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The Disease Process Experiences of Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer in the Psycho-Social Context

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 62, 333 - 350, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17066/tpdrd.1001704

Öz

This study aims to reveal how women diagnosed with breast cancer experience the disease process in the psychosocial context. The participants of the phenomenological designed study consisted of 10 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The findings that were obtained through semi-structured interviews centered around the themes of responses to the disease, coping strategies, sources of social support, and existential reflections. With regards to the responses to the disease, the participants’ responses when diagnosed with breast cancer were under the sub-themes of shock, emptiness, mental breakdown, inability to accept the diagnosis, despair, seeking social support, anxiety, and self-blame; and after the diagnosis, they were under the sub-themes of acceptance, anxiety, sadness, and helplessness. The coping strategies used by the women included the sub-themes of coping through spirituality, social support, obtaining information, exercise, and nutrition. The social support sources of women fell under the sub-themes of spouse support, friend support, support of other family members, and physician support. In terms of existential reflections, the women were found to have experienced the sub-themes of maturing, re-interpreting life, and facing death.

Kaynakça

  • Ahadi, H., Delavar, A. & Rostami, A. M. (2014). Comparing coping styles in cancer patients and healthy subjects. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3467-3470. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.785
  • Akturan, U. & Esen, A. (2013). Fenomenoloji. In T. Baş & U. Akturan (Eds.), Nitel araştırma yöntemleri (pp. 83-98). Seçkin.
  • ALmegewly, W., Gould, D. & Anstey, S. (2019). Hidden voices: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of surviving breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Research in Nursing, 24(1), 122-132. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1744987118809482
  • Babacan Gümüş, A. (2006). Meme kanserinde psikososyal sorunlar ve destekleyici girişimler. Meme Sağlığı Dergisi, 2(3), 108-114. http://www.thejournalofbreasthealth.com/archives/archive-detail/article-preview/psychosocal-ssues-n-breast-cancer-and-supportve-nt/42708
  • Caleffi, M., Burchardt, N. A., Crivelatti, I., Gomes, A. L., Gomes, C. & Pohlmann, P. (2017). Coping with metastatic breast cancer: The patients’ perspective in a Brazilian cancer center. The Breast, 36, 38-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(17)30670-7
  • Cebeci, F., Yangın, H. B. & Tekeli, A. (2012). Life experiences of women with breast cancer in South western Turkey: A qualitative study. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(4), 406-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2011.09.003
  • Chawak, S., Chittem, M., Butow, P. & Huilgol, N. (2019). Indian cancer patient's needs, perceptions of and expectations from their Support Network: A qualitative study. Journal of Cancer Education, 35, 462-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-019-1483-4
  • Curtis, R., Groarke, A., McSharry, J. & Kerin, M. (2014). Experience of breast cancer: burden, benefit, or both? Cancer Nursing, 37(3), 21-30. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e3182894198
  • Çömez, S. & Karayurt, Ö. (2016). We as spouses have experienced a real disaster: A qualitative study of women with breast cancer and their spouses. Cancer Nursing, 39(5), 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000306
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C. & Ellingsen, S. (2020). "I have both lost and gained." Norwegian survivor’s experiences of coping 9 years after primary breast cancer surgery. Cancer Nursing, 43(1), 30-37. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000656
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C., & Underlid, K. (2010). Coping with breast cancer: between diagnosis and surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1), 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05210.x
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C., Giske, T. & Underlid, K. (2011). Being in suspense: Women's experiences awaiting breast cancer surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(9), 1941-1951. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05638.x
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C. & Underlid, K. (2016). "I just have to move on": Women's coping experiences and reflections following their first year after primary breast cancer surgery. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 21, 205-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2015.10.005
  • Dsouza, S. M., Vyas, N., Narayanan, P., Parsekar, S. S., Gore, M. & Sharan, K. (2018). A qualitative study on experiences and needs of breast cancer survivors in Karnataka, India. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 6(2), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2017.08.001
  • Elbi, H. (2001). Kanser ve Depresyon. Psikiyatri Dünyası, 5(1), 5-10. http://psikiyatridizini.net/articles.aspx?journalid=21&year=2001&volume=5&number=1
  • Finfgeld‐Connett, D. (2005). Clarification of social support. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(1), 4-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00004.x
  • Geyikçi, R., Çakmak, S., Demirkol, M. E. & Uguz, Ş. (2018). Correlation of anxiety and depression levels with attitudes towards coping with illness and sociodemographic characteristics in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Düşünen adam: Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 31(3), 246-257. https://doi.org/10.5350/DAJPN2018310302
  • Ghaemi, S. Z., Keshavarz, Z., Tahmasebi, S., Akrami, M. & Heydari, S. T. (2019). Explaining perceived priorities in women with breast cancer: A qualitative study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 20(11), 3311-3319. https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3311
  • Gibbons, A. & Groarke, A. (2018). Coping with chemotherapy for breast cancer: Asking women what works. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 35, 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2018.06.003
  • Hagstrom, A. D., Marshall, P. W., Lonsdale, C., Cheema, B. S., Fiatarone Singh, M. A. & Green, S. (2016). Resistance training improves fatigue and quality of life in previously sedentary breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Cancer Care, 25(5), 784-794. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12422
  • Hajian, S., Mehrabi, E., Simbar, M. & Houshyari, M. (2017). Coping strategies and experiences in women with a primary breast cancer diagnosis. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP, 18(1), 215-224. https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.1.215
  • Hammoudeh, W., Hogan, D. & Giacaman, R. (2017). From a death sentence to a disrupted life: Palestinian women’s experiences and coping with breast cancer. Qualitative Health Research, 27(4), 487-496. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316628833
  • İnan, F. Ş. & Üstün, B. (2020). Post-traumatic growth in the early survival phase: From Turkish breast cancer survivor’s perspective. European Journal of Breast Health, 16(1), 66-71. https://doi.org/10.5152/ejbh.2019.5006
  • İnan, F. Ş., Günüşen, N. P. & Üstün, B. (2016). Experiences of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Turkey. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 262-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659614550488
  • Jacobsen, P. B., Phillips, K. M., Jim, H. S., Small, B. J., Faul, L. A., Meade, C. D. & Wilson, R. W. (2013). Effects of self‐directed stress management training and home‐based exercise on quality of life in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Psycho‐Oncology, 22(6), 1229-1235. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3122
  • Kim, I. R., Cho, J. H., Choi, E. K., Kwon, I. G., Sung, Y. H., Lee, J. E. & Yang, J. H. (2012). Perception, attitudes, preparedness, and experience of chemotherapy-induced alopecia among breast cancer patients: A qualitative study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(4), 1383-1388. http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1383
  • Koosha, M., Raoofi, A., Bahrami, A., Sajadian, A., Tafazzoli-Harandi, H. & Haghighat, S. (2017). Mothers and sisters are the most effective sources of support in coping with the disease in patients with breast cancer. Multidisciplinary Cancer Investigation, 1(3), 15-21. https://doi.org/10.21859/mci-01034
  • Kübler Ross, E. (2010). Ölüm ve ölmek üzerine [On death and dying]. April.
  • Lam, W. W. T., Fielding, R., Yoon, S. W., Tsang, J. & Soong, I. (2018). Living with advanced breast cancer in women resilient to distress versus women with persistent distress: a qualitative study. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 24(4), 38-41. https://www.hkmj.org/system/files/hkmj1804sp4p38.pdf
  • Landmark, B. T. & Wahl, A. (2002). Living with newly diagnosed breast cancer: A qualitative study of 10 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(1), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02346.x
  • Levkovich, I. (2019). “The danger still hangs over my head” fear of recurrence among Israeli breast cancer survivors. Journal of Health Sciences, 9(1), 23-33. https://doi.org/10.17532/jhsci.2019.687
  • Liamputtong, P. & Suwankhong, D. (2015). Breast cancer diagnosis: Biographical disruption, emotional experiences, and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer. Sociology of Health and Illness, 37(7), 1086-1101. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12282
  • Lie, N. E. K., Larsen, T. M. B. & Hauken, M. A. (2018). Coping with changes and uncertainty: A qualitative study of young adult cancer patient’s challenges and coping strategies during treatment. European Journal of Cancer Care, 27(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12743
  • Llewellyn, A., Howard, C. & McCabe, C. (2019). An exploration of the experiences of women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: Learning from recent and historical cohorts to identify enduring needs. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 39, 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2019.01.002
  • Lofti, S. (2017). Meme kanseri hastası yoksul kadın olmak: Başetme ve sosyal destek süreçlerinin incelenmesi [Being a women with breast cancer: Investigation of coping and social support process] (Publication No: 469254). [Doctoral dissertation, Hacettepe University]. YÖKTEZ.
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  • Olasehinde, O., Arije, O., Wuraola, F. O., Samson, M., Olajide, O., Alabi, T. & Kingham, T. P. (2019). Life without a breast: Exploring the experiences of young Nigerian women after mastectomy for breast cancer. Journal of Global Oncology, 5, 1-6. https://doi.org/10. 1200/JGO.18.00248
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  • Özkan, S., & Alçalar, N. (2009). Meme kanserinin cerrahi tedavisine psikolojik tepkiler. Meme Sağlığı Dergisi / Journal of Breast Health, 5 (2), 60-64.
  • Salakari, M., Pylkkänen, L., Sillanmäki, L., Nurminen, R., Rautava, P., Koskenvuo, M. & Suominen, S. (2017). Social support and breast cancer: A comparative study of breast cancer survivors, women with mental depression, women with hypertension and healthy female controls. The Breast, 35, 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2017.06.017
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Meme Kanseri Tanılı Kadınların Psiko-Sosyal Açıdan Hastalık Sürecindeki Yaşantılarının İncelenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 62, 333 - 350, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17066/tpdrd.1001704

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı meme kanseri tanısı alan kadınların hastalık sürecini psiko-sosyal bağlamda nasıl deneyimlediklerini ortaya koymaktır. Fenomenolojik desende yapılan araştırmanın katılımcılarını 10 meme kanseri tanılı kadın oluşturmuştur. Yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmelerle elde edilen bulgular, psikososyal bağlamda hastalık sürecindeki deneyimlerin hastalığa verilen tepkiler, başa çıkma stratejileri, sosyal destek kaynakları ve varoluşsal yansımalar temalarında toplanmıştır. Hastalığa verilen tepkiler bağlamında kadınların meme kanseri tanısı aldığında şok, boşluk, ruhsal çöküntü, kabullenmeme, ümitsizlik, sosyal destek arama, kaygı ve kendini suçlama ve tanı aldıktan sonra ise kabullenme, kaygı, üzüntü ve acizlik alt temalarında tepki verdiklerini göstermiştir. Kadınların kullandıkları başa çıkma stratejileri ise maneviyat, sosyal destek, bilgi edinme, egzersiz ve beslenme yolu ile başa çıkma alt temalarını içermiştir. Sosyal destek kaynakları ise eş desteği, arkadaş desteği ve diğer aile üyelerinin desteği ve hekim desteği alt temaları olarak elde edilmiştir. Varoluşsal yansımalar açısından ise kadınların hastalık sürecinde olgunlaşma, yaşamı yeniden anlamlandırma ve ölümle yüzleşmek alt temalarına sahip olduğu bulunmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Ahadi, H., Delavar, A. & Rostami, A. M. (2014). Comparing coping styles in cancer patients and healthy subjects. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3467-3470. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.785
  • Akturan, U. & Esen, A. (2013). Fenomenoloji. In T. Baş & U. Akturan (Eds.), Nitel araştırma yöntemleri (pp. 83-98). Seçkin.
  • ALmegewly, W., Gould, D. & Anstey, S. (2019). Hidden voices: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of surviving breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Research in Nursing, 24(1), 122-132. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1744987118809482
  • Babacan Gümüş, A. (2006). Meme kanserinde psikososyal sorunlar ve destekleyici girişimler. Meme Sağlığı Dergisi, 2(3), 108-114. http://www.thejournalofbreasthealth.com/archives/archive-detail/article-preview/psychosocal-ssues-n-breast-cancer-and-supportve-nt/42708
  • Caleffi, M., Burchardt, N. A., Crivelatti, I., Gomes, A. L., Gomes, C. & Pohlmann, P. (2017). Coping with metastatic breast cancer: The patients’ perspective in a Brazilian cancer center. The Breast, 36, 38-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(17)30670-7
  • Cebeci, F., Yangın, H. B. & Tekeli, A. (2012). Life experiences of women with breast cancer in South western Turkey: A qualitative study. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(4), 406-412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2011.09.003
  • Chawak, S., Chittem, M., Butow, P. & Huilgol, N. (2019). Indian cancer patient's needs, perceptions of and expectations from their Support Network: A qualitative study. Journal of Cancer Education, 35, 462-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-019-1483-4
  • Curtis, R., Groarke, A., McSharry, J. & Kerin, M. (2014). Experience of breast cancer: burden, benefit, or both? Cancer Nursing, 37(3), 21-30. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e3182894198
  • Çömez, S. & Karayurt, Ö. (2016). We as spouses have experienced a real disaster: A qualitative study of women with breast cancer and their spouses. Cancer Nursing, 39(5), 19-28. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000306
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C. & Ellingsen, S. (2020). "I have both lost and gained." Norwegian survivor’s experiences of coping 9 years after primary breast cancer surgery. Cancer Nursing, 43(1), 30-37. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000656
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C., & Underlid, K. (2010). Coping with breast cancer: between diagnosis and surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1), 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05210.x
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C., Giske, T. & Underlid, K. (2011). Being in suspense: Women's experiences awaiting breast cancer surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(9), 1941-1951. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05638.x
  • Drageset, S., Lindstrøm, T. C. & Underlid, K. (2016). "I just have to move on": Women's coping experiences and reflections following their first year after primary breast cancer surgery. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 21, 205-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2015.10.005
  • Dsouza, S. M., Vyas, N., Narayanan, P., Parsekar, S. S., Gore, M. & Sharan, K. (2018). A qualitative study on experiences and needs of breast cancer survivors in Karnataka, India. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 6(2), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2017.08.001
  • Elbi, H. (2001). Kanser ve Depresyon. Psikiyatri Dünyası, 5(1), 5-10. http://psikiyatridizini.net/articles.aspx?journalid=21&year=2001&volume=5&number=1
  • Finfgeld‐Connett, D. (2005). Clarification of social support. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(1), 4-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00004.x
  • Geyikçi, R., Çakmak, S., Demirkol, M. E. & Uguz, Ş. (2018). Correlation of anxiety and depression levels with attitudes towards coping with illness and sociodemographic characteristics in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Düşünen adam: Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 31(3), 246-257. https://doi.org/10.5350/DAJPN2018310302
  • Ghaemi, S. Z., Keshavarz, Z., Tahmasebi, S., Akrami, M. & Heydari, S. T. (2019). Explaining perceived priorities in women with breast cancer: A qualitative study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 20(11), 3311-3319. https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3311
  • Gibbons, A. & Groarke, A. (2018). Coping with chemotherapy for breast cancer: Asking women what works. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 35, 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2018.06.003
  • Hagstrom, A. D., Marshall, P. W., Lonsdale, C., Cheema, B. S., Fiatarone Singh, M. A. & Green, S. (2016). Resistance training improves fatigue and quality of life in previously sedentary breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Cancer Care, 25(5), 784-794. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12422
  • Hajian, S., Mehrabi, E., Simbar, M. & Houshyari, M. (2017). Coping strategies and experiences in women with a primary breast cancer diagnosis. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP, 18(1), 215-224. https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.1.215
  • Hammoudeh, W., Hogan, D. & Giacaman, R. (2017). From a death sentence to a disrupted life: Palestinian women’s experiences and coping with breast cancer. Qualitative Health Research, 27(4), 487-496. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316628833
  • İnan, F. Ş. & Üstün, B. (2020). Post-traumatic growth in the early survival phase: From Turkish breast cancer survivor’s perspective. European Journal of Breast Health, 16(1), 66-71. https://doi.org/10.5152/ejbh.2019.5006
  • İnan, F. Ş., Günüşen, N. P. & Üstün, B. (2016). Experiences of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Turkey. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 262-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659614550488
  • Jacobsen, P. B., Phillips, K. M., Jim, H. S., Small, B. J., Faul, L. A., Meade, C. D. & Wilson, R. W. (2013). Effects of self‐directed stress management training and home‐based exercise on quality of life in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. Psycho‐Oncology, 22(6), 1229-1235. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3122
  • Kim, I. R., Cho, J. H., Choi, E. K., Kwon, I. G., Sung, Y. H., Lee, J. E. & Yang, J. H. (2012). Perception, attitudes, preparedness, and experience of chemotherapy-induced alopecia among breast cancer patients: A qualitative study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(4), 1383-1388. http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.4.1383
  • Koosha, M., Raoofi, A., Bahrami, A., Sajadian, A., Tafazzoli-Harandi, H. & Haghighat, S. (2017). Mothers and sisters are the most effective sources of support in coping with the disease in patients with breast cancer. Multidisciplinary Cancer Investigation, 1(3), 15-21. https://doi.org/10.21859/mci-01034
  • Kübler Ross, E. (2010). Ölüm ve ölmek üzerine [On death and dying]. April.
  • Lam, W. W. T., Fielding, R., Yoon, S. W., Tsang, J. & Soong, I. (2018). Living with advanced breast cancer in women resilient to distress versus women with persistent distress: a qualitative study. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 24(4), 38-41. https://www.hkmj.org/system/files/hkmj1804sp4p38.pdf
  • Landmark, B. T. & Wahl, A. (2002). Living with newly diagnosed breast cancer: A qualitative study of 10 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(1), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02346.x
  • Levkovich, I. (2019). “The danger still hangs over my head” fear of recurrence among Israeli breast cancer survivors. Journal of Health Sciences, 9(1), 23-33. https://doi.org/10.17532/jhsci.2019.687
  • Liamputtong, P. & Suwankhong, D. (2015). Breast cancer diagnosis: Biographical disruption, emotional experiences, and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer. Sociology of Health and Illness, 37(7), 1086-1101. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12282
  • Lie, N. E. K., Larsen, T. M. B. & Hauken, M. A. (2018). Coping with changes and uncertainty: A qualitative study of young adult cancer patient’s challenges and coping strategies during treatment. European Journal of Cancer Care, 27(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12743
  • Llewellyn, A., Howard, C. & McCabe, C. (2019). An exploration of the experiences of women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: Learning from recent and historical cohorts to identify enduring needs. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 39, 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2019.01.002
  • Lofti, S. (2017). Meme kanseri hastası yoksul kadın olmak: Başetme ve sosyal destek süreçlerinin incelenmesi [Being a women with breast cancer: Investigation of coping and social support process] (Publication No: 469254). [Doctoral dissertation, Hacettepe University]. YÖKTEZ.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Didem ŞİMŞEK ÖCAL Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
TC MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI ESKİŞEHİR
Türkiye


Aydoğan Aykut CEYHAN Bu kişi benim
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 62

Kaynak Göster

APA Şimşek Öcal, D. & Ceyhan, A. A. (2021). The Disease Process Experiences of Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer in the Psycho-Social Context . Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal , 11 (62) , 333-350 . DOI: 10.17066/tpdrd.1001704