Araştırma Makalesi
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Watershed Approach and Nature-Based Solutions in Climate Change Strategies and Action Plans

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 197 - 207, 15.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17568/ogmoad.949294

Öz

Several organizations including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are supporting nature-based solutions (NbS) in combatting climate change. NbSs are incentivized for their sustainability, ecologic benefits and higher cost-effectiveness compared to infrastructure-based solutions. The broader inclusion of NbS in climate change strategies and action plans can serve as an essential opportunity for the forestry sector. We think that although watershed approach and NbS are closely related to the climate adaptation, they are neglected in plans and strategies. The aim of the study is to reveal to what extent the adaptation, basin, and NbS concepts are included in the climate change action/strategy plans of the countries and cities. Within the scope of the study, climate change adaptation and mitigation plans of 40 countries and 60 cities were analyzed on a global scale. In addition, climate change strategy/action plans of 16 cities in Turkey were examined. As an initial step, climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies were investigated regarding land use, forestry, watershed approach, and adaptation. The data obtained were evaluated with the meta-analysis method. The results revealed that mitigation policies and measures had a broader place in the climate action plans than adaptation while watershed and NbS concepts have not been included appropriately.

Kaynakça

  • Alexander, Serena E., 2020. Harnessing the opportunities and understanding the limits of state level climate action plans in the United States. 0264-2751 2020 Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102622. Cities 99 (2020) 102622. ScienceDirect 2020.
  • Araos, M., Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J.D., Austin, S.E., Biesbroek, R., Lesnikowski, A., 2016. Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: a systematic global assessment. Environ. Sci. Pol. 66, 375–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.06.009.
  • Baker, I., Peterson, A., Brown, G., & McAlpine, C. (2012). Local government response to the impacts of climate change: An evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(2), 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. landurbplan.2012.05.009.
  • Bertoldi, P., Kona, A., Rivas, S., & Dallemand, J. F. (2018). Towards a global comprehensive and transparent framework for cities and local governments enabling an effective contribution to the Paris climate agreement. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 30, 67-74.
  • Carmin J, Nadkarni N, Rhie C. Progress and challenges in urban climate adaptation planning. Boston, MA. 2012.
  • Cohen-Shacham, E., Andrade, A., Dalton, J., Dudley, N., Jones, M., Kumar, C., ... & Walters, G. (2019). Core principles for successfully implementing and upscaling Nature-based Solutions. Environmental Science & Policy, 98, 20-29.
  • Forman, R. T., & Wu, J. (2016). Where to put the next billion people. Nature News, 537(7622), 608
  • Grafakos S, Trigg K, Landauer M, Chelleri L, Dhakal S. Analytical framework to evaluate the level of integration of climate adaptation and mitigation in cities. ClimChange 2019:1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02394-w.
  • Gunfaus, M. T., & Waisman, H. (2021). Assessing the adequacy of the global response to the Paris Agreement: Toward a full appraisal of climate ambition and action. Earth System Governance, 100102.
  • IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp..
  • Morgan, J. A. (2019). Rising atmospheric CO2 and global climate change: responses and management implications for grazing lands. In Grasslands: Developments opportunities perspectives (pp. 235-260). CRC Press.
  • Pietrapertosa, F., Salvia, M., Hurtado, S. D. G., d'Alonzo, V., Church, J. M., Geneletti, D., ... & Reckien, D. (2019). Urban climate change mitigation and adaptation planning: are Italian cities ready?. Cities, 91, 93-105.
  • Reckien, D., Salvia, M., Heidrich, O., Church, J.M., Pietrapertosa, F., De Gregorio-Hurtado.,...& Dawson, R., 2018. How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28. J. Clean. Prod. 191, 207–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.220.
  • Reckien, D., Flacke, J., Dawson, R.J., Heidrich, O., Olazabal, M., Foley, A., Hamann, J.J.P., Orru, H., Salvia, M., De Gregorio Hurtado, S., Geneletti, D., Pietrapertosa, F., 2014. Climate change response in Europe: What's the reality? Analysis of adaptation and mitigation plans from 200 urban areas in 11 countries. Climatic Change 122, 331-340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0989-8.
  • Salvia, M., Reckien, D., Pietrapertosa, F., Eckersley, P., Spyridaki, N. A., Krook-Riekkola, A., ... & Heidrich, O. (2021). Will climate mitigation ambitions lead to carbon neutrality? An analysis of the local-level plans of 327 cities in the EU. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 135, 110253.
  • Stults, M., & Woodruff, S. C. (2017). Looking under the hood of local adaptation plans: shedding light on the actions prioritized to build local resilience to climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 22(8), 1249-1279.
  • Sunde, M. G., He, H. S., Hubbart, J. A., & Urban, M. A. (2018). An integrated modeling approach for estimating hydrologic responses to future urbanization and climate changes in a mixed-use midwestern watershed. Journal of environmental management, 220, 149-162.
  • Thompson, I., Mackey, B., McNulty, S., Mosseler, A. (2009). Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series no. 43, 67 pages.
  • Xu, L., Wang, X., Liu, J., He, Y., Tang, J., Nguyen, M., Cui, S., 2019. Identifying the trade-offs between climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban land use planning: an empirical study in a coastal city. Environ. Int. 133, 105162.
  • UN (2015). Resolution adopted by the general assembly on 25 September 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. New York: UN: n.d.
  • WAH, 2014. Watershed Approach Handbook. Improving Outcomes and Increasing Benefits Associated with Wetland and Stream Restoration and Protection Projects.
  • Wang, J., Gao, Y., & Wang, S. (2018). Assessing the response of runoff to climate change and human activities for a typical basin in the Northern Taihang Mountain, China. Journal of Earth System Science, 127(3), 1-15.
  • Woodruff SC, Stults M. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans. Nat Clim Change 2016;6:796–802. https://doi.org/10. 1038/nclimate3012.
  • Woodruff SC. City membership in climate change adaptation networks. Environ Sci Policy 2018;84:60–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.03.002.
  • Zölch, T., Maderspacher, J., Wamsler, C., & Pauleit, S. (2016). Using green infrastructure for urban climate-proofing: An evaluation of heat mitigation measures at the micro-scale. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 20, 305-316.

