Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Investigation of the Relationship Among Childhood Traumas and Self-Harming Behaviours, Depression, Psychoform and Somatoform Dissociation in Female University Students

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 62, 383 - 402, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17066/tpdrd.1001718

Öz

The aim of this study is to determine the predictive role of childhood traumas on self-harming behaviours, depression, psychoform, and somatoform dissociation in female university students. This study was conducted with 314 female university students. It was evaluated that the differentiation of psychoform dissociation as an independent variable, varied based on negative or positive taxonomy in terms of dependent variables as well as the predictive effect of childhood traumas. It was found that childhood trauma predicted psychoform dissociation experienced in adulthood, and emotional abuse predicted amnestic dissociation, absorption and psychoform dissociation. The findings of the study differed from other studies, especially with clinical samples, and childhood traumas were positively correlated with psychoform dissociation and negatively associated with somatoform dissociation. The findings also emphasise the importance of certain correlations between childhood trauma and self-harming behaviours in a non-clinical sample group, such as female university students, as well as clinical samples.

Kaynakça

  • Abrams, M., Milisavljević, M., & Šoškić, A. (2019). Childhood abuse: Differential gender effects on mental health and sexuality. Sexologies, 28(4), e89-e96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sexol.2019.07.002
  • Arcand, M., Juster, R. P., Lupien, S. J., & Marin, M. F. (2020). Gender roles in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression among students and workers. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33(6), 661-674. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1774560
  • Aysev, A. S. & Taner, Y. I. (2007). Çocuk ve ergen ruh sağlığı ve hastalıkları [Child and adolescent mental health and diseases]. Golden Print.
  • Belli, H., Akbudak, M., Ural, C., Solmaz, M., Doğan, Z. & Konkan, R. (2017). Is there a complex relation between social anxiety disorder, childhood traumatic experiences and dissociation? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 71(1), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2016.1218050
  • Bennet, S. E. (2016). Childhood abuse, dissociation, and coping self-efficacy as predictors of non-suicidal self-injury. (Publication No. 10169286) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • Bernstein, D. P., Fink, L., Handelsman, L., Foote, J., Lovejoy, M., Wenzel, K., Sapareto, E., & Ruggiero, J. (1994). Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(8), 1132–1136. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132
  • Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174(2), 727-735. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198612000-00004
  • Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W., & Adler, Z. (1991). Early sexual abuse and clinical depression in adult life. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 159(1), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.159.1.115
  • Bildik, T., Somer, O., Kabukçu Başay, B., Başay, Ö., & Özbaran, B. (2013). Kendine zarar verme davranışı değerlendirme envanterinin Türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the inventory of statements about self-injury]. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1), 49-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.5080/u6901
  • Bohn, D., Bernardy, K., Wolfe, F., & Häuser, W. (2013). The association among childhood maltreatment, somatic symptom intensity, depression, and somatoform dissociative symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a single-center cohort study. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 14(3), 342-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.736930.
  • Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 214-227. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.214.
  • Brand, B. L. (2012). What we know and what we need to learn about the treatment of dissociative disorders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(4), 387-396. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.672550.
  • Bromberger, J. T., & Matthews, K. A. (1996). A “feminine” model of vulnerability to depressive symptoms: A longitudinal investigation of middle-aged women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 591. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.591
  • Carlier, I. V., Hovens, J. G., Streevelaar, M. F., van Rood, Y. R., & van Veen, T. (2016). Characteristics of suicidal outpatients with mood, anxiety and somatoform disorders: the role of childhood abuse and neglect. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(4), 316-326. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764016629701.
  • Carr, S. N. & Francis, A. J. (2010). Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder symptoms: an examination in a non‐clinical sample. Psychological Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83(4), 333-349. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608309X481351.
  • Chaplo, S. D., Kerig, P. K., Bennett, D. C., & Modrowski, C. A. (2015). The roles of emotion dysregulation and dissociation in the association between sexual abuse and self-injury among juvenile justice–involved youth. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 16(3), 272-285. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.989647.
  • Chen, G., & Gueta, K. (2016). Gender differences in child abuse and intergenerational transmission of crime and substance abuse among Israeli inmates. Journal of Family Violence, 31(6), 735-746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-016-9807-1.
  • Chiu, C. D., Paesen, L., Dziobek, I., & Tollenaar, M. S. (2016). Weakened cognitive empathy in individuals with dissociation proneness. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 35(5), 425-436. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2016.35.5.425.
  • Cutler, S. E., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Accounting for sex differences in depression through female victimization: Childhood sexual abuse. Sex Roles, 24(7-8), 425-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289332.
  • Dalbudak, E., Evren, C., Aldemir, S., & Evren, B. (2014). The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Psychiatry Research, 219(3), 577-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.032.
  • Dozois, D. J. A., Martin, R. A., & Bieling, P. J. (2009). Early maladaptive schemas and adaptive/maladaptive styles of humor. Journal of Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33: 585-596. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-008-9223-9.
  • Erdoğan, E., Delibaş, D. H., & Baskin, E. P. (2020). Investigation of childhood traumas in inpatient adults with major depression and with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity. Turkish J Clinical Psychiatry, 23, 56-63. https://doi.org/10.5505/kpd.2020.54765.
  • Farina, B., Mazzotti, E., Pasquini, P., & Giuseppina Mantione, M. (2011). Somatoform and psychoform dissociation among women with orgasmic and sexual pain disorders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 12(5), 526-534. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2011.598124.
