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DISSOLUTION KINETICS OF NICKEL FROM GÖRDES (MANİSA-TURKEY) LATERITIC ORE BY SULPHURIC ACID LEACHING UNDER EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE

Yıl 2017, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, 353 - 361, 01.09.2017

Öz

In this study, dissolution kinetics of nickel from Gördes (Manisa-Turkey) lateritic ore by sodium fluoride in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. The effects of stirring speed, sulphuric acid concentration, sodium fluoride concentration and temperature on nickel extraction were examined. To determine the dissolution kinetics of nickel in sulphuric acid medium under effect of sodium fluoride, shrinking core model was applied to dissolution recoveries. As a result of kinetic studies, it was determined that mixed kinetic model was appropriate. The activation energy (Ea) for the dissolution was calculated as 41.24 kJ/mol.

Kaynakça

  • Agacayak, T., Zedef, V., Aydogan, S., 2011, “Leaching of Lateritic Nickel Ores of Karacam (Eskisehir-Turkey) with Hydrochloric Acid”, 11th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo-Conference&EXPO SGEM, Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection, Albena-Varna/Bulgaria. Vol. 1, pp. 1155–1162, 19-25 June 2011.
  • Agacayak, T., Zedef, V., 2012, “Dissolution Kinetics of a Lateritic Nickel Ore in Sulphuric Acid Medium”, Acta Montanistica Slovaca, Vol. 17 (1), pp. 33–41.
  • Agacayak, T., Zedef, V., 2013, “Leaching of a Turkish Lateritic Nickel Ore in Nitric Acid Solution”, Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, Proceedings of the 22nd MPES Conference, Dresden, Germany, 14 – 19 October 2013.
  • Agatzini-Leonardou, S., Zafiratos, I. G., 2004, “Beneficiation of a Greek Serpentinic Nickeliferous Ore Part II. Sulfuric Acid Heap and Agitation Leaching”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 74, pp. 267−275.
  • Ayanda, O. S., Adekola, F. A., Baba, A. A., Fatoki, O. S., Ximba, B. J., 2011, “Comparative Study of the Kinetics of Dissolution of Laterite in Some Acidic Media”, J. of Miner. & Mater. Character. & Eng., Vol. 10 (15), pp. 1457–1472.
  • Behera, S. K., Sukla, L. B., Mishra, B. K., 2010, “Leaching of Nickel Laterite Using Fungus Mediated Organic Acid and Synthetic Organic Acid: A Comparative Study”, Proceedings of the XI International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology, pp. 946–954.
  • Brand, N. W., Butt, C. R. M., Elias, M., 1998, “Nickel Laterites: Classification and Features”, J. of Australian Geo. and Geoph., Vol. 17, pp. 81–88.
  • Chen, S., Guo, X., Shi, W., Li, D., 2010, “Extraction of Valuable Metals from Low-Grade Nickeliferous Laterite Ore by Reduction Roasting-Ammonia Leaching Method”, Journal of Central South University of Technology, Vol. 17(4), pp. 765−769.
  • Dalvi, A. D., Bacon, W., Osborne, R. C., 2004, “The Past and The Future of Nickel Laterites”, PDAC 2004 International Conference Trade Show and Investors Exchange, Toronto, CANADA.
  • Deepatana, A., Tang, J. A., Valix, M., 2006, “Comparative Study of Chelating Ion Exchange Resins for Metal Recovery from Bioleaching of Nickel Laterite Ores”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 19 (2), pp. 1280–1289.
  • Ekmekyapar, A., Oya, R., Kunkul, A., 2003, “Dissolution Kinetics of an Oxidized Copper Ore in Ammonium Chloride Solution”, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, Vol. 17 (4), pp. 261–266.
  • Georgiou, D., Papangelakis, G. V., 1998, “Sulphuric Acid Pressure Leaching of a Limonitic Laterite: Chemistry and Kinetics”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 49, pp. 23–46.
  • Gleeson, S. A., Butt, C. R. M., Elias, M., 2003, “Nickel Laterites: A Review. SEG Newsletter”, Soc. of Econ. Geo., Vol. 54, pp. 12–18.
  • Golightly, J. P., 1981, “Nickeliferous Laterite Deposits”, Economic Geology, Vol. 75 (1), pp. 710–735.
  • Guo, Q., Qu, J., Han, B., Zhang, P., Song, Y., Qi, T., 2015, “Innovative Technology for Processing Saprolitic Laterite Ores by Hydrochloric Acid Atmospheric Pressure Leaching”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 71, pp. 1–6.
  • Habashi, F., 1969, Principles of Extractive Metallurgy, New York: Gordon and Breach.