İklim Değişikliği Strateji ve Eylem Planlarında Havza Yaklaşımı ve Doğa Temelli Çözümler

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 197 - 207, 15.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17568/ogmoad.949294

Öz

Başta Birleşmiş Milletler İklim Değişikliği Çerçeve Sözleşmesi (UNFCCC) olmak üzere birçok uluslararası kuruluş iklim değişikliği ile mücadelede doğa temelli çözümleri (DTÇ) desteklemektedir. Bu çözümler, sürdürülebilirlikleri ve altyapı odaklı gri çözümlere kıyasla daha uygun maliyetli ve ekolojik faydaları nedeniyle son zamanlarda ön plana çıkmaktadır. DTÇ’lerin iklim değişikliği strateji ve eylem planlarına daha yaygın şekilde dahil olması ormancılık sektörü için de önemli bir fırsat olarak görülebilir. DTÇ’ler ve havza yaklaşımının, iklim değişikliğine uyum ile yakından ilişkili olmasına karşın strateji ve planlarda yeterince yer bulmadığı düşüncesindeyiz. Çalışmanın amacı bu durumu, yani iklim değişikliği strateji/eylem planlarına havza ve DTÇ kavramlarının ne ölçüde yansımış olduğunu ortaya koymaktır. Çalışma kapsamında, küresel ölçekte 40 ülke ve 60 kentin iklim değişikliğine uyum ve azaltım planları analiz edilmiştir. Ayrıca Türkiye’de 16 kentin iklim değişikliği strateji/eylem planları bu kapsamda değerlendirilmiştir. İlk aşamada iklim değişikliği azaltım ve uyum stratejileri arazi kullanımı, ormancılık, havza yaklaşımı ve uyum yönlerinden incelenmiştir. Buradan elde edilen sayısal veriler meta-analiz yöntemi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma bulguları, iklim eylem planlarında, azaltım politika ve önlemlerinin uyuma nazaran daha geniş yer bulduğunu, havza kavramı ve doğa temelli çözümlere ise yeterince yer verilmediğini ortaya koymuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Alexander, Serena E., 2020. Harnessing the opportunities and understanding the limits of state level climate action plans in the United States. 0264-2751 2020 Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102622. Cities 99 (2020) 102622. ScienceDirect 2020.
  • Araos, M., Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J.D., Austin, S.E., Biesbroek, R., Lesnikowski, A., 2016. Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: a systematic global assessment. Environ. Sci. Pol. 66, 375–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.06.009.
  • Baker, I., Peterson, A., Brown, G., & McAlpine, C. (2012). Local government response to the impacts of climate change: An evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(2), 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. landurbplan.2012.05.009.
  • Bertoldi, P., Kona, A., Rivas, S., & Dallemand, J. F. (2018). Towards a global comprehensive and transparent framework for cities and local governments enabling an effective contribution to the Paris climate agreement. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 30, 67-74.
  • Carmin J, Nadkarni N, Rhie C. Progress and challenges in urban climate adaptation planning. Boston, MA. 2012.
  • Cohen-Shacham, E., Andrade, A., Dalton, J., Dudley, N., Jones, M., Kumar, C., ... & Walters, G. (2019). Core principles for successfully implementing and upscaling Nature-based Solutions. Environmental Science & Policy, 98, 20-29.
  • Forman, R. T., & Wu, J. (2016). Where to put the next billion people. Nature News, 537(7622), 608
  • Grafakos S, Trigg K, Landauer M, Chelleri L, Dhakal S. Analytical framework to evaluate the level of integration of climate adaptation and mitigation in cities. ClimChange 2019:1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02394-w.
  • Gunfaus, M. T., & Waisman, H. (2021). Assessing the adequacy of the global response to the Paris Agreement: Toward a full appraisal of climate ambition and action. Earth System Governance, 100102.
  • IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp..
  • Morgan, J. A. (2019). Rising atmospheric CO2 and global climate change: responses and management implications for grazing lands. In Grasslands: Developments opportunities perspectives (pp. 235-260). CRC Press.