  • Fischer, G., Gurris, N., Pross, C., & Riedesser, P. (1996). Psychotraumatologie-Konzepte und spezielle Themenbereiche. Psychosomatische Medizin, 5, 543-552.
  • Fischer, S., Lemmer, G., Gollwitzer, M., & Nater, U.M. (2014) Stress and resilience in functional somatic syndromes – a structural equation modeling approach. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e111214. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111214.
  • Fonagy, P. & Allison, E. (2012). What is mentalization? The concept and its foundations in developmental research. In: N. Midgley & I., Vrouva (Eds.), Minding the child: Mentalization-based interventions with children, young people and their families. (pp.11–34) Routledge Press.
  • Franzke, I., Wabnitz, P., & Catani, C. (2015). Dissociation as a mediator of the relationship between childhood trauma and nonsuicidal self-injury in females: A path analytic approach. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 16(3), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.989646.
  • Fung, H. W., Ho, L. Y. K., & Ross, C. A. (2018). Pathological dissociation and its relationships with aggression and delinquency in a college student sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 27(2), 147-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2017.1421283.
  • Fung, H. W., Ross, C. A., Yu, C. K. C., & Lau, E. K. L. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences and dissociation among Hong Kong mental health service users. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 20(4), 457-470. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2019.1597808.
  • Gallo, E. A. G., De Mola, C. L., Wehrmeister, F., Gonçalves, H., Kieling, C. & Murray, J. (2017). Childhood maltreatment preceding depressive disorder at age 18 years: A prospective Brazilian birth cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 217, 218-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.065.
  • Giarratano, P., Ford, J. D., & Nochajski, T. H. (2020). Gender differences in complex posttraumatic stress symptoms, and their relationship to mental health and substance abuse outcomes in incarcerated adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 35(5-6), 1133-1157. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517692995.
  • Gören, S. ve Tıraşçı, Y. (2007). Çocuk istismarı ve ihmali [Child abuse and neglect]. Dicle Medical Journal, 34(1), 70-74. http://www.diclemedj.org/upload/sayi/54/Dicle%20Med%20J-02602.pdf
  • Haj-Yahia, M. M., & Tamish, S. (2001). The rates of child sexual abuse and its psychological consequences as revealed by a study among Palestinian university students. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(10), 1303-1327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(01)00277-0.
  • Hébert, M., Langevin, R., & Oussaïd, E. (2018). Cumulative childhood trauma, emotion regulation, dissociation, and behavior problems in school-aged sexual abuse victims. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, 306-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.044.
  • Hisli, N. (1989). Beck Depresyon Envanterinin üniversite öğrencileri için geçerliği, güvenirliği [Validity and reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory for university students]. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 7(23), 3-13. https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/beck-depresyon-envanteri-toad.pdf
  • Hoyos, C., Mancini, V., Furlong, Y., Medford, N., Critchley, H., & Chen, W. (2019). The role of dissociation and abuse among adolescents who self-harm. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(10), 989-999. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867419851869.
  • Humphreys, K. L., LeMoult, J., Wear, J. G., Piersiak, H. A., Lee, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2020). Child maltreatment and depression: A meta-analysis of studies using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 102, 104361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104361.
  • Hünler, O. S. (2000). Üniversite öğrencisi kadınlarda toplumsal cinsiyet ideolojisi ile depresyon ilişkisi [The relationship between gender role ideology and depression among female university students]. Kadin/Woman, 14(2)- 39-53.
  • Kahveci, S. (2016). Borderline Kişilik bozukluğunda zihin kuramı ve çocukluk çağı travması arasındaki ilişki. (Yayın No. 441642) [Yüksek lisans tezi, Üsküdar Üniversitesi]. Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı Tez Merkezi.
  • Kara, B., Biçer, Ü. & Gökalp, A. S. (2004). Çocuk istismarı [Child abuse]. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi, 47(2), 140-51.
  • Kate, M. A., Hopwood, T., & Jamieson, G. (2019). The prevalence of Dissociative Disorders and dissociative experiences in college populations: a meta-analysis of 98 studies. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 21(1),16-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2019.1647915.
  • Kepenekçi, Y. (2001). Hukuksal açıdan çocuk istismarı ve ihmali [Legal aspect of child abuse and neglect]. Katkı Pediatri Dergisi, 22: 262-275.
  • Klonsky, E. D., & Glenn, C. R. (2009). Assessing the functions of non-suicidal self-injury: Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Statements About Self-injury (ISAS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(3), 215-219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-008-9107-z.
  • Lindert, J., von Ehrenstein, O. S., Grashow, R., Gal, G., Braehler, E., & Weisskopf, M. G. (2014). Sexual and physical abuse in childhood is associated with depression and anxiety over the life course: systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 59(2), 359-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-013-0519-5.
  • Maaranen, P., Tanskanen, A., Haatainen, K., Koivumaa-Honkanen, H., Hintikka, J., & Viinamäki, H. (2004). Somatoform dissociation and adverse childhood experiences in the general population. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(5), 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000126700.41047.83.
  • Marquis, C., Vabres, N., Caldagues, E., & Bonnot, O. (2016). Clinic of somatoform disorders in abused adolescents. Presse Medicale (Paris, France: 1983), 45(4 Pt 1), e51-8. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.lpm.2015.10.023.
  • Marylène, C., Lisa, R. C. & Lisa, R. C. (2006). Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. In M.C. McCarthy, M.N. Lumley (Eds). Treating survivors of childhood abuse: Psychotherapy for the interrupted life. (pp: 288-297). Guilford Press.
  • McBride C. & Bagby R.M. (2006). Rumination and interpersonal dependency: Explaining women's vulnerability to depression. Canadian Psychology/ Psychologie Canadienne, 47(3), 184-194. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/cp2006008
  • McCarthy, M. & Lumley M. N. (2012). Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41(4), 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2012.676669.
  • Merckelbach, H., & Muris, P. (2001). The causal link between self-reported trauma and dissociation: A critical review. Behav Res Ther. 39(3),245-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(99)00181-3
  • Messina, N., & Grella, C. (2006). Childhood trauma and women’s health outcomes in a California prison population. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1842-1848. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/epub/10.2105/AJPH.2005.082016
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S. (2001). Somatoform dissociation: Major symptoms of dissociative disorders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(4), 7-32. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v01n04_02.
  • Nijenhuis E. R. S. (2009). Somatoform dissociation and somatoform dissociative disorders. In P. F. Dell & J.A. O'Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond. (pp.259-276). Routledge.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Spinhoven, P., Van Dyck, R., Van Der Hart, O., & Vanderlinden, J. (1996). The development and psychometric characteristics of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184(11), 688–694. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199611000-00006.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Spinhoven, P., van Dyck, R., van der Hart, O., & Vanderlinden, J. (1998). Psychometric Characteristics of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire: A Replication Study1. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 67(1), 17-23. https://doi.org/10.1159/000012254.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Van Dyck, R., Ter Kuile, M. M., Mourits, M. J. E., Spinhoven, P., & Van der Hart, O. (2003). Evidence for associations among somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation and reported trauma in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24(2), 87-98. https://doi.org/10.3109/01674820309042806.
  • Noll, J. G., Horowitz, L. A., Bonanno, G. A., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2003). Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(12), 1452-1471. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503258035.
  • Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Joyce, A. S., & Abbass, A. A. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and somatic complaints among adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(5), 322-324. https://doi.org/10.1159/000363769.
  • Olafson, E. (2014). Child sexual abuse: Demography, impact, and interventions. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4(1), 8–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361521. 2011.545811.
  • Özen, Ş., Antar, S., & Özkan, M. (2007). Çocukluk çağı travmalarının umutsuzluk, sigara ve alkol kullanımı üzerine etkisi: Üniversite son sınıf öğrencilerini inceleyen bir çalışma [Influence of childhood traumas on hopelessness, smoking and alcohol use: a study to evaluate last [year] university students]. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 20(2), 79-87.
  • Öztürk, E. (2004). Psikoterapide travmatik kendilik ve kendileşme [Traumatic self and getting himself/herself in psychotherapy]. VIII. Annual Spring Conference of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey. pp.55-57, 14-18 April, Antalya.
  • Öztürk, E., & Sar, V. (2008). Somatization as a predictor of suicidal ideation in dissociative disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(6), 662-668. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01865.x.
  • Öztürk, E. (2016). Psikotarih açısından çocuk yetiştirme tarzları ve çocuk istismarı [Child rearing modes (styles) with regards to psychohistory and child abuse]. F. Aşıcıoğlu ve N. Ziyalar, (Ed). in Forensic Behavioural Sciences (pp.24-34). Turkısh Clinics.
  • Öztürk, E. (2018). Travma Merkezli Alyans Model Terapi: Dissosiyatif Kimlik Bozukluğunun Psikoterapisi [Trauma Based Alliance Model Therapy: Psychotherapy of Dissociative Identity Disorder]. E. Öztürk, (Ed.), in Psychological Trauma and Dissociation (pp.31-38). Turkısh Clinics.
  • Öztürk, E. (2020a). Psikotarih, travma ve dissosiyasyon: Çocukluk çağı travmaları, savaşlar ve dissosiyasyonun anamnezi [Psychohistory, trauma and dissociation: The anamnesis of the childhood traumas, wars and dissociation]. E. Öztürk, (Ed.), in Psychohistory (pp.1-21). Turkısh Clinics.
  • Öztürk, E. (2020b). Travma ve dissosiyasyon: Psikotravmatoloji temel kitabı (2. Baskı) [Trauma and dissociation: Psychotraumatology basic book]. Nobel Tıp Kitabevi.
  • Palmisano, G. L., Innamorati, M., Susca, G., Traetta, D., Sarracino, D., & Vanderlinden, J. (2018). Childhood traumatic experiences and dissociative phenomena in eating disorders: Level and association with the severity of binge eating symptoms. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 19(1), 88-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2017.1304490.
  • Piccinelli, M., & Wilkinson, G. (2000). Gender differences in depression. Critical Review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 486–492.
  • Polskaya, N. A., & Melnikova, M. A. (2020). Dissociation, Trauma and Self-Harm. Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 28(1), 25-48. https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp.2020280103.
  • Sadeghi, S., Dolatshahi, B., Pourshahbaz, A., Zarei, M., & Kami, M. (2017). Relationship between traumatic experiences and somatic symptoms severity in students. Practice in Clinical Psychology, 5(3), 211-216. https://doi.org/211-216.10.18869/acadpub.jpcp.5.3.211
  • Schmitt, M., T., Branscombe, N., R., Kobrynowicz, D., & Owen, S. (2002). Perceiving discrimination against one’s gender group has different implications for wellbeing in women and men. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 197– 210. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167202282006
  • Serrano-Sevillano, Á., González-Ordi, H., Corbí-Gran, B., & Vallejo-Pareja, M. Á. (2017). Psychological characteristics of dissociation in general population. Clínica y Salud, 28(3), 101-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clysa.2017.09.003.
