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The Propaganda In Armenia Of The Five-Year Development Plans Implemented In The Soviet Union

Yıl 2020, Sayı: 42, 81 - 102, 07.12.2020

Öz

The Soviet Union started to carry out its five-year development plans in 1928. At this stage, it was aimed to achieve a great economic development goal within the union, especially in agriculture and industry. The Soviet Union engaged in propaganda activities to include the peoples of the socialist republics within the union in development plans. Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was one of the socialist republics where propaganda activities for the development plans of the Soviet Union were implemented. At this stage, the Soviet Union tried to encourage Armenian people to work in agriculture and industry within the scope of development plans through propaganda posters. In the study, propaganda activities regarding development plans of the Soviet Union in Armenia are examined in the context of posters and it is aimed to reveal which propaganda messages the Soviet Union used within the scope of its five-year development plans in Armenia. 7 propaganda posters determined by using quota sampling were analyzed in the light of Karl Bühler's Organon Model (Organon Model) within the scope of the study. This study concludes that the propaganda posters did not include discourses that glorified Communist ideology or Lenin leadership cult; instead, the posters presented discourses emphasizing the importance of work and labor.

Kaynakça

  • “The Propaganda Poster on Heroism.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:907
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Future.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 25, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:233
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Employment.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:44
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Courage.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:402
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Life.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:172
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Soil.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:361
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Collective Farm.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:207
  • Andrle, V. “How Backward Workers Became Soviet: Industrialization of Labour and the Politics of Efficiency under the Second Five‐Year Plan, 1933–1937.” Social History 10, no. 2 (1985): 147-169.
  • Arıca, Ferit Arda. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti’nde Mao Zedong Döneminde Spor Yayıncılığı Üzerine İnceleme.” TRT Akademi 4, no. 8 (2019): 392-408.
  • Baum, Ann T. Komsomol Participation in the Soviet First Five-Year Plan. Germany: Springer, 1987.
  • Berend, T. Ivan. 20. Yüzyıl Avrupa İktisat Tarihi. Trans. Serpil Çağlayan. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Yayınları, 2011.
  • Çakı, Caner. “Ermenistan Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyeti'nde Joseph Stalin Döneminde Kullanılan Sovyet Propaganda Posterleri Üzerine İnceleme.” Ermeni Araştırmaları, no. 61 (2018): 271-296.
  • Çakı, Caner, & Gufran Dündar. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti'nde Birinci Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı Döneminde (1953-1957) Kadınların Propaganda Posterlerindeki Sunumu.” Uluslararası Batı Karadeniz Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi 3, no. 1 (2019): 13-37.
  • Çakı, Caner & Mehmet Ozan Gülada. “Komünizm İdeolojisi Altında Ermeni Kadınların Propaganda Posterlerindeki Temsili.” Ermeni Araştırmaları, no. 66 (2020): 49-71.
  • Çalışkan, Sadık & Mehmet Barış Yılmaz. “Ermenistan Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyeti'nde Basında Yer Alan Propaganda Posterleri Üzerinden Vladimir Lenin'in Kült Liderlik İnşası.” Ermeni Araştırmaları, no. 65 (2020): 75-100.
