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The Effect Of Aging-Related Stereotype Threat On Memory Performance

Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 2, 543 - 565, 30.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.33417/tsh.855213

Öz

The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of stereotype threat related to aging on memory performance of 55-70 years-old individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: negative stereotype threat, positive stereotype threat, and control. After the presentation of manipulative texts, participants were given two consecutive memory tasks to examine the duration of stereotype threat effect on the memory performance. The results demonstrated that the groups did not differ significantly in terms of the number of words remembered. The performance on two consecutive memory tasks was similar. Significant relationships were found between the memory performance of the participants and their gender and education level. Women showed significantly better memory performance than men and the performance of participants whose educational level was university or higher was significantly better than those whose educational level was below university.

Kaynakça

  • Andreoletti, C., ve Lachman, M. E. (2004). Susceptibility and resilience to memory aging stereotypes: Education matters more than age. Experimental Aging Research, 30, 129 –148.
  • Armstrong, B., Gallant, S. N., Li, L., Patel, K. ve Wong, B. I. (2017). Stereotype threat effects on older adults’ episodic and working memory performance: A meta-analysis. Gerontologist, 57, 193–205.
  • Barber, S. ve Mather, M. (2013a). Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (10), 1888–1895.
  • Barber, S. ve Mather, M. (2013b). Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults’ memory. Psychological Science, 24 (12), 2522–2529.
  • Bosson, J. K., Haymovitz, E. L. ve Pinel, E.C. (2004). When saying and doing diverge: The effects of stereotype threat on self-reported versus non-verbal anxiety. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 247–255.
  • Cavallini, E. , Bottiroli, S., Fastame, M. C. ve Hertzog, C. (2013). Age and subcultural differences on personal and general beliefs about memory. Journal of Aging Studies,27, 71-81.
  • De Frias, C.M., Nilsson, L.G. ve Herlitz, A. (2006). Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 13, 574– 87.
  • Désert, M., Préaux, M. ve Jund, R. (2009). So young and already victims of stereotype threat: Socio-economic status and performance of 6 to 9 years old children on Raven’s progressive matrices. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XXIV (2), 207-218.
  • Desrıchard, O. ve Köpetz, C. (2005). A threat in the elder: The impact of task-instructions, self-efficacy and performance expectations on memory performance in the elderly. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 537–552.
  • Fernández-Ballesteros, R., Bustillos, A. ve Huici, C. (2015). Positive Perception of Aging and Performance in a Memory Task: Compensating for Stereotype Threat? Experimental Aging Research, 41(4), 410- 425.
  • Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. Ve McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini- Mental State: A Pratical Method for Grading The Cognitive State of Patients for The Clinicians. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 12, 189-198.
  • Franceschini, G., Galli, S., Chiesi, F. ve Primi, C. (2014). Implicit gender–math stereotype and women's susceptibility to stereotype threat and stereotype lift. Learning and Individual Differences 32, 273–277.
  • Geraci, L., Hughes, M. L., Miller, T. M. ve De Forrest, R. L. (2016). The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success. Experimental Aging Research, 42(4), 365–381.
  • Good, C., Aronson, J. ve Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving adolescents’ standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 645 – 662.
  • Grady, C. (2012). The cognitive neuroscience of aging. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 491–505.
  • Güngen, C., Ertan, T., Eker, E., Yaşar, R. ve Engin, F. (2002). Standardize Mini Mental Test’in Türk Toplumunda Hafif Demans Tanısında Geçerlik ve Güvenilirliği. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(4), 273-281.
  • Hess, T. M., Auman, C., Colcombe, S. J. ve Rahhal, T. A. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 3–11.
  • Hess, T. M., Emery, L. ve Queen, T. L. (2009). Task demands moderate stereotype threat effects on memory performance. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64, 482–486.
  • Hess, T. M. ve Hinson, J. T. (2006). Age-related variation in the influences of aging stereotypes on memory in adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 21, 621–625.
  • Hess, T. M., Hinson, J. T. ve Statham, J.A. (2004). Explicit and implicit stereotype activation effects on memory: Do age and awareness moderate the impact of priming? Psychology and Agigng, 19 (3), 495- 505.
  • Horton, S., Baker, J., Pearce, W. ve Deakin, J. M. (2010). Immunity to popular stereotypes of ageing? Seniors and stereotype threat. Educational Gerontology, 36, 353–371.
  • Kang, S. K. ve Chasteen, A. L. (2009). The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 69, 201–220.
  • Koenig, A.M. ve Eagly, A.H. (2005). Stereotype Threat in Men on a Test of Social Sensitivity. Sex Roles, 52, 7-8.
  • Krendl, A. C., Ambady, N. ve Kensinger, E. A. (2015). The dissociable effects of stereotype threat on older adults’ memory encoding and retrieval. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4, 103–109.
  • Lamont, R.A., Swift, H.J. ve Abrams D. (2015). A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: Negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage. Psychology and Aging, 30(1), 80–93.
  • Levy, B. R. ve Langer, E. J. (1994). Aging free from negative stereotypes: Successful memory among the American Deaf and in China. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 935–943.
  • Lippmann, W. (1966). Public opinion (2. Baskı). Ontario: Collier-Macmillan.
  • Lu, A., Feng, Y., Yu, Z., Tian, H., Hong, X. ve Zheng, D. (2015). Anxiety and mind wandering as independent consequences of stereotype threat. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 43, 537–558.
  • Meneghetti, C., Muffato,V., Suitner, C., b, De Beni, R. ve Borella, E. (2015). Map learning in young and older adults: The influence of perceived stereotype threat. Learning and İndividual Differences, 42, 77-82.
  • O'Brien, L. T. ve Hummert, M.L. (2006). Memory Performance of Late Middle–Aged Adults: Contrasting Self–Stereotyping and Stereotype Threat Accounts of Assimilation to Age Stereotypes. Social Cognition. Social Cognition and Aging, 24( 3), 338-358.
  • Otrar, M. (2016). Yaşlılık ve Yaşlanmaya İlişkin Tutum Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Sosyoloji Dergisi, 36(2), 527-550.
  • Rahhal, T. A., Hasher, L. ve Colcombe, S. J. (2001). Instructionalmanipulations and age differences in memory: Now you see them, now you don't. Psychology and Aging, 16(4), 697.
  • Schmader, T. ve Johns, M. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 440-452.
  • Shih, M., Pittinsky, T.L. ve Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance. Psychological Science, 10, 1, 80- 84.
  • Souza-Talarico, J. N. D., Caramelli, P., Nitrini, R. ve Chaves, E. C. (2007). The influence of schooling on working memory performance in elderly individuals without cognitive decline. Dementia & neuropsychologia, 1(3), 276-281.
  • Steele, C. M. ve Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797–811.
  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J. ve Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379–440.
  • Stein, R., Blanchard-Fields, F. ve Hertzog, C. (2002). The effects of age-stereotype priming on the memory performance of older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 28(2), 169–181.
  • Stone, J. (2002). Battling doubt by avoiding practice: The effects of stereotype threat on self-handicapping in White athletes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1667–1678.
  • Tekcan, A. İ. ve Göz, İ. (2005). Türkçe Kelime Normları, İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.
  • Thomas, A. K. ve Dubois, S. J. (2011). Reducing the burden of stereotype threat eliminates age differences in memory distortion. Psychological Science, 22, 1515–1517.
  • Van Petten, C. (2004). Relationship between hippocampal volume and memory ability in healthy individuals across the lifespan: review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia 42(10) 1394-1413.
  • Yeung, N. C. J. ve von Hippel, C. (2008). Stereotype threat increases the likelihood that female drivers in a simulator run over jaywalkers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(2), 667-674.
  • Yoon, C., Hasher, L., Feinberg, F., Rahhal, T. A. ve Winocur, G. (2000). Cross-cultural differences in memory: The role of culture-based stereotypes about aging. Psychology and Aging, 15, 694 –704.
  • Zuber, S., Ihle ,A., Blum, A., Desrichard, O. ve Kliegel, M. (2019). The Effect of Stereotype Threat on Age Differences in Prospective Memory Performance: Differential Effects on Focal Versus Nonfocal Tasks. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 74 (4), 625–632.

Yaşlanmayla İlgili Kalıp Yargı Tehdidinin Bellek Performansı Üzerindeki Etkisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 2, 543 - 565, 30.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.33417/tsh.855213

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı yaşlanmayla ilgili kalıp yargı tehdidinin 55-70 yaş arasındaki kişilerin bellek performansı üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Katılımcılar negatif kalıp yargı tehdidi koşulu, pozitif kalıp yargı tehdidi koşulu ve kontrol koşulu olmak üzere üç deneysel koşula rastgele olarak atanmışlardır. Manipülatif metinlerin sunulmasının ardından kalıp yargı tehdidinin bellek performansı üzerindeki etki süresini gözleyebilmek için katılımcılara art arda iki bellek görevi verilmiştir. Çalışmanın bulguları kalıp yargı tehdidi ile ilgili metinlere maruz kalan katılımcıların bellek performansının gruplar arasında anlamlı şekilde birbirinden farklılaşmadığını göstermiştir. Katılımcıların ardışık iki kelime listesinde hatırladıkları kelime sayıları benzerdir. Katılımcıların hatırladıkları kelime sayısı ile cinsiyetleri ve eğitim düzeyleri arasında anlamlı ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Kadınlar erkeklere göre, üniversite ve üzeri eğitim görenler, üniversite altı eğitim görenlere göre daha iyi bellek performansı göstermişlerdir.

Kaynakça

  • Andreoletti, C., ve Lachman, M. E. (2004). Susceptibility and resilience to memory aging stereotypes: Education matters more than age. Experimental Aging Research, 30, 129 –148.
  • Armstrong, B., Gallant, S. N., Li, L., Patel, K. ve Wong, B. I. (2017). Stereotype threat effects on older adults’ episodic and working memory performance: A meta-analysis. Gerontologist, 57, 193–205.
  • Barber, S. ve Mather, M. (2013a). Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (10), 1888–1895.
  • Barber, S. ve Mather, M. (2013b). Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults’ memory. Psychological Science, 24 (12), 2522–2529.
  • Bosson, J. K., Haymovitz, E. L. ve Pinel, E.C. (2004). When saying and doing diverge: The effects of stereotype threat on self-reported versus non-verbal anxiety. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 247–255.
  • Cavallini, E. , Bottiroli, S., Fastame, M. C. ve Hertzog, C. (2013). Age and subcultural differences on personal and general beliefs about memory. Journal of Aging Studies,27, 71-81.
  • De Frias, C.M., Nilsson, L.G. ve Herlitz, A. (2006). Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 13, 574– 87.
  • Désert, M., Préaux, M. ve Jund, R. (2009). So young and already victims of stereotype threat: Socio-economic status and performance of 6 to 9 years old children on Raven’s progressive matrices. European Journal of Psychology of Education, XXIV (2), 207-218.
  • Desrıchard, O. ve Köpetz, C. (2005). A threat in the elder: The impact of task-instructions, self-efficacy and performance expectations on memory performance in the elderly. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 537–552.
  • Fernández-Ballesteros, R., Bustillos, A. ve Huici, C. (2015). Positive Perception of Aging and Performance in a Memory Task: Compensating for Stereotype Threat? Experimental Aging Research, 41(4), 410- 425.
  • Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. Ve McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini- Mental State: A Pratical Method for Grading The Cognitive State of Patients for The Clinicians. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 12, 189-198.
  • Franceschini, G., Galli, S., Chiesi, F. ve Primi, C. (2014). Implicit gender–math stereotype and women's susceptibility to stereotype threat and stereotype lift. Learning and Individual Differences 32, 273–277.
  • Geraci, L., Hughes, M. L., Miller, T. M. ve De Forrest, R. L. (2016). The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success. Experimental Aging Research, 42(4), 365–381.
  • Good, C., Aronson, J. ve Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving adolescents’ standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 645 – 662.
  • Grady, C. (2012). The cognitive neuroscience of aging. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 491–505.
  • Güngen, C., Ertan, T., Eker, E., Yaşar, R. ve Engin, F. (2002). Standardize Mini Mental Test’in Türk Toplumunda Hafif Demans Tanısında Geçerlik ve Güvenilirliği. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(4), 273-281.
  • Hess, T. M., Auman, C., Colcombe, S. J. ve Rahhal, T. A. (2003). The impact of stereotype threat on age differences in memory performance. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 3–11.
  • Hess, T. M., Emery, L. ve Queen, T. L. (2009). Task demands moderate stereotype threat effects on memory performance. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64, 482–486.
  • Hess, T. M. ve Hinson, J. T. (2006). Age-related variation in the influences of aging stereotypes on memory in adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 21, 621–625.
  • Hess, T. M., Hinson, J. T. ve Statham, J.A. (2004). Explicit and implicit stereotype activation effects on memory: Do age and awareness moderate the impact of priming? Psychology and Agigng, 19 (3), 495- 505.