  • Shin, L. M., McNally, R. J., Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Rauch, S. L., Alpert, N. M., ... & Pitman, R. K. (1999). Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: a PET investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.156.4.575.
  • Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., Anderson, G., Hazen, A. L., Ross, C. A., Eldridge, G., & Forde, D. R. (1996). Childhood physical and sexual abuse in patients with anxiety disorders and in a community sample. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153 (2), 275-277. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.2.275.
  • Şar, V., Kundakci, T., Kiziltan, E., Bakim, B., & Bozkurt, O. (2001). Differentiating dissociative disorders from other diagnostic groups through somatoform dissociation in Turkey. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(4), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v01n04_04.
  • Şar, V., Öztürk, E., İkikardeş, E. (2012). Çocukluk Çağı Ruhsal Travma Ölçeğinin Türkçe uyarlamasının geçerlilik ve güvenirliği [Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire]. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, 32(4), 1054-1063. doi: https://doi.org/10.5336/medsci.2011-26947.
  • Şar, V., Türk, T., & Öztürk, E. (2019). Fear of happiness among college students: The role of gender, childhood psychological trauma, and dissociation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(4), 389. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_52_17.
  • Terock, J., Van der Auwera, S., Janowitz, D., Spitzer, C., Barnow, S., Miertsch, M., … Grabe, H.-J. (2016). From Childhood Trauma to Adult Dissociation: The Role of PTSD and Alexithymia. Psychopathology, 49(5), 374–382. https://doi.org/10.1159/000449004
  • Tunç, P. (2019). Üniversite öğrencilerinde çocukluk çağı travması ve yeme tutumları ilişkisi [Childhood trauma and eating attitudes in university students]. Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 11(1), 203-219. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.612616.
  • Türksoy, N. (2003). Psikolojik travma ve tanım sorunları, psikolojik travma ve sonuçları [Psychological trauma and definition problems, psychological trauma and its consequences]. 5US Publication.
  • Vallati, M., Cunningham, S., Mazurka, R., Stewart, J. G., Larocque, C., Milev, R. V., Bagby, R. M., Kennedy, S. H., & Harkness, K. L. (2020). Childhood maltreatment and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder in adolescence and adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 129(5), 469–479. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000521.
  • Van der Hart, O., & Horst, R. (1989). The dissociation theory of Pierre Janet. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(4), 397-412. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490020405.
  • Van der Kolk, B. A., & Van der Hart, O. (1995). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. In C. Caruth. (pp. 158-182). Trauma: Explorations in memory. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Vogel, M., Spitzer, C., Kuwert, P., Möller, B., Freyberger, H. J., & Grabe, H. J. (2009). Association of childhood neglect with adult dissociation in schizophrenic inpatients. Psychopathology, 42(2), 124-130. https://doi.org/10.1159/000204763.
  • Vonderlin, R., Kleindienst, N., Alpers, G. W., Bohus, M., Lyssenko, L., & Schmahl, C. (2018). Dissociation in victims of childhood abuse or neglect: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Medicine, 48(15), 2467-2476. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718000740.
  • Waldinger, R. J., Schulz, M. S., Barsky, A. J., & Ahern, D. K. (2006). Mapping the road from childhood trauma to adult somatization: the role of attachment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(1), 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000195834.37094.a4.
  • Waller, G., Hamilton, K., Elliott, P., Lewendon, J., Stopa, L., Waters, A., ... & Chalkley, J. (2001). Somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and specific forms of trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(4), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v01n04_05.
  • Watson, S., Chilton, R., Fairchild, H., & Whewell, P. (2006). Association between childhood trauma and dissociation among patients with borderline personality disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(5), 478-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2006.01825.x.
  • Webermann, A. R., Myrick, A. C., Taylor, C. L., Chasson, G. S., & Brand, B. L. (2016). Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(1), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.1067941.
  • Yargic, L. I., Tutkun, H., & Sar, V. (1995). Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, 8(1), 10–13.
  • Young, J.E., Klosko, J.S. & Weishaar, M.E. (2003). Şema terapi. (Çev.: T.V. Soylu,). Litera Yayıncılık.
  • Zamir, O., Szepsenwol, O., Englund, M. M., & Simpson, J. A. (2018). The role of dissociation in revictimization across the lifespan: A 32-year prospective study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 79, 144- 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.02.001.
  • Zoroglu, S. S., Tuzun, U., Sar, V., Tutkun, H., Savaçs, H. A., Ozturk, M., ... & Kora, M. E. (2003). Suicide attempt and self‐mutilation among Turkish high school students in relation with abuse, neglect and dissociation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57(1), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01088.x.