  • Çetin, Mehmet, Çakı, Caner & Mehmet Ali Gazi. “The Examination of The Anti-USA Propaganda Posters in The Iran Revolution According to Claude Lévi-Strauss' Binary Opposition.” International Journal of Social Science 1, no. 3 (2018): 31-51.
  • Davies, R.W., & S.G. Wheatcroft. “Further Thoughts on the First Soviet Five-Year Plan.” Slavic Review 34, no. 4 (1975): 790-802.
  • Dienes, Leslie. “The Soviet Oil Industry in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan.” Soviet Geography 28, no. 9 (1987): 617-655.
  • Dündar, Gufran. “Mussolini İtalyası'nda Spor Yayıncılığı.” TRT Akademi 4, no. 8 (2019): 308-324.
  • Fiske, John. İletişim Çalışmalarına Giriş. Trans. Süleyman İrvan. 5. Edition. Ankara: Bilim ve Sanat Yayınları, 2017.
  • Gazi̇, Mehmet Ali, Caner Çakı, Mehmet Ozan Gülada & Gül Çakı. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti Kültür Devrimi Sürecinde Okuma Alışkanlığının Propaganda Posterlerinde Sunumu.” Türk Kütüphaneciliği 34, no. 3 (2020): 406-431.
  • Harrison, Mark & R.W. Davies. “The Soviet Military‐Economic Effort during the Second Five‐Year Plan (1933–1937).” Europe-Asia Studies 49, no. 3 (1997): 369-406.
  • Hunter, Holland. “The Overambitious First Soviet Five-Year Plan.” Slavic Review 32, no. 2 (1973): 237-257.
  • Jensen, Robert G. “Soviet Regional Development Policy and the 10th Five-Year Plan.” Soviet Geography 19, no. 3 (1978): 196-201.
  • Kalesnik, S.V., & F.F. Davitaya. “The Tasks of Soviet Geography in Supporting Soviet Economic Development During The 10th Five-Year Plan.” Soviet Geography 17, no. 4 (1976): 217-234.
  • Kepley Jr., Vance. “The First ‘Perestroika’: Soviet Cinema under the First Five-Year Plan.” Cinema Journal 35, no. 4 (1996): 31-53.
  • Micklin, Philip P. “Irrigation Development in the USSR during the 10th Five-Year Plan (1976–1980).” Soviet Geography 19, no. 1 (1978): 1-24.
  • Millar, James R. “Mass Collectivization and the Contribution of Soviet Agriculture to the First Five-Year Plan: A Review Article.” Slavic Review 33, no. 4 (1974): 750-766.
  • Özsoy, İsmail. “Sovyet Sisteminin Çöküşünden Tarihi ve Evrensel Dersler.” Bilig, no. 39 (2006): 163-194.
  • Papp, Daniel S. “Soviet Resources Policy: Foreign Investment, Resources and the Tenth Five-Year Plan.” Resources Policy 3, no. 3 (1977): 195-202.
  • Prostiakov, I., A. Balashova & N. Iakunina. “Proportions in the Soviet Economy in the Tenth Five-Year Plan.” Problems in Economics 21, no. 1 (1978): 22-42.
  • Rassweiler, Anne D. “Soviet Labor Policy in the First Five-Year Plan: The Dneprostroi Experience.” Slavic Review 42, no. 2 (1983): 230-246.
  • Riasanovsky, V. Nicholas & D. Mark Steinberg. Rusya Tarihi. Trans. Figen Dereli, İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları, 2011.
  • Rifat, Mehmet. Açıklamalı Göstergebilim Sözlüğü: Kavramlar, Yöntemler, Kuramcılar, Okullar. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2013.
  • Rolf, Malte. “Constructing a Soviet Time: Bolshevik Festivals and Their Rivals during the First Five-Year Plan. A Study of the Central Black Earth Region.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 1, no. 3 (2000): 447-473.
  • Shabad, Theodore. “Geographic Aspects of the New Soviet Five-Year Plan, 1986-90.” Soviet Geography 27, no. 1 (1986): 1-16.
  • Sonesson, Göran. “The Phenomenological Semiotics of Iconicity and Pictoriality–Including Some Replies to My Critics.” Language and Semiotic Studies 2, no. 2 (2016): 1-73.
  • Stone, David R. “The First Five-Year Plan and the Geography of Soviet Defence Industry.” Europe-Asia Studies 57, no. 7 (2005): 1047-1063.
  • Viola, Lynne. “The ‘25,000 ers’: A Study in a Soviet Recruitment Campaign During the First Five Year Plan.” Russian History 10, no. 1 (1983): 1-30.
  • Yılmaz, Mehmet Barış, Caner Çakı & Mehmet Ali Gazi. “Nazi Almanyası İşgalindeki Sırbistan'da Antisemitist Propaganda Faaliyetleri.” Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 8, no. 2 (2020): 441-450.

Sovyetler Birliği’nde Uygulanan Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planlarının Ermenistan’daki Propagandası