  • Pietrapertosa, F., Salvia, M., Hurtado, S. D. G., d'Alonzo, V., Church, J. M., Geneletti, D., ... & Reckien, D. (2019). Urban climate change mitigation and adaptation planning: are Italian cities ready?. Cities, 91, 93-105.
  • Reckien, D., Salvia, M., Heidrich, O., Church, J.M., Pietrapertosa, F., De Gregorio-Hurtado.,...& Dawson, R., 2018. How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28. J. Clean. Prod. 191, 207–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.220.
  • Reckien, D., Flacke, J., Dawson, R.J., Heidrich, O., Olazabal, M., Foley, A., Hamann, J.J.P., Orru, H., Salvia, M., De Gregorio Hurtado, S., Geneletti, D., Pietrapertosa, F., 2014. Climate change response in Europe: What's the reality? Analysis of adaptation and mitigation plans from 200 urban areas in 11 countries. Climatic Change 122, 331-340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0989-8.
  • Salvia, M., Reckien, D., Pietrapertosa, F., Eckersley, P., Spyridaki, N. A., Krook-Riekkola, A., ... & Heidrich, O. (2021). Will climate mitigation ambitions lead to carbon neutrality? An analysis of the local-level plans of 327 cities in the EU. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 135, 110253.
  • Stults, M., & Woodruff, S. C. (2017). Looking under the hood of local adaptation plans: shedding light on the actions prioritized to build local resilience to climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 22(8), 1249-1279.
  • Sunde, M. G., He, H. S., Hubbart, J. A., & Urban, M. A. (2018). An integrated modeling approach for estimating hydrologic responses to future urbanization and climate changes in a mixed-use midwestern watershed. Journal of environmental management, 220, 149-162.
  • Thompson, I., Mackey, B., McNulty, S., Mosseler, A. (2009). Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series no. 43, 67 pages.
  • Xu, L., Wang, X., Liu, J., He, Y., Tang, J., Nguyen, M., Cui, S., 2019. Identifying the trade-offs between climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban land use planning: an empirical study in a coastal city. Environ. Int. 133, 105162.
  • UN (2015). Resolution adopted by the general assembly on 25 September 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. New York: UN: n.d.
  • WAH, 2014. Watershed Approach Handbook. Improving Outcomes and Increasing Benefits Associated with Wetland and Stream Restoration and Protection Projects.
  • Wang, J., Gao, Y., & Wang, S. (2018). Assessing the response of runoff to climate change and human activities for a typical basin in the Northern Taihang Mountain, China. Journal of Earth System Science, 127(3), 1-15.
  • Woodruff SC, Stults M. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans. Nat Clim Change 2016;6:796–802. https://doi.org/10. 1038/nclimate3012.
  • Woodruff SC. City membership in climate change adaptation networks. Environ Sci Policy 2018;84:60–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.03.002.
  • Zölch, T., Maderspacher, J., Wamsler, C., & Pauleit, S. (2016). Using green infrastructure for urban climate-proofing: An evaluation of heat mitigation measures at the micro-scale. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 20, 305-316.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Orman Mühendisliği
Bölüm Ekoloji
Yazarlar

Erda ÇELER (Sorumlu Yazar)
Orman Genel Müdürlüğü Dış İlişkiler, Eğitim ve Araştırma Daire Başkanlığı
0000-0002-4587-6677
Türkiye


Yusuf SERENGİL
İstanbul Üniversitesi Cerrahpaşa Orman Fakültesi
0000-0001-5761-9822
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 7 Haziran 2021
Kabul Tarihi 2 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Çeler, E. & Serengil, Y. (2021). İklim Değişikliği Strateji ve Eylem Planlarında Havza Yaklaşımı ve Doğa Temelli Çözümler . Ormancılık Araştırma Dergisi , 8 (2) , 197-207 . DOI: 10.17568/ogmoad.949294