Kadın Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Çocukluk Çağı Travmaları ile Kendine Zarar Verme Davranışları, Depresyon, Psikoform ve Somatoform Dissosiyasyon Arasındaki İlişkilerin İncelenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 62, 383 - 402, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17066/tpdrd.1001718

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı kadın üniversite öğrencilerinde çocukluk çağı travmalarının; kendine zarar verme davranışları, depresyon, psikoform ve somatoform dissosiyasyon üzerindeki yordayıcılık rolünün incelenmesidir. Bu çalışmanın katılımcılarını 314 kadın üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Bağımsız değişken olarak psikoform dissosiyasyonun takson negatif ve pozitif olma durumuna göre bağımlı değişkenler açısından farklılık gösterme durumu ve çocukluk çağı travmalarının yordayıcılık etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Çocukluk çağı travmalarının yetişkinlik döneminde yaşanan psikoform dissosiyasyonu, duygusal istismarın ise amnestik dissosiyasyon, absorbsiyon ve psikoform dissosiyasyonu yordadığı bulgulanmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, söz konusu bulguların özellikle klinik örneklemli diğer araştırmalara göre farklılık gösterdiği ve çocukluk çağı travmalarının psikoform dissosiyasyon ile pozitif yönde, somatoform dissosiyasyon ile ise negatif yönde ilişki gösterdiği saptanmıştır. Bulgular, ayrıca klinik örneklemlerin yanı sıra kadın üniversite öğrencileri gibi klinik olmayan bir örneklem grubunda da çocukluk çağı travmaları ile kendine zarar verme davranışları arasında belirli düzeydeki korelasyonların önemini vurgulamaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Abrams, M., Milisavljević, M., & Šoškić, A. (2019). Childhood abuse: Differential gender effects on mental health and sexuality. Sexologies, 28(4), e89-e96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sexol.2019.07.002
  • Arcand, M., Juster, R. P., Lupien, S. J., & Marin, M. F. (2020). Gender roles in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression among students and workers. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33(6), 661-674. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1774560
  • Aysev, A. S. & Taner, Y. I. (2007). Çocuk ve ergen ruh sağlığı ve hastalıkları [Child and adolescent mental health and diseases]. Golden Print.
  • Belli, H., Akbudak, M., Ural, C., Solmaz, M., Doğan, Z. & Konkan, R. (2017). Is there a complex relation between social anxiety disorder, childhood traumatic experiences and dissociation? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 71(1), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2016.1218050
  • Bennet, S. E. (2016). Childhood abuse, dissociation, and coping self-efficacy as predictors of non-suicidal self-injury. (Publication No. 10169286) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • Bernstein, D. P., Fink, L., Handelsman, L., Foote, J., Lovejoy, M., Wenzel, K., Sapareto, E., & Ruggiero, J. (1994). Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(8), 1132–1136. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.8.1132
  • Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174(2), 727-735. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198612000-00004
  • Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W., & Adler, Z. (1991). Early sexual abuse and clinical depression in adult life. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 159(1), 115-122. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.159.1.115
  • Bildik, T., Somer, O., Kabukçu Başay, B., Başay, Ö., & Özbaran, B. (2013). Kendine zarar verme davranışı değerlendirme envanterinin Türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the inventory of statements about self-injury]. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1), 49-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.5080/u6901
  • Bohn, D., Bernardy, K., Wolfe, F., & Häuser, W. (2013). The association among childhood maltreatment, somatic symptom intensity, depression, and somatoform dissociative symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a single-center cohort study. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 14(3), 342-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.736930.
  • Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 214-227. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.214.
  • Brand, B. L. (2012). What we know and what we need to learn about the treatment of dissociative disorders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(4), 387-396. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.672550.
  • Bromberger, J. T., & Matthews, K. A. (1996). A “feminine” model of vulnerability to depressive symptoms: A longitudinal investigation of middle-aged women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 591. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.591
  • Carlier, I. V., Hovens, J. G., Streevelaar, M. F., van Rood, Y. R., & van Veen, T. (2016). Characteristics of suicidal outpatients with mood, anxiety and somatoform disorders: the role of childhood abuse and neglect. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(4), 316-326. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764016629701.
  • Carr, S. N. & Francis, A. J. (2010). Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder symptoms: an examination in a non‐clinical sample. Psychological Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83(4), 333-349. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608309X481351.
  • Chaplo, S. D., Kerig, P. K., Bennett, D. C., & Modrowski, C. A. (2015). The roles of emotion dysregulation and dissociation in the association between sexual abuse and self-injury among juvenile justice–involved youth. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 16(3), 272-285. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.989647.
  • Chen, G., & Gueta, K. (2016). Gender differences in child abuse and intergenerational transmission of crime and substance abuse among Israeli inmates. Journal of Family Violence, 31(6), 735-746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-016-9807-1.
  • Chiu, C. D., Paesen, L., Dziobek, I., & Tollenaar, M. S. (2016). Weakened cognitive empathy in individuals with dissociation proneness. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 35(5), 425-436. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2016.35.5.425.
  • Cutler, S. E., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Accounting for sex differences in depression through female victimization: Childhood sexual abuse. Sex Roles, 24(7-8), 425-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00289332.
  • Dalbudak, E., Evren, C., Aldemir, S., & Evren, B. (2014). The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Psychiatry Research, 219(3), 577-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.032.
  • Dozois, D. J. A., Martin, R. A., & Bieling, P. J. (2009). Early maladaptive schemas and adaptive/maladaptive styles of humor. Journal of Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33: 585-596. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-008-9223-9.
  • Erdoğan, E., Delibaş, D. H., & Baskin, E. P. (2020). Investigation of childhood traumas in inpatient adults with major depression and with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity. Turkish J Clinical Psychiatry, 23, 56-63. https://doi.org/10.5505/kpd.2020.54765.
  • Farina, B., Mazzotti, E., Pasquini, P., & Giuseppina Mantione, M. (2011). Somatoform and psychoform dissociation among women with orgasmic and sexual pain disorders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 12(5), 526-534. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2011.598124.
  • Fischer, G., Gurris, N., Pross, C., & Riedesser, P. (1996). Psychotraumatologie-Konzepte und spezielle Themenbereiche. Psychosomatische Medizin, 5, 543-552.