  • Harouiya, N., Oelkers, E. H., 2004, “An Experimental Study of The Effect of Aqueous Fluoride on Quartz and Alkali-Feldspar Dissolution Rates”, Chemical Geology, Vol: 205, pp.155–167.
  • Kamberović, Ž., Korać, M., Anđić, Z., Uljarević, J., Mihajlović, A., Vučurović, D., 2014, “Technological and Environmental Aspects of Nickel Production in Serbia” Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia, Vol. 20 (4), pp. 275-284.
  • Kursunoglu, S., Kaya, M., 2015, “Dissolution Behavior of Caldag Lateritic Nickel Ore Subjected to a Sequential Organic Acid Leaching Method”, Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, Vol. 22 (11), pp. 1131–1140.
  • Levenspiel, O., 1999, Chemical reaction engineering, New York:John Wiley & Sons.
  • Li, J., Xiong, D., Chen, H., Wang, R., Liang, Y., 2012, “Physicochemical Factors Affecting Leaching of Laterite Ore in Hydrochloric Acid”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 129 (130), pp. 14–18.
  • Luo, W., Feng, Q., Ou, L., Zhang, G., Chen, Y., 2010, “Kinetics of Saprolitic Laterite Leaching by Sulphuric Acid at Atmospheric Pressure”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 23 (6), pp. 458–462.
  • Ma, B., Wang, C., Yang, W., Yang, B., Zhang, Y., 2013, “Selective Pressure Leaching of Fe (II)-rich Limonitic Laterite Ores from Indonesia Using Nitric Acid”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 45, pp. 151–158.
  • McDonald, R. G., Whittington, B. I., 2008a, “Atmospheric Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites Review (Part I). Sulphuric Acid Technologies”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 91 (1/4), pp. 35−55.
  • McDonald, R. G., Whittington, B. I., 2008b, “Atmospheric Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites Review, Part II. Chloride and Bio-Technologies”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 91, pp. 56−69.
  • Mitra., A., Rimstidt, J. D., 2009, “Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Silica in Acid Fluoride Solutions” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 73, pp. 7045–7059.
  • Mohammadreza, F., Mohammad, N., Ziaeddin, S. S., 2014, “Nickel Extraction From Low Grade Laterite by Agitation Leaching at Atmospheric Pressure”, International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Vol. 24 (4), pp. 543–548.
  • Park, K. H., Nam, C. W., 2008, “Status and Prospect of Nickel Resources and Processing”, Trending Metals Mater. Eng., Vol. 21, pp. 1–9.
  • Rezende, L., 2006, Chronology of Science, Fact on File, Inc., New York.
  • Rubisov, D. H., Krowinkel, J. M., Papangelakis, V. G., 2000, “Sulphuric Acid Pressure Leaching of Laterites Universal Kinetics of Nickel Dissolution for Limonites and Limonitic/Saprolitic Blends”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 58 (1), pp. 1−11.
  • Sagapoa, C. V., Imai, A., Watanabe, K., 2011, “Laterization Process of Ultramafic Rocks in Siruka, Solomon Islands”, Journal of Novel Carbon Resource Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 32–39.
  • Sahu, S., Kavuri, N. C., Kundu, M., 2011, “Dissolution Kinetics of Nickel Laterite Ore Using Different Secondary Metabolic Acids”, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 28 (2), pp. 251−258.
  • Soler, J. M., Cama, J., Galí, S. Meléndez, W., Ramírez, A., Estanga, J., 2008, “Composition and Dissolution Kinetics of Garnierite from The Loma De Hierro Ni-Laterite Deposit, Venezuela”, Chemical Geology, Vol. 249 (1/2), pp. 191−202.
  • Stopic, S., Friedrich, B., Fuchs, R., 2002, “Kinetics of Sulphuric Acid Leaching of The Serbian Nickel Laterite Ore Under Atmospheric Pressure”, Metalurgica J. of Metall., Vol. 8 (3), pp. 235–244.
  • Sukla, L. B., Panchanadikar, V., 1993, “Bioleaching of Lateritic Nickel Ore Using A Heterotrophic Micro-Organism”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 32, pp. 373–379.
  • Zhai, Y., Mu, W., Liu, Y., Xu, Q., 2010, “A Green Process for Recovering Nickel from Nickeliferous Laterite Ores”, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 20, pp. 65−70.
  • Zuniga, M., Parada, F., Asselin, E., 2010, “Leaching of A Limonitic Laterite in Ammoniacal Solutions with Metallic Iron”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 104, pp. 260–267.

Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği

Yıl 2017, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, 353 - 361, 01.09.2017

Öz

Bu çalışmada, sodyum florür içeren sülfürik asit çözeltisinde Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) lateritik cevherinden nikelin çözünme kinetiği araştırılmıştır. Karıştırma hızı, sülfürik asit ve sodyum florür derişimi ve sıcaklığın nikelin çözünmesine olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Sodyum florür etkisinde sülfürik asit ortamında nikelin çözünme kinetiğini belirlemek için elde edilen çözünme verimlerine küçülen çekirdek modeli uygulanmıştır. Kinetik çalışmalar sonucunda karışık modelin uygun olduğu belirlenmiştir. Nikelin çözünmesi için aktivasyon enerjisi 41.24 kJ/mol olarak hesaplanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Agacayak, T., Zedef, V., Aydogan, S., 2011, “Leaching of Lateritic Nickel Ores of Karacam (Eskisehir-Turkey) with Hydrochloric Acid”, 11th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo-Conference&EXPO SGEM, Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection, Albena-Varna/Bulgaria. Vol. 1, pp. 1155–1162, 19-25 June 2011.
  • Agacayak, T., Zedef, V., 2012, “Dissolution Kinetics of a Lateritic Nickel Ore in Sulphuric Acid Medium”, Acta Montanistica Slovaca, Vol. 17 (1), pp. 33–41.
  • Agacayak, T., Zedef, V., 2013, “Leaching of a Turkish Lateritic Nickel Ore in Nitric Acid Solution”, Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, Proceedings of the 22nd MPES Conference, Dresden, Germany, 14 – 19 October 2013.
  • Agatzini-Leonardou, S., Zafiratos, I. G., 2004, “Beneficiation of a Greek Serpentinic Nickeliferous Ore Part II. Sulfuric Acid Heap and Agitation Leaching”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 74, pp. 267−275.
  • Ayanda, O. S., Adekola, F. A., Baba, A. A., Fatoki, O. S., Ximba, B. J., 2011, “Comparative Study of the Kinetics of Dissolution of Laterite in Some Acidic Media”, J. of Miner. & Mater. Character. & Eng., Vol. 10 (15), pp. 1457–1472.
  • Behera, S. K., Sukla, L. B., Mishra, B. K., 2010, “Leaching of Nickel Laterite Using Fungus Mediated Organic Acid and Synthetic Organic Acid: A Comparative Study”, Proceedings of the XI International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology, pp. 946–954.
  • Brand, N. W., Butt, C. R. M., Elias, M., 1998, “Nickel Laterites: Classification and Features”, J. of Australian Geo. and Geoph., Vol. 17, pp. 81–88.
  • Chen, S., Guo, X., Shi, W., Li, D., 2010, “Extraction of Valuable Metals from Low-Grade Nickeliferous Laterite Ore by Reduction Roasting-Ammonia Leaching Method”, Journal of Central South University of Technology, Vol. 17(4), pp. 765−769.
  • Dalvi, A. D., Bacon, W., Osborne, R. C., 2004, “The Past and The Future of Nickel Laterites”, PDAC 2004 International Conference Trade Show and Investors Exchange, Toronto, CANADA.
  • Deepatana, A., Tang, J. A., Valix, M., 2006, “Comparative Study of Chelating Ion Exchange Resins for Metal Recovery from Bioleaching of Nickel Laterite Ores”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 19 (2), pp. 1280–1289.
  • Ekmekyapar, A., Oya, R., Kunkul, A., 2003, “Dissolution Kinetics of an Oxidized Copper Ore in Ammonium Chloride Solution”, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, Vol. 17 (4), pp. 261–266.
  • Georgiou, D., Papangelakis, G. V., 1998, “Sulphuric Acid Pressure Leaching of a Limonitic Laterite: Chemistry and Kinetics”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 49, pp. 23–46.
  • Gleeson, S. A., Butt, C. R. M., Elias, M., 2003, “Nickel Laterites: A Review. SEG Newsletter”, Soc. of Econ. Geo., Vol. 54, pp. 12–18.
  • Golightly, J. P., 1981, “Nickeliferous Laterite Deposits”, Economic Geology, Vol. 75 (1), pp. 710–735.
  • Guo, Q., Qu, J., Han, B., Zhang, P., Song, Y., Qi, T., 2015, “Innovative Technology for Processing Saprolitic Laterite Ores by Hydrochloric Acid Atmospheric Pressure Leaching”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 71, pp. 1–6.
  • Habashi, F., 1969, Principles of Extractive Metallurgy, New York: Gordon and Breach.
  • Harouiya, N., Oelkers, E. H., 2004, “An Experimental Study of The Effect of Aqueous Fluoride on Quartz and Alkali-Feldspar Dissolution Rates”, Chemical Geology, Vol: 205, pp.155–167.
