, Croatia 299-354.
  • Arnold, J., Sangwaiya, A., Manglam, V., Geoghegan, F., Thursz, M., Busbridge, M., 2010. Presence of hepcidin-25 in biological fluids: bile, ascitic and pleural fluids. World Jounal of Gastroenterology 16, 2129–2133.
  • Ceciliani, F., Ceron, J.J., Eckersall, P.D., Sauerwein, H., 2012. Acute phase proteins in ruminants. Journal of Proteomics 75, 4207-4231.
  • Ceron, J.J., Eckersall, P.D., Martinez-Subiela, S., 2005. Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 34(2), 85-99.
  • Chiodini, R.J., Van Kruiningen, H.J., Merkal, R.S., 1984. Ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease): the current status and future prospects. The Cornell Veterinarian 74, 218-262.
  • Conner, J.G., Eckersall, P.D., Wiseman, A., Aitchison, T.C., Douglas, T.A. 1998. Bovine acute phase response following turpentine injection. Research in Veterinary Science 44, 82–88.
  • Cray, C., Zaias, J., Altman, N.H., 2009. Acute phase response in animals: A review. Comparative Medicine 59(6), 517-526.
  • De Silva, K., Begg, D., Whittington, R., 2011. The interleukin 10 response in ovine Johne’s disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 139, 10–16.
  • Eckersall, P.D., 2000. Recent advances and future prospects for the use of acute phase proteins as markers of disease in animals. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire- Toulouse., 151(7), 577-584.
  • El-Deeb, W.M., 2013. Clinicobiochemical investigations of gangrenous mastitis in does: immunological responses and oxidative stress biomarkers. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B 14, 33–39.
  • Fasulkov, I., Karadaev, M., Vasilev, N., Urumova, V., Mircheva, T., 2014. Determination of plasma fibrinogen and haptoglobin, hematological and blood biochemical changes in Bulgarian local goats with experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences 38, 439-444.
  • Gonzalez, F.H.D., Tacles, F., Martinez-Subiela, S., Tvarijonaviciute, A., Soler, L., Ceron, J.J., 2008. Acute phase protein response in goats. J Vet Diagn Invest., 20, 580–584.
  • Gruys, E., Toussaint. M.J.M., Niewold, T.A., Koopmans, S.J., 2005. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science A 6 (11), 1045-1056.
  • Hajimohammadi, A., Nazifi, S., Ansari-Lari, M., Khoshmanzar, M.R., Bigdeli, S.M., 2013. Identifying relationships among acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin) and clinical findings in dairy calf diarrhea. Comparative Clinical Pathology 22(2), 227-232.
  • Harris, N.B., Barletta, R.G., 2001. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in veterinary medicine. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14(3), 489–512.
  • Heller, M.C., Johns, J.L., 2015. Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: establishment of reference intervals. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 27(2), 177-181.
  • Hirvonen, J., 2000. Hirvonen’s thesis on acute phase response in dairy cattle, Ed: Pyörälä S, University of Helsinki Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Publications, Helsinki 7-67.
  • Jeber, Z.K.H., Mohdjin, Z., Jesse, F.F., Saharee, A.A., Sabri, J., Yusoff, R., Wahid, H., 2016. Influence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection on level of acute phase proteins in goats. BMC Veterinary Research., 12(48), 1-5.
  • Kali, A., Charles, M.V.P., Seetharam, R.S.K., 2015. Hepcidin-A novel biomarker with changing trends. Pharmacognosy Reviews 9(17), 35-40.
  • Kaneko, J.J., Harvey, J.W., Bruss, M.L., 2008. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals, 6th edition. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Kemna, E.H., Tjalsma, H., Willems, H.L., Swinkels, D.W., 2008. Hepcidin: from discovery to differential diagnosis. Haematologica 93, 90–97.
  • Kulaksiz, H., Fein, E., Redecker, P., Stremmel, W., Adler, G., Cetin, Y., 2008. Pancreatic beta-cells express hepcidin, an iron-uptake regulatory peptide. Journal of Endocrinology 197, 241-249.
  • Laftah, A.H., Ramesh, B., Simpson, R.J., Solanky N, Bahram S, Schumann K, Debnam ES, Sari SKS (2004): Effect of hepcidin on intestinal iron absorption in mice. Blood 103, 3940–3944.
  • Lybeck, K.R., Storset, A.K., Djønne, B., Valheim, M., Olsen, I., 2011. Faecal shedding detected earlier than immune responses in goats naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Research in Veterinary Science 91, 32–39.
  • Lybeck, K.R., Løvoll, M., Johansen, T.B., Olsen, I., Storset, A.K., Valheim, M., 2013. Intestinal strictures, fibrous adhesions and high local interleukin-10 levels in goats infected naturally with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Journal of Comparative Pathology 148, 157-172.
  • Merle, U., Fein, E., Gehrke, S.G., Stremmel, W., Kulaksiz, H., 2007. The iron regulatory peptide hepcidin is expressed in the heart and regulated by hypoxia and inflammation. Endocrinology 148, 2663–2668.
  • Murata, H., Shimada, N., Yoshioka, M., 2004. Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Veterinary Journal 168, 28–40.
  • Nemeth, E., Rivera, S., Gabayan, V., Keller. C., Taudorf, S., Pedersen, B.K., Ganz, T., 2004. IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Journal of Clinical Investigation 113(9), 1271-1276.
  • Neurath, M.F., Finotto, S., 2011. IL-6 signaling in autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and inflammation-associated cancer. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews 22, 83–89.
  • Nicolas, G., Viatte, L., Bennoun, M., Kahn, A., Vaulont, S., 2002. Hepcidin, a new iron regulatory peptide. Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases 29, 327–335.
  • O’Garra, A., Murphy, K.M., 2009. From IL-10 to IL-12: how pathogens and their products stimulate APCs to induce T(H)1 development. Nature Immunology 10, 929–932.
  • Park, C.H., Valore, E.V., Waring, A.J., Ganz, T., 2001. Hepcidin, a urinary antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the liver. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 7806–7810.
  • Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D., 2007. Veterinary Medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horse, sheep, pigs and goats, 10th Ed, Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  • Senturk, S., Metcitoglu, Z., Ulgen, M., Borum, E., Temizel, E., Kasap, S., 2009. Evaluation of serum iron and iron binding capacity in cows with paratuberculosis. Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe Grobtiere Nutztiere 37(6), 375-378.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Necmettin Sarp SEVGİSUNAR Bu kişi benim
AKDENIZ UNIVERSITY, BURDUR FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, VETERINARY MEDICINE PR.
0000-0002-0392-1548
Türkiye


Şima ŞAHİNDURAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
BURDUR MEHMET AKİF ERSOY ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, VETERİNER PR.
0000-0002-7718-2020
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi, Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi
Proje Numarası 0259-DR-15
Teşekkür This study was supported by Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Scientific Research Projects Commission (Project No: 0259-DR-15).
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 28 Aralık 2021
Yayımlanma Tarihi 22 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { maeusabed996891, journal = {Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2837}, address = {}, publisher = {Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {9}, pages = {29 - 37}, doi = {10.24998/maeusabed.996891}, title = {Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis}, key = {cite}, author = {Sevgisunar, Necmettin Sarp and Şahinduran, Şima} }
APA Sevgisunar, N. S. & Şahinduran, Ş. (2021). Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 9 (3) , 29-37 . DOI: 10.24998/maeusabed.996891
MLA Sevgisunar, N. S. , Şahinduran, Ş. "Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis" . Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 9 (2021 ): 29-37 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/maeusabed/issue/66405/996891>
Chicago Sevgisunar, N. S. , Şahinduran, Ş. "Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis". Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 9 (2021 ): 29-37
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis AU - Necmettin Sarp Sevgisunar , Şima Şahinduran Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.24998/maeusabed.996891 DO - 10.24998/maeusabed.996891 T2 - Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 29 EP - 37 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - 2148-2837- M3 - doi: 10.24998/maeusabed.996891 UR - https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.996891 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis %A Necmettin Sarp Sevgisunar , Şima Şahinduran %T Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis %D 2021 %J Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi %P 2148-2837- %V 9 %N 3 %R doi: 10.24998/maeusabed.996891 %U 10.24998/maeusabed.996891
ISNAD Sevgisunar, Necmettin Sarp , Şahinduran, Şima . "Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis". Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 9 / 3 (Aralık 2021): 29-37 . https://doi.org/10.24998/maeusabed.996891
AMA Sevgisunar N. S. , Şahinduran Ş. Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2021; 9(3): 29-37.
Vancouver Sevgisunar N. S. , Şahinduran Ş. Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. 2021; 9(3): 29-37.
IEEE N. S. Sevgisunar ve Ş. Şahinduran , "Evaluation of Some Ecute Phase Proteins, Cytokines and Hepcidin Levels in Naturally Infected Saanen Goats with Paratuberculosis", Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, c. 9, sayı. 3, ss. 29-37, Ara. 2021, doi:10.24998/maeusabed.996891