  • Fischer, S., Lemmer, G., Gollwitzer, M., & Nater, U.M. (2014) Stress and resilience in functional somatic syndromes – a structural equation modeling approach. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e111214. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111214.
  • Fonagy, P. & Allison, E. (2012). What is mentalization? The concept and its foundations in developmental research. In: N. Midgley & I., Vrouva (Eds.), Minding the child: Mentalization-based interventions with children, young people and their families. (pp.11–34) Routledge Press.
  • Franzke, I., Wabnitz, P., & Catani, C. (2015). Dissociation as a mediator of the relationship between childhood trauma and nonsuicidal self-injury in females: A path analytic approach. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 16(3), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.989646.
  • Fung, H. W., Ho, L. Y. K., & Ross, C. A. (2018). Pathological dissociation and its relationships with aggression and delinquency in a college student sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 27(2), 147-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2017.1421283.
  • Fung, H. W., Ross, C. A., Yu, C. K. C., & Lau, E. K. L. (2019). Adverse childhood experiences and dissociation among Hong Kong mental health service users. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 20(4), 457-470. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2019.1597808.
  • Gallo, E. A. G., De Mola, C. L., Wehrmeister, F., Gonçalves, H., Kieling, C. & Murray, J. (2017). Childhood maltreatment preceding depressive disorder at age 18 years: A prospective Brazilian birth cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 217, 218-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.065.
  • Giarratano, P., Ford, J. D., & Nochajski, T. H. (2020). Gender differences in complex posttraumatic stress symptoms, and their relationship to mental health and substance abuse outcomes in incarcerated adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 35(5-6), 1133-1157. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517692995.
  • Gören, S. ve Tıraşçı, Y. (2007). Çocuk istismarı ve ihmali [Child abuse and neglect]. Dicle Medical Journal, 34(1), 70-74. http://www.diclemedj.org/upload/sayi/54/Dicle%20Med%20J-02602.pdf
  • Haj-Yahia, M. M., & Tamish, S. (2001). The rates of child sexual abuse and its psychological consequences as revealed by a study among Palestinian university students. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(10), 1303-1327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(01)00277-0.
  • Hébert, M., Langevin, R., & Oussaïd, E. (2018). Cumulative childhood trauma, emotion regulation, dissociation, and behavior problems in school-aged sexual abuse victims. Journal of Affective Disorders, 225, 306-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.044.
  • Hisli, N. (1989). Beck Depresyon Envanterinin üniversite öğrencileri için geçerliği, güvenirliği [Validity and reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory for university students]. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 7(23), 3-13. https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/beck-depresyon-envanteri-toad.pdf
  • Hoyos, C., Mancini, V., Furlong, Y., Medford, N., Critchley, H., & Chen, W. (2019). The role of dissociation and abuse among adolescents who self-harm. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(10), 989-999. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867419851869.
  • Humphreys, K. L., LeMoult, J., Wear, J. G., Piersiak, H. A., Lee, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2020). Child maltreatment and depression: A meta-analysis of studies using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 102, 104361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104361.
  • Hünler, O. S. (2000). Üniversite öğrencisi kadınlarda toplumsal cinsiyet ideolojisi ile depresyon ilişkisi [The relationship between gender role ideology and depression among female university students]. Kadin/Woman, 14(2)- 39-53.
  • Kahveci, S. (2016). Borderline Kişilik bozukluğunda zihin kuramı ve çocukluk çağı travması arasındaki ilişki. (Yayın No. 441642) [Yüksek lisans tezi, Üsküdar Üniversitesi]. Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı Tez Merkezi.
  • Kara, B., Biçer, Ü. & Gökalp, A. S. (2004). Çocuk istismarı [Child abuse]. Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi, 47(2), 140-51.
  • Kate, M. A., Hopwood, T., & Jamieson, G. (2019). The prevalence of Dissociative Disorders and dissociative experiences in college populations: a meta-analysis of 98 studies. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 21(1),16-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2019.1647915.
  • Kepenekçi, Y. (2001). Hukuksal açıdan çocuk istismarı ve ihmali [Legal aspect of child abuse and neglect]. Katkı Pediatri Dergisi, 22: 262-275.
  • Klonsky, E. D., & Glenn, C. R. (2009). Assessing the functions of non-suicidal self-injury: Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Statements About Self-injury (ISAS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31(3), 215-219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-008-9107-z.
  • Lindert, J., von Ehrenstein, O. S., Grashow, R., Gal, G., Braehler, E., & Weisskopf, M. G. (2014). Sexual and physical abuse in childhood is associated with depression and anxiety over the life course: systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 59(2), 359-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-013-0519-5.
  • Maaranen, P., Tanskanen, A., Haatainen, K., Koivumaa-Honkanen, H., Hintikka, J., & Viinamäki, H. (2004). Somatoform dissociation and adverse childhood experiences in the general population. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(5), 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000126700.41047.83.
  • Marquis, C., Vabres, N., Caldagues, E., & Bonnot, O. (2016). Clinic of somatoform disorders in abused adolescents. Presse Medicale (Paris, France: 1983), 45(4 Pt 1), e51-8. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.lpm.2015.10.023.
  • Marylène, C., Lisa, R. C. & Lisa, R. C. (2006). Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. In M.C. McCarthy, M.N. Lumley (Eds). Treating survivors of childhood abuse: Psychotherapy for the interrupted life. (pp: 288-297). Guilford Press.
  • McBride C. & Bagby R.M. (2006). Rumination and interpersonal dependency: Explaining women's vulnerability to depression. Canadian Psychology/ Psychologie Canadienne, 47(3), 184-194. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/cp2006008
  • McCarthy, M. & Lumley M. N. (2012). Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41(4), 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2012.676669.
  • Merckelbach, H., & Muris, P. (2001). The causal link between self-reported trauma and dissociation: A critical review. Behav Res Ther. 39(3),245-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(99)00181-3
  • Messina, N., & Grella, C. (2006). Childhood trauma and women’s health outcomes in a California prison population. American Journal of Public Health, 96(10), 1842-1848. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/epub/10.2105/AJPH.2005.082016
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S. (2001). Somatoform dissociation: Major symptoms of dissociative disorders. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(4), 7-32. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v01n04_02.
  • Nijenhuis E. R. S. (2009). Somatoform dissociation and somatoform dissociative disorders. In P. F. Dell & J.A. O'Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond. (pp.259-276). Routledge.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Spinhoven, P., Van Dyck, R., Van Der Hart, O., & Vanderlinden, J. (1996). The development and psychometric characteristics of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184(11), 688–694. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199611000-00006.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Spinhoven, P., van Dyck, R., van der Hart, O., & Vanderlinden, J. (1998). Psychometric Characteristics of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire: A Replication Study1. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 67(1), 17-23. https://doi.org/10.1159/000012254.
  • Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Van Dyck, R., Ter Kuile, M. M., Mourits, M. J. E., Spinhoven, P., & Van der Hart, O. (2003). Evidence for associations among somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation and reported trauma in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24(2), 87-98. https://doi.org/10.3109/01674820309042806.
  • Noll, J. G., Horowitz, L. A., Bonanno, G. A., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2003). Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(12), 1452-1471. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503258035.
  • Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Joyce, A. S., & Abbass, A. A. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and somatic complaints among adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(5), 322-324. https://doi.org/10.1159/000363769.
  • Olafson, E. (2014). Child sexual abuse: Demography, impact, and interventions. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4(1), 8–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361521. 2011.545811.
  • Özen, Ş., Antar, S., & Özkan, M. (2007). Çocukluk çağı travmalarının umutsuzluk, sigara ve alkol kullanımı üzerine etkisi: Üniversite son sınıf öğrencilerini inceleyen bir çalışma [Influence of childhood traumas on hopelessness, smoking and alcohol use: a study to evaluate last [year] university students]. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 20(2), 79-87.
  • Öztürk, E. (2004). Psikoterapide travmatik kendilik ve kendileşme [Traumatic self and getting himself/herself in psychotherapy]. VIII. Annual Spring Conference of the Psychiatric Association of Turkey. pp.55-57, 14-18 April, Antalya.
  • Öztürk, E., & Sar, V. (2008). Somatization as a predictor of suicidal ideation in dissociative disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(6), 662-668. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01865.x.
  • Öztürk, E. (2016). Psikotarih açısından çocuk yetiştirme tarzları ve çocuk istismarı [Child rearing modes (styles) with regards to psychohistory and child abuse]. F. Aşıcıoğlu ve N. Ziyalar, (Ed). in Forensic Behavioural Sciences (pp.24-34). Turkısh Clinics.
  • Öztürk, E. (2018). Travma Merkezli Alyans Model Terapi: Dissosiyatif Kimlik Bozukluğunun Psikoterapisi [Trauma Based Alliance Model Therapy: Psychotherapy of Dissociative Identity Disorder]. E. Öztürk, (Ed.), in Psychological Trauma and Dissociation (pp.31-38). Turkısh Clinics.
  • Öztürk, E. (2020a). Psikotarih, travma ve dissosiyasyon: Çocukluk çağı travmaları, savaşlar ve dissosiyasyonun anamnezi [Psychohistory, trauma and dissociation: The anamnesis of the childhood traumas, wars and dissociation]. E. Öztürk, (Ed.), in Psychohistory (pp.1-21). Turkısh Clinics.
  • Öztürk, E. (2020b). Travma ve dissosiyasyon: Psikotravmatoloji temel kitabı (2. Baskı) [Trauma and dissociation: Psychotraumatology basic book]. Nobel Tıp Kitabevi.
  • Palmisano, G. L., Innamorati, M., Susca, G., Traetta, D., Sarracino, D., & Vanderlinden, J. (2018). Childhood traumatic experiences and dissociative phenomena in eating disorders: Level and association with the severity of binge eating symptoms. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 19(1), 88-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2017.1304490.
  • Piccinelli, M., & Wilkinson, G. (2000). Gender differences in depression. Critical Review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 486–492.
  • Polskaya, N. A., & Melnikova, M. A. (2020). Dissociation, Trauma and Self-Harm. Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 28(1), 25-48. https://doi.org/10.17759/cpp.2020280103.
  • Sadeghi, S., Dolatshahi, B., Pourshahbaz, A., Zarei, M., & Kami, M. (2017). Relationship between traumatic experiences and somatic symptoms severity in students. Practice in Clinical Psychology, 5(3), 211-216. https://doi.org/211-216.10.18869/acadpub.jpcp.5.3.211
  • Schmitt, M., T., Branscombe, N., R., Kobrynowicz, D., & Owen, S. (2002). Perceiving discrimination against one’s gender group has different implications for wellbeing in women and men. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 197– 210. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167202282006
  • Serrano-Sevillano, Á., González-Ordi, H., Corbí-Gran, B., & Vallejo-Pareja, M. Á. (2017). Psychological characteristics of dissociation in general population. Clínica y Salud, 28(3), 101-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clysa.2017.09.003.
