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Hemotropic mycoplasmas: From Haemobartonella to Mycoplasma

Yıl 2016, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 31 - 40, 11.12.2016

Öz

In the study, it was aimed to summarize recently gained insights into hemotropic mycoplasmas. Hemotropic mycoplasmas attaching to the host’s erythrocytes surface are unculturable, gram-negative, obligate and wall-less bacteria which are known as the causative agents of infectious anemia in a wide variety of mammals. These organisms, previously known as Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon, have been reclassified within the Mycoplasma genus while; sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp. has shown that hemotropic mycoplasmas belong to members of the mollicutes rather than the rickettsiales. These pathogens can be visualized as dark purple-blue coccoids, rings or short chains on the erythrocyte surface, using Romanowsky-type stain such as Giemsa, Wrigth Giemsa or DiffQuick of blood smears. But it has to be taken account that the polymerase chain reaction assays, based on the 16S rRNA gene are more sensitive and specific methods than cytology. Doxycycline, enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline are the mostly used agents to cure hemotropic mycoplasmas nowadays. Furthermore, new research should likely be focused on treatment of hemotropic mycoplasmas with a potential vector-borne, interspecies transmission and a zoonotic potential.

Kaynakça

  • Akkan HA, Karaca M, Tutuncu M, Ozdal N, Yuksek N, Agaoglu Z, Deger S (2005): Haemobatonellosis in Van cats. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29: 709-712.
  • Atalay T, Aslan O, Bekdik İK (2015): Diagnosis of mycoplasma haemofelis and candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum using PCR assay in cats. Journal of Health Sciences 24 (1): 1-6.
  • Barker EN, Helps CR, Heesom KJ, Arthur CJ, Peters IR, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Tasker S (2010): Detection of humoral response using a recombinant heat shock protein 70, DnaK, of Mycoplasma haemofelis in experimentally and naturally hemoplasma-infected cats. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17(12): 1926-32.
  • Bobade P, Nash AS, Rogerson P (1988): Feline hemobartonellosis: Clinical, haematological and pathological studies in natural infections and the relationship to infection with feline leukaemia virus. Vet Rec 122: 32-36.
  • Bobade P, Nash AS (1987): A comparative study of the efficiency of acridine orange and some Romanowsky staining procedures in the demonstration of Haemobartonella felis in feline blood. Vet Parasitol 26: 169-172
  • Carney HC, England JJ (1993): Feline hemobartonellosis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 23: 79-90.
  • Chalker VJ (2005): Canine mycoplasmas. Res Vet Sci 79: 1-8.
  • Criado-Fornelio A, Martinez-Marcos A, Buling-Saraña A, Barba-Carretero JC (2003): Presence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, Mycoplasma haemominutum and piroplasmids in cats from southern Europe: a molecular study. Vet Microbiol 93: 307-317.
  • Dean RS, Helps CR, Gruffydd Jones TJ (2008): Use of real-time PZR to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in the saliva and salivary glands of haemoplasma-infected cats. J Feline Med Surg 10(4): 413-7.
  • dos Santos AP, dos Santos RP, Biondo AW, Dora JM, Goldani LZ, de Oliveira ST, de Sá Guimarães AM, Timenetsky J, de Morais HA, González FH, Messick JB (2008): Hemoplasma infection in an HIV-positive patient, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 1922-4.
  • Fard RMN, Vahedi SM, Mohammadkhan F (2014): Haemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas): a review. Int J Adv Biol Biom Res 2: 1484-1503.
  • Flint JC, McKelvie DH (1955): Feline Infectious Anaemia, Diagnosis and Treatment. In 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Minneapolis, 1955, 240-242.
  • Flint JC, Moss LC (1953): Infectious anaemia in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 122: 45-48.
  • Flint JC, Roepke MH, Jensen R (1959): Feline infections anemia. II. Experimental cases. Am J Vet Res 20: 33-40.
  • Foley JE, Harrus S, Poland A (1998): Molecular, clinical, and pathologic comparison of two distinct strains of Haemobartonella felis in domestic cats. Am J Vet Res 59: 1581-8
  • Foley JE, Pedersen NC (2001): Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, a low-virulence epierythrocytic parasite of cats. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51: 815-7.
  • Grindem CB, Corbett WT, Tomkins MT (1990): Risk factors for Haemobartonella felis infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196: 96-99.
  • Harvey JW, Gaskin JM (1977): Experimental feline haemobartonellosis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 13: 28-38
  • Hayes HM, Priester WA (1973): Feline infectious anaemia. Risk bye age, sex, and breed; prior disease, seasonal occurence;mortality. J Small Anim Pract 14: 797-804.
  • Hooper CD, Sparkes AH, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Crispin SM, Muir P, Harbour DA, Stokes CR (1989): Clinical and laboratory findings in cats infected with felineimmunodeficiency virus. Vet Rec 125: 341-6.
  • Jensen WA, Lappin MR, Kamkar S, Reagan WJ (2001): Use of a polymerase chainreaction assay to detect and differentiate two strains of Haemobartonella felis in naturally infected cats. Am J Vet Res 62: 604-608.
  • Korman RM, Ceron JJ, Knowles TG, Barker EN, Eckersall PD, Tasker S (2012): Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and Canditatