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Gen-Z's consumption behaviours in post-pandemic tourism sector

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 67 - 79, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.48119/toleho.1099783

Öz

Tourism is a dynamic system, and it has grown to a modern form from a conventional form in time. Many alternative products have emerged in the sector and the profile of tourism consumers has also changed in line with the change in the sector. In time, marketers have started to adopt a generational marketing approach more than an age-based marketing approach. This study examined the decision-making processes Generation Z used when deciding on a travel product, comparing their behaviours with those of Generation X and Y as the former generations of Gen Z, based on the stages of Cohen's (1972) Theory of Tourist Behavior; “initiation”, “information search”, “assessment”, “final decision”, “during travel” and “post-travel”. For this purpose, two research questions were developed exploring the consumption behaviors of Generation Z and comparing the findings of Gen Z with those of Gen X and Y. The quantitative method was used to collect the research data and an online survey was adapted from Husein et.al (2017) and administered to Gen X, Y and Z in Turkey through the convenience sampling method. 2084 participants completed the delivered survey (N for Gen X= 723, N for Y= 710 and N for Gen Z=651). Frequency analysis was performed on the data and the findings were interpreted accordingly. It was found that Gen Z differed from both Gen X and Gen Y in the examined parameters revealing a transformation from traditional tourist behaviour to modern tourist behaviour and relevant conclusions such as multi-generational marketing were drawn for more effective marketing of tourism products in the post-pandemic period. 