Yıl 2020, Sayı: 42, 81 - 102, 07.12.2020

Öz

Sovyetler Birliği, 1928 yılında beş yıllık kalkınma planlarını uygulamaya başlamıştır. Bu aşamada başta tarım ve sanayi olmak üzere birlik içerisinde büyük bir ekonomik kalkınma hedefinin gerçekleştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Sovyetler Birliği yönetimi; birlik içerisindeki sosyalist cumhuriyetlerdeki halkları, kalkınma planlarına dahil etmek için propaganda faaliyetleri yapmıştır. Ermenistan Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyeti (ESSC) de Sovyetler Birliği’nin kalkınma planlarına yönelik propaganda faaliyetlerinin uygulandığı sosyalist cumhuriyetlerden biri olmuştur. Bu aşamada Sovyetler Birliği, hazırlanan propaganda posterleri üzerinden Ermeni halkının kalkınma planları kapsamında tarımda ve sanayide çalışmasını teşvik etmeye çalışmıştır. Çalışmada Sovyetler Birliği’nin Ermenistan’da kalkınma planlarını konu alan propaganda faaliyetleri, posterler özelinde incelenerek, Sovyetler Birliği’nin beş yıllık kalkınma planları kapsamında Ermenistan’da hangi propaganda mesajlarına yer verdiğinin ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında kota örneklemi kullanılarak belirlenen 7 propaganda posteri, Karl Bühler'in Organon Modeli (Organon Modell) ışığında analiz edilmektedir. Elde edilen bulgularda, propaganda posterlerinde Komünizm ideolojisini veya Lenin liderlik kültünü yücelten söylemlere yer verilmediği, bunun yerine iş ve emeğin önemi vurgulayan söylemlerin posterlere aktarıldığı sonucuna ulaşılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • “The Propaganda Poster on Heroism.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:907
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Future.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 25, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:233
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Employment.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:44
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Courage.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:402
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Life.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:172
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Soil.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:361
  • “The Propaganda Poster on Collective Farm.” University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)-International Digital Ephemera Project, accessed September 24, 2020. https://idep.library.ucla.edu/search#!/document/armeniaposters:207
  • Andrle, V. “How Backward Workers Became Soviet: Industrialization of Labour and the Politics of Efficiency under the Second Five‐Year Plan, 1933–1937.” Social History 10, no. 2 (1985): 147-169.
  • Arıca, Ferit Arda. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti’nde Mao Zedong Döneminde Spor Yayıncılığı Üzerine İnceleme.” TRT Akademi 4, no. 8 (2019): 392-408.
  • Baum, Ann T. Komsomol Participation in the Soviet First Five-Year Plan. Germany: Springer, 1987.
  • Berend, T. Ivan. 20. Yüzyıl Avrupa İktisat Tarihi. Trans. Serpil Çağlayan. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Yayınları, 2011.
  • Çakı, Caner. “Ermenistan Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyeti'nde Joseph Stalin Döneminde Kullanılan Sovyet Propaganda Posterleri Üzerine İnceleme.” Ermeni Araştırmaları, no. 61 (2018): 271-296.
  • Çakı, Caner, & Gufran Dündar. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti'nde Birinci Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı Döneminde (1953-1957) Kadınların Propaganda Posterlerindeki Sunumu.” Uluslararası Batı Karadeniz Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi 3, no. 1 (2019): 13-37.
  • Çakı, Caner & Mehmet Ozan Gülada. “Komünizm İdeolojisi Altında Ermeni Kadınların Propaganda Posterlerindeki Temsili.” Ermeni Araştırmaları, no. 66 (2020): 49-71.
  • Çalışkan, Sadık & Mehmet Barış Yılmaz. “Ermenistan Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyeti'nde Basında Yer Alan Propaganda Posterleri Üzerinden Vladimir Lenin'in Kült Liderlik İnşası.” Ermeni Araştırmaları, no. 65 (2020): 75-100.
  • Çetin, Mehmet, Çakı, Caner & Mehmet Ali Gazi. “The Examination of The Anti-USA Propaganda Posters in The Iran Revolution According to Claude Lévi-Strauss' Binary Opposition.” International Journal of Social Science 1, no. 3 (2018): 31-51.