  • Kamberović, Ž., Korać, M., Anđić, Z., Uljarević, J., Mihajlović, A., Vučurović, D., 2014, “Technological and Environmental Aspects of Nickel Production in Serbia” Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia, Vol. 20 (4), pp. 275-284.
  • Kursunoglu, S., Kaya, M., 2015, “Dissolution Behavior of Caldag Lateritic Nickel Ore Subjected to a Sequential Organic Acid Leaching Method”, Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, Vol. 22 (11), pp. 1131–1140.
  • Levenspiel, O., 1999, Chemical reaction engineering, New York:John Wiley & Sons.
  • Li, J., Xiong, D., Chen, H., Wang, R., Liang, Y., 2012, “Physicochemical Factors Affecting Leaching of Laterite Ore in Hydrochloric Acid”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 129 (130), pp. 14–18.
  • Luo, W., Feng, Q., Ou, L., Zhang, G., Chen, Y., 2010, “Kinetics of Saprolitic Laterite Leaching by Sulphuric Acid at Atmospheric Pressure”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 23 (6), pp. 458–462.
  • Ma, B., Wang, C., Yang, W., Yang, B., Zhang, Y., 2013, “Selective Pressure Leaching of Fe (II)-rich Limonitic Laterite Ores from Indonesia Using Nitric Acid”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 45, pp. 151–158.
  • McDonald, R. G., Whittington, B. I., 2008a, “Atmospheric Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites Review (Part I). Sulphuric Acid Technologies”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 91 (1/4), pp. 35−55.
  • McDonald, R. G., Whittington, B. I., 2008b, “Atmospheric Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites Review, Part II. Chloride and Bio-Technologies”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 91, pp. 56−69.
  • Mitra., A., Rimstidt, J. D., 2009, “Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Silica in Acid Fluoride Solutions” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 73, pp. 7045–7059.
  • Mohammadreza, F., Mohammad, N., Ziaeddin, S. S., 2014, “Nickel Extraction From Low Grade Laterite by Agitation Leaching at Atmospheric Pressure”, International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Vol. 24 (4), pp. 543–548.
  • Park, K. H., Nam, C. W., 2008, “Status and Prospect of Nickel Resources and Processing”, Trending Metals Mater. Eng., Vol. 21, pp. 1–9.
  • Rezende, L., 2006, Chronology of Science, Fact on File, Inc., New York.
  • Rubisov, D. H., Krowinkel, J. M., Papangelakis, V. G., 2000, “Sulphuric Acid Pressure Leaching of Laterites Universal Kinetics of Nickel Dissolution for Limonites and Limonitic/Saprolitic Blends”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 58 (1), pp. 1−11.
  • Sagapoa, C. V., Imai, A., Watanabe, K., 2011, “Laterization Process of Ultramafic Rocks in Siruka, Solomon Islands”, Journal of Novel Carbon Resource Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 32–39.
  • Sahu, S., Kavuri, N. C., Kundu, M., 2011, “Dissolution Kinetics of Nickel Laterite Ore Using Different Secondary Metabolic Acids”, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 28 (2), pp. 251−258.
  • Soler, J. M., Cama, J., Galí, S. Meléndez, W., Ramírez, A., Estanga, J., 2008, “Composition and Dissolution Kinetics of Garnierite from The Loma De Hierro Ni-Laterite Deposit, Venezuela”, Chemical Geology, Vol. 249 (1/2), pp. 191−202.
  • Stopic, S., Friedrich, B., Fuchs, R., 2002, “Kinetics of Sulphuric Acid Leaching of The Serbian Nickel Laterite Ore Under Atmospheric Pressure”, Metalurgica J. of Metall., Vol. 8 (3), pp. 235–244.
  • Sukla, L. B., Panchanadikar, V., 1993, “Bioleaching of Lateritic Nickel Ore Using A Heterotrophic Micro-Organism”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 32, pp. 373–379.
  • Zhai, Y., Mu, W., Liu, Y., Xu, Q., 2010, “A Green Process for Recovering Nickel from Nickeliferous Laterite Ores”, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 20, pp. 65−70.
  • Zuniga, M., Parada, F., Asselin, E., 2010, “Leaching of A Limonitic Laterite in Ammoniacal Solutions with Metallic Iron”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 104, pp. 260–267.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Tevfik AĞAÇAYAK