  • Horton, S., Baker, J., Pearce, W. ve Deakin, J. M. (2010). Immunity to popular stereotypes of ageing? Seniors and stereotype threat. Educational Gerontology, 36, 353–371.
  • Kang, S. K. ve Chasteen, A. L. (2009). The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 69, 201–220.
  • Koenig, A.M. ve Eagly, A.H. (2005). Stereotype Threat in Men on a Test of Social Sensitivity. Sex Roles, 52, 7-8.
  • Krendl, A. C., Ambady, N. ve Kensinger, E. A. (2015). The dissociable effects of stereotype threat on older adults’ memory encoding and retrieval. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4, 103–109.
  • Lamont, R.A., Swift, H.J. ve Abrams D. (2015). A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: Negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage. Psychology and Aging, 30(1), 80–93.
  • Levy, B. R. ve Langer, E. J. (1994). Aging free from negative stereotypes: Successful memory among the American Deaf and in China. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 935–943.
  • Lippmann, W. (1966). Public opinion (2. Baskı). Ontario: Collier-Macmillan.
  • Lu, A., Feng, Y., Yu, Z., Tian, H., Hong, X. ve Zheng, D. (2015). Anxiety and mind wandering as independent consequences of stereotype threat. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 43, 537–558.
  • Meneghetti, C., Muffato,V., Suitner, C., b, De Beni, R. ve Borella, E. (2015). Map learning in young and older adults: The influence of perceived stereotype threat. Learning and İndividual Differences, 42, 77-82.
  • O'Brien, L. T. ve Hummert, M.L. (2006). Memory Performance of Late Middle–Aged Adults: Contrasting Self–Stereotyping and Stereotype Threat Accounts of Assimilation to Age Stereotypes. Social Cognition. Social Cognition and Aging, 24( 3), 338-358.
  • Otrar, M. (2016). Yaşlılık ve Yaşlanmaya İlişkin Tutum Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Sosyoloji Dergisi, 36(2), 527-550.
  • Rahhal, T. A., Hasher, L. ve Colcombe, S. J. (2001). Instructionalmanipulations and age differences in memory: Now you see them, now you don't. Psychology and Aging, 16(4), 697.
  • Schmader, T. ve Johns, M. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 440-452.
  • Shih, M., Pittinsky, T.L. ve Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance. Psychological Science, 10, 1, 80- 84.
  • Souza-Talarico, J. N. D., Caramelli, P., Nitrini, R. ve Chaves, E. C. (2007). The influence of schooling on working memory performance in elderly individuals without cognitive decline. Dementia & neuropsychologia, 1(3), 276-281.
  • Steele, C. M. ve Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797–811.
  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J. ve Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379–440.
  • Stein, R., Blanchard-Fields, F. ve Hertzog, C. (2002). The effects of age-stereotype priming on the memory performance of older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 28(2), 169–181.
  • Stone, J. (2002). Battling doubt by avoiding practice: The effects of stereotype threat on self-handicapping in White athletes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1667–1678.
  • Tekcan, A. İ. ve Göz, İ. (2005). Türkçe Kelime Normları, İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.
  • Thomas, A. K. ve Dubois, S. J. (2011). Reducing the burden of stereotype threat eliminates age differences in memory distortion. Psychological Science, 22, 1515–1517.
  • Van Petten, C. (2004). Relationship between hippocampal volume and memory ability in healthy individuals across the lifespan: review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia 42(10) 1394-1413.
  • Yeung, N. C. J. ve von Hippel, C. (2008). Stereotype threat increases the likelihood that female drivers in a simulator run over jaywalkers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(2), 667-674.
  • Yoon, C., Hasher, L., Feinberg, F., Rahhal, T. A. ve Winocur, G. (2000). Cross-cultural differences in memory: The role of culture-based stereotypes about aging. Psychology and Aging, 15, 694 –704.
  • Zuber, S., Ihle ,A., Blum, A., Desrichard, O. ve Kliegel, M. (2019). The Effect of Stereotype Threat on Age Differences in Prospective Memory Performance: Differential Effects on Focal Versus Nonfocal Tasks. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 74 (4), 625–632.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Duygu ÖZMEN GÜLPEK Bu kişi benim
BURSA ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-5605-621X
Türkiye


Hayriye GÜLEÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BURSA ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-9410-430X
Türkiye


Hasan Gürkan TEKMAN>
BURSA ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-0859-6836
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 6 Ocak 2021
Kabul Tarihi 19 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Özmen Gülpek, D. , Güleç, H. & Tekman, H. G. (2021). Yaşlanmayla İlgili Kalıp Yargı Tehdidinin Bellek Performansı Üzerindeki Etkisi . Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet , 32 (2) , 543-565 . DOI: 10.33417/tsh.855213