  • Davies, R.W., & S.G. Wheatcroft. “Further Thoughts on the First Soviet Five-Year Plan.” Slavic Review 34, no. 4 (1975): 790-802.
  • Dienes, Leslie. “The Soviet Oil Industry in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan.” Soviet Geography 28, no. 9 (1987): 617-655.
  • Dündar, Gufran. “Mussolini İtalyası'nda Spor Yayıncılığı.” TRT Akademi 4, no. 8 (2019): 308-324.
  • Fiske, John. İletişim Çalışmalarına Giriş. Trans. Süleyman İrvan. 5. Edition. Ankara: Bilim ve Sanat Yayınları, 2017.
  • Gazi̇, Mehmet Ali, Caner Çakı, Mehmet Ozan Gülada & Gül Çakı. “Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti Kültür Devrimi Sürecinde Okuma Alışkanlığının Propaganda Posterlerinde Sunumu.” Türk Kütüphaneciliği 34, no. 3 (2020): 406-431.
  • Harrison, Mark & R.W. Davies. “The Soviet Military‐Economic Effort during the Second Five‐Year Plan (1933–1937).” Europe-Asia Studies 49, no. 3 (1997): 369-406.
  • Hunter, Holland. “The Overambitious First Soviet Five-Year Plan.” Slavic Review 32, no. 2 (1973): 237-257.
  • Jensen, Robert G. “Soviet Regional Development Policy and the 10th Five-Year Plan.” Soviet Geography 19, no. 3 (1978): 196-201.
  • Kalesnik, S.V., & F.F. Davitaya. “The Tasks of Soviet Geography in Supporting Soviet Economic Development During The 10th Five-Year Plan.” Soviet Geography 17, no. 4 (1976): 217-234.
  • Kepley Jr., Vance. “The First ‘Perestroika’: Soviet Cinema under the First Five-Year Plan.” Cinema Journal 35, no. 4 (1996): 31-53.
  • Micklin, Philip P. “Irrigation Development in the USSR during the 10th Five-Year Plan (1976–1980).” Soviet Geography 19, no. 1 (1978): 1-24.
  • Millar, James R. “Mass Collectivization and the Contribution of Soviet Agriculture to the First Five-Year Plan: A Review Article.” Slavic Review 33, no. 4 (1974): 750-766.
  • Özsoy, İsmail. “Sovyet Sisteminin Çöküşünden Tarihi ve Evrensel Dersler.” Bilig, no. 39 (2006): 163-194.
  • Papp, Daniel S. “Soviet Resources Policy: Foreign Investment, Resources and the Tenth Five-Year Plan.” Resources Policy 3, no. 3 (1977): 195-202.
  • Prostiakov, I., A. Balashova & N. Iakunina. “Proportions in the Soviet Economy in the Tenth Five-Year Plan.” Problems in Economics 21, no. 1 (1978): 22-42.
  • Rassweiler, Anne D. “Soviet Labor Policy in the First Five-Year Plan: The Dneprostroi Experience.” Slavic Review 42, no. 2 (1983): 230-246.
  • Riasanovsky, V. Nicholas & D. Mark Steinberg. Rusya Tarihi. Trans. Figen Dereli, İstanbul: İnkılap Yayınları, 2011.
  • Rifat, Mehmet. Açıklamalı Göstergebilim Sözlüğü: Kavramlar, Yöntemler, Kuramcılar, Okullar. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2013.
  • Rolf, Malte. “Constructing a Soviet Time: Bolshevik Festivals and Their Rivals during the First Five-Year Plan. A Study of the Central Black Earth Region.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 1, no. 3 (2000): 447-473.
  • Shabad, Theodore. “Geographic Aspects of the New Soviet Five-Year Plan, 1986-90.” Soviet Geography 27, no. 1 (1986): 1-16.
  • Sonesson, Göran. “The Phenomenological Semiotics of Iconicity and Pictoriality–Including Some Replies to My Critics.” Language and Semiotic Studies 2, no. 2 (2016): 1-73.
  • Stone, David R. “The First Five-Year Plan and the Geography of Soviet Defence Industry.” Europe-Asia Studies 57, no. 7 (2005): 1047-1063.
  • Viola, Lynne. “The ‘25,000 ers’: A Study in a Soviet Recruitment Campaign During the First Five Year Plan.” Russian History 10, no. 1 (1983): 1-30.
  • Yılmaz, Mehmet Barış, Caner Çakı & Mehmet Ali Gazi. “Nazi Almanyası İşgalindeki Sırbistan'da Antisemitist Propaganda Faaliyetleri.” Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 8, no. 2 (2020): 441-450.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Siyaset Bilimi
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Tuğba BAYTİMUR 0000-0002-7069-3338

Caner ÇAKI 0000-0002-1523-4649

Ferit Arda ARICA 0000-0002-1254-4537

Yayımlanma Tarihi 7 Aralık 2020
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020 Sayı: 42

Kaynak Göster

Chicago BAYTİMUR, Tuğba, Caner ÇAKI, ve Ferit Arda ARICA. “The Propaganda In Armenia Of The Five-Year Development Plans Implemented In The Soviet Union”. Review of Armenian Studies, sy. 42 (Aralık 2020): 81-102.