Ali ARAS

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Eylül 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 5, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { sujest375710, journal = {Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2147-9364}, address = {SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ DEKANKLIĞI SELÇUKLU KONYA}, publisher = {Konya Teknik Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {5}, pages = {353 - 361}, doi = {}, title = {Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği}, key = {cite}, author = {Ağaçayak, Tevfik and Aras, Ali} }
APA Ağaçayak, T. & Aras, A. (2017). Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği . Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi , 5 (3) , 353-361 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sujest/issue/33943/375710
MLA Ağaçayak, T. , Aras, A. "Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği" . Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi 5 (2017 ): 353-361 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sujest/issue/33943/375710>
Chicago Ağaçayak, T. , Aras, A. "Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği". Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi 5 (2017 ): 353-361
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği AU - Tevfik Ağaçayak , Ali Aras Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 353 EP - 361 VL - 5 IS - 3 SN - -2147-9364 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği %A Tevfik Ağaçayak , Ali Aras %T Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği %D 2017 %J Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi %P -2147-9364 %V 5 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Ağaçayak, Tevfik , Aras, Ali . "Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği". Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi 5 / 3 (Eylül 2017): 353-361 .
AMA Ağaçayak T. , Aras A. Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği. sujest. 2017; 5(3): 353-361.
Vancouver Ağaçayak T. , Aras A. Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği. Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi. 2017; 5(3): 353-361.
IEEE T. Ağaçayak ve A. Aras , "Sodyum Florür Etkisinde Sülfürik Asit Liçi ile Gördes (Manisa-Türkiye) Lateritik Cevherinden Nikelin Çözünme Kinetiği", Selçuk Üniversitesi Mühendislik, Bilim Ve Teknoloji Dergisi, c. 5, sayı. 3, ss. 353-361, Eyl. 2017

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