Kaynakça

  • Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. (2000). Attitudes and the attitude-behaviour relation: Reasoned and automatic processes. European review of social psychology, 11(1), pp. 1-33.
  • Anton, C., and Costache, A. (2012). Price rebate in the business relations and the consequences on the company outcome. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 5(2), pp.131.
  • Bakator, M., Ivin, D., Vukovic, D., and Petrovic, N. (2016). Analysis of Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy Improvement. In VI Int. Symp. Eng. Manag. Compet (p. 201-205).
  • Baker, D. A., and Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Annals of tourism research, 27(3), pp. 785-804.
  • Balasescu, S. (2012). Opinions of managers from Brasov regarding the necessity of innovations in the retail industry. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 5(2), p. 81.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., and Sutherland, L. A. (2011). Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism Management, 32(4), pp. 770-779.
  • Boukas, N. (2013). Youth Visitors’ Satisfaction in Greek Cultural Heritage Destinations: The Case of Delphi. Tourism Planning & Development, 10(3), pp. 285-306.
  • Chaney, D., Touzani, M., & Ben Slimane, K. (2017). Marketing to the (new) generations: summary and perspectives. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 25(3), pp. 179-189.
  • Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social research, pp. 164-182.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. ve Morrison, K. (2000). Action research. Research methods in education, 5, pp. 226-244.
  • Cohen, S. A., Prayag, G., and Moital, M. (2014). Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(10), pp. 872-909.
  • Cone Communications (2017). 2017 Cone Gen Z CSR Study: How to speak Z. https://www.conecomm.com/research-blog/2017-genz-csr-study
  • Customer Research Methods (2021). https://www.business.qld.gov.au/business/starting/marketcustomer-research/researching-customers/customer-research-methods accessed: 10.01.2022
  • Cruz, M., Silva, S. C., and Machado, J. C. (2017). The influence of WOM and Peer Interaction in the Decision-Making Process of Generation Z within the family. International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media, (2).
  • Deloitte (2019). The Deloitte Global Millennial Survey 2018. https://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/about-deloitte/articles/millennialsurvey.html
  • Emese, C. Z. (2016). The Z Generation. Acta Technologica Dubnicae, 6(2), pp. 63-76.
  • Haddouche, H., and Salomone, C. (2018). Generation Z and the tourist experience: tourist stories and use of social networks. Journal of Tourism Futures.
  • Hardey, M. (2011). Generation C: content, creation, connections and choice. International Journal of Market Research, 53(6), pp. 749-770.
  • Hartline, M., D. and Ferrell, O.C. (2011). Marketing Strategy. Mason, Ohio, Southwestern, Cengage Learning.
  • Haski-Leventhal, D., and Manefield, S. (2018). The state of CSR and RME in business schools: The students’ voice. Fourth biennial survey.. https://www.unprme.org/resource-docs/PRMESurvey2018FINAL.pdf
  • Hawkins, D., and David L, M. (2015). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 11th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Husein, K., Wiweka, K., Kurniawati, R., and Adnyana, I. N. (2017). The profile and behaviour of smart tourist (Generation Z) in travel decision-making: World Research Summit for Tourism and Hospitality (4th), 8-11.12. 2017. Orlando, USA.
  • Howe, N., and Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Işık, C., Sirakaya-Turk, E., & Ongan, S. (2020). Testing the efficacy of the economic policy uncertainty index on tourism demand in USMCA: Theory and Evidence. Tourism Economics, 26(8), pp. 1344-1357.
  • ITB. (2016). ITB World Travel Trends Report 2016/2017. Prepared by IPK International On Behalf Of ITB Berlin-The World’s Leading Travel Trade Show
  • Kim, Y. G., Eves, A., and Scarles, C. (2009). Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach. International journal of hospitality management, 28(3), pp. 423-431.
  • Li, X., Li, X. R., and Hudson, S. (2013). The application of generational theory to tourism consumer behaviour: An American perspective. Tourism Management, 37, pp. 147-164.
  • Martin, C. A., and Tulgan, B. (2002). Managing the generation mix: From collision to collaboration. Human Resource Development.
  • Maoz, D., (2006). Backpackers Motivations: the role of culture and nationality. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), pp. 122-140.
  • Mignon, J. M. (2003).Le tourisme des jeunes. Une valeur sure. Cahier Espaces, 77, pp. 16-25.
  • Morgan, J. (2016). Generation Z and the 6 Forces Shaping the Future of Business. Available at: https://www.inc.com/jacob-morgan/generation-z-and-the-6-forces-shaping-the-future-of-business.html (10 March 2020].
  • Negrușa, A. L., and Toader, V. (2018). Generational differences in the case of film festival attendance. In Proceedings of the International Conference ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY, 5th edition, Generational impact in the Hospitality Industry, Cluj-Napoca, România (pp. 1-7).
  • Oh, E., and Reeves, T. C. (2014). Generational differences and the integration of technology in learning, instruction, and performance. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 819-828). Springer, New York, NY.
  • Ozkan, M., and Solmaz, B. (2015). The changing face of the employees–generation Z and their perceptions of work (a study applied to university students). Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, pp. 476-483.
  • Praveenkumar, S. (2015). Tourism Marketing and Consumer Behaviour. Research Journal of Social Science and Management. 4(12), pp. 73-82
  • Pocztowski, A., Buchelt, B., and Pauli, U. (2015). Business Start-Ups and Youth Self-Employment in Poland: a Policy Literature Review (working papers). Brighton: University of Brighton
  • Priporas, C. V., Stylos, N., and Fotiadis, A. K. (2017). Generation Z consumers' expectations of interactions in smart retailing: A future agenda. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, pp. 374-381.
  • Quan, S., and Wang, N. (2004). Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism. Tourism Management, 25(3), pp. 297-305.
  • Singleton, R. A., & Straits, B. C. (2009). Approaches to social research (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press
  • Steinerowska-Streb, I., and Wziątek-Staśko, A. (2016). The effective motivation of multi-generation teams-presentation of own research results. In Proceeding of the Management International Conference, Pula, Croatia, 1(4).
  • Świerkosz-Hołysz, M. (2016). Pokolenie Z wkracza na rynek pracy. Społeczeństwo i Edukacja, 21(2).
  • Tapscott, D. (2009). The next generation as learners. Grown Up Digital: How the Internet Generation Is Changing Your World, Tapscott, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
  • Törőcsik, M., Szűcs, K., and Kehl, D. (2014). How generations think: research on generation z. Acta universitatis Sapientiae, communicatio, 1(1), pp. 23-45.
  • Van De Walle, I. (2011). Le tourisme durable, l’idée d’un voyage ideal. Credoc (Centre de Recherche pour l’Etude et l’Observation des Conditions de Vie), 244, 1-4.
  • Williams, K. C., and Page, R. A. (2011). Marketing to the generations. Journal of behavioural studies in business, 3(1), pp. 37-53.
  • Wiweka, K., and Arcana, K. T. P. (2019). Rethinking the Theory of Tourism: What is Tourism System in Theoretical and Empirical Perspective?, 5(2), pp. 318-338.
  • UNWTO. (2016). Global Report on The Power of Youth Travel-Volume thirteen. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
  • Żarczyńska-Dobiesz, A., and Chomątowska, B. (2014). Pokolenie „Z” na rynku pracy–wyzwania dla zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 350, pp. 405-415.

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 67 - 79, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.48119/toleho.1099783

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. (2000). Attitudes and the attitude-behaviour relation: Reasoned and automatic processes. European review of social psychology, 11(1), pp. 1-33.
  • Anton, C., and Costache, A. (2012). Price rebate in the business relations and the consequences on the company outcome. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 5(2), pp.131.
  • Bakator, M., Ivin, D., Vukovic, D., and Petrovic, N. (2016). Analysis of Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy Improvement. In VI Int. Symp. Eng. Manag. Compet (p. 201-205).
  • Baker, D. A., and Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Annals of tourism research, 27(3), pp. 785-804.
  • Balasescu, S. (2012). Opinions of managers from Brasov regarding the necessity of innovations in the retail industry. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 5(2), p. 81.
  • Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., and Sutherland, L. A. (2011). Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism: Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism Management, 32(4), pp. 770-779.
  • Boukas, N. (2013). Youth Visitors’ Satisfaction in Greek Cultural Heritage Destinations: The Case of Delphi. Tourism Planning & Development, 10(3), pp. 285-306.
  • Chaney, D., Touzani, M., & Ben Slimane, K. (2017). Marketing to the (new) generations: summary and perspectives. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 25(3), pp. 179-189.
  • Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social research, pp. 164-182.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L. ve Morrison, K. (2000). Action research. Research methods in education, 5, pp. 226-244.
  • Cohen, S. A., Prayag, G., and Moital, M. (2014). Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(10), pp. 872-909.
  • Cone Communications (2017). 2017 Cone Gen Z CSR Study: How to speak Z. https://www.conecomm.com/research-blog/2017-genz-csr-study
  • Customer Research Methods (2021). https://www.business.qld.gov.au/business/starting/marketcustomer-research/researching-customers/customer-research-methods accessed: 10.01.2022
  • Cruz, M., Silva, S. C., and Machado, J. C. (2017). The influence of WOM and Peer Interaction in the Decision-Making Process of Generation Z within the family. International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media, (2).
  • Deloitte (2019). The Deloitte Global Millennial Survey 2018. https://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/about-deloitte/articles/millennialsurvey.html
  • Emese, C. Z. (2016). The Z Generation. Acta Technologica Dubnicae, 6(2), pp. 63-76.
  • Haddouche, H., and Salomone, C. (2018). Generation Z and the tourist experience: tourist stories and use of social networks. Journal of Tourism Futures.
  • Hardey, M. (2011). Generation C: content, creation, connections and choice. International Journal of Market Research, 53(6), pp. 749-770.
  • Hartline, M., D. and Ferrell, O.C. (2011). Marketing Strategy. Mason, Ohio, Southwestern, Cengage Learning.
  • Haski-Leventhal, D., and Manefield, S. (2018). The state of CSR and RME in business schools: The students’ voice. Fourth biennial survey.. https://www.unprme.org/resource-docs/PRMESurvey2018FINAL.pdf
  • Hawkins, D., and David L, M. (2015). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, 11th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Husein, K., Wiweka, K., Kurniawati, R., and Adnyana, I. N. (2017). The profile and behaviour of smart tourist (Generation Z) in travel decision-making: World Research Summit for Tourism and Hospitality (4th), 8-11.12. 2017. Orlando, USA.
  • Howe, N., and Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Işık, C., Sirakaya-Turk, E., & Ongan, S. (2020). Testing the efficacy of the economic policy uncertainty index on tourism demand in USMCA: Theory and Evidence. Tourism Economics, 26(8), pp. 1344-1357.
  • ITB. (2016). ITB World Travel Trends Report 2016/2017. Prepared by IPK International On Behalf Of ITB Berlin-The World’s Leading Travel Trade Show
  • Kim, Y. G., Eves, A., and Scarles, C. (2009). Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach. International journal of hospitality management, 28(3), pp. 423-431.