  • Shin, L. M., McNally, R. J., Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Rauch, S. L., Alpert, N. M., ... & Pitman, R. K. (1999). Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: a PET investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(4), 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.156.4.575.
  • Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., Anderson, G., Hazen, A. L., Ross, C. A., Eldridge, G., & Forde, D. R. (1996). Childhood physical and sexual abuse in patients with anxiety disorders and in a community sample. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153 (2), 275-277. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.2.275.
  • Şar, V., Kundakci, T., Kiziltan, E., Bakim, B., & Bozkurt, O. (2001). Differentiating dissociative disorders from other diagnostic groups through somatoform dissociation in Turkey. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(4), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v01n04_04.
  • Şar, V., Öztürk, E., İkikardeş, E. (2012). Çocukluk Çağı Ruhsal Travma Ölçeğinin Türkçe uyarlamasının geçerlilik ve güvenirliği [Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire]. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, 32(4), 1054-1063. doi: https://doi.org/10.5336/medsci.2011-26947.
  • Şar, V., Türk, T., & Öztürk, E. (2019). Fear of happiness among college students: The role of gender, childhood psychological trauma, and dissociation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(4), 389. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_52_17.
  • Terock, J., Van der Auwera, S., Janowitz, D., Spitzer, C., Barnow, S., Miertsch, M., … Grabe, H.-J. (2016). From Childhood Trauma to Adult Dissociation: The Role of PTSD and Alexithymia. Psychopathology, 49(5), 374–382. https://doi.org/10.1159/000449004
  • Tunç, P. (2019). Üniversite öğrencilerinde çocukluk çağı travması ve yeme tutumları ilişkisi [Childhood trauma and eating attitudes in university students]. Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 11(1), 203-219. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.612616.
  • Türksoy, N. (2003). Psikolojik travma ve tanım sorunları, psikolojik travma ve sonuçları [Psychological trauma and definition problems, psychological trauma and its consequences]. 5US Publication.
  • Vallati, M., Cunningham, S., Mazurka, R., Stewart, J. G., Larocque, C., Milev, R. V., Bagby, R. M., Kennedy, S. H., & Harkness, K. L. (2020). Childhood maltreatment and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder in adolescence and adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 129(5), 469–479. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000521.
  • Van der Hart, O., & Horst, R. (1989). The dissociation theory of Pierre Janet. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(4), 397-412. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490020405.
  • Van der Kolk, B. A., & Van der Hart, O. (1995). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. In C. Caruth. (pp. 158-182). Trauma: Explorations in memory. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Vogel, M., Spitzer, C., Kuwert, P., Möller, B., Freyberger, H. J., & Grabe, H. J. (2009). Association of childhood neglect with adult dissociation in schizophrenic inpatients. Psychopathology, 42(2), 124-130. https://doi.org/10.1159/000204763.
  • Vonderlin, R., Kleindienst, N., Alpers, G. W., Bohus, M., Lyssenko, L., & Schmahl, C. (2018). Dissociation in victims of childhood abuse or neglect: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Medicine, 48(15), 2467-2476. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718000740.
  • Waldinger, R. J., Schulz, M. S., Barsky, A. J., & Ahern, D. K. (2006). Mapping the road from childhood trauma to adult somatization: the role of attachment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(1), 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000195834.37094.a4.
  • Waller, G., Hamilton, K., Elliott, P., Lewendon, J., Stopa, L., Waters, A., ... & Chalkley, J. (2001). Somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and specific forms of trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1(4), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1300/J229v01n04_05.
  • Watson, S., Chilton, R., Fairchild, H., & Whewell, P. (2006). Association between childhood trauma and dissociation among patients with borderline personality disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(5), 478-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2006.01825.x.
  • Webermann, A. R., Myrick, A. C., Taylor, C. L., Chasson, G. S., & Brand, B. L. (2016). Dissociative, depressive, and PTSD symptom severity as correlates of non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality in dissociative disorder patients. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(1), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2015.1067941.
  • Yargic, L. I., Tutkun, H., & Sar, V. (1995). Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation: Progress in the Dissociative Disorders, 8(1), 10–13.
  • Young, J.E., Klosko, J.S. & Weishaar, M.E. (2003). Şema terapi. (Çev.: T.V. Soylu,). Litera Yayıncılık.
  • Zamir, O., Szepsenwol, O., Englund, M. M., & Simpson, J. A. (2018). The role of dissociation in revictimization across the lifespan: A 32-year prospective study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 79, 144- 153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.02.001.
  • Zoroglu, S. S., Tuzun, U., Sar, V., Tutkun, H., Savaçs, H. A., Ozturk, M., ... & Kora, M. E. (2003). Suicide attempt and self‐mutilation among Turkish high school students in relation with abuse, neglect and dissociation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57(1), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01088.x.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Eda ERMAĞAN-ÇAĞLAR Bu kişi benim
Embassy of Turkey
Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti


Erdinç ÖZTÜRK Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA
Türkiye


Görkem DERİN Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ-CERRAHPAŞA
Türkiye


Tuğba TÜRK-KURTÇA Bu kişi benim
TRAKYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 62

Kaynak Göster

APA Ermağan-çağlar, E. , Öztürk, E. , Derin, G. & Türk-kurtça, T. (2021). Investigation of the Relationship Among Childhood Traumas and Self-Harming Behaviours, Depression, Psychoform and Somatoform Dissociation in Female University Students . Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal , 11 (62) , 383-402 . DOI: 10.17066/tpdrd.1001718