  • Li, X., Li, X. R., and Hudson, S. (2013). The application of generational theory to tourism consumer behaviour: An American perspective. Tourism Management, 37, pp. 147-164.
  • Martin, C. A., and Tulgan, B. (2002). Managing the generation mix: From collision to collaboration. Human Resource Development.
  • Maoz, D., (2006). Backpackers Motivations: the role of culture and nationality. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), pp. 122-140.
  • Mignon, J. M. (2003).Le tourisme des jeunes. Une valeur sure. Cahier Espaces, 77, pp. 16-25.
  • Morgan, J. (2016). Generation Z and the 6 Forces Shaping the Future of Business. Available at: https://www.inc.com/jacob-morgan/generation-z-and-the-6-forces-shaping-the-future-of-business.html (10 March 2020].
  • Negrușa, A. L., and Toader, V. (2018). Generational differences in the case of film festival attendance. In Proceedings of the International Conference ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY, 5th edition, Generational impact in the Hospitality Industry, Cluj-Napoca, România (pp. 1-7).
  • Oh, E., and Reeves, T. C. (2014). Generational differences and the integration of technology in learning, instruction, and performance. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 819-828). Springer, New York, NY.
  • Ozkan, M., and Solmaz, B. (2015). The changing face of the employees–generation Z and their perceptions of work (a study applied to university students). Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, pp. 476-483.
  • Praveenkumar, S. (2015). Tourism Marketing and Consumer Behaviour. Research Journal of Social Science and Management. 4(12), pp. 73-82
  • Pocztowski, A., Buchelt, B., and Pauli, U. (2015). Business Start-Ups and Youth Self-Employment in Poland: a Policy Literature Review (working papers). Brighton: University of Brighton
  • Priporas, C. V., Stylos, N., and Fotiadis, A. K. (2017). Generation Z consumers' expectations of interactions in smart retailing: A future agenda. Computers in Human Behavior, 77, pp. 374-381.
  • Quan, S., and Wang, N. (2004). Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism. Tourism Management, 25(3), pp. 297-305.
  • Singleton, R. A., & Straits, B. C. (2009). Approaches to social research (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press
  • Steinerowska-Streb, I., and Wziątek-Staśko, A. (2016). The effective motivation of multi-generation teams-presentation of own research results. In Proceeding of the Management International Conference, Pula, Croatia, 1(4).
  • Świerkosz-Hołysz, M. (2016). Pokolenie Z wkracza na rynek pracy. Społeczeństwo i Edukacja, 21(2).
  • Tapscott, D. (2009). The next generation as learners. Grown Up Digital: How the Internet Generation Is Changing Your World, Tapscott, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
  • Törőcsik, M., Szűcs, K., and Kehl, D. (2014). How generations think: research on generation z. Acta universitatis Sapientiae, communicatio, 1(1), pp. 23-45.
  • Van De Walle, I. (2011). Le tourisme durable, l’idée d’un voyage ideal. Credoc (Centre de Recherche pour l’Etude et l’Observation des Conditions de Vie), 244, 1-4.
  • Williams, K. C., and Page, R. A. (2011). Marketing to the generations. Journal of behavioural studies in business, 3(1), pp. 37-53.
  • Wiweka, K., and Arcana, K. T. P. (2019). Rethinking the Theory of Tourism: What is Tourism System in Theoretical and Empirical Perspective?, 5(2), pp. 318-338.
  • UNWTO. (2016). Global Report on The Power of Youth Travel-Volume thirteen. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
  • Żarczyńska-Dobiesz, A., and Chomątowska, B. (2014). Pokolenie „Z” na rynku pracy–wyzwania dla zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 350, pp. 405-415.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Otelcilik, Konaklama, Spor ve Turizm
Bölüm Peer-reviewed Articles
Yazarlar

Davut UYSAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İZMİR KATİP ÇELEBİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-8241-4407
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 7 Nisan 2022
Kabul Tarihi 19 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Uysal, D. (2022). Gen-Z's consumption behaviours in post-pandemic tourism sector . Journal of Tourism Leisure and Hospitality , 4 (1) , 67-79 . DOI: 10.48119/toleho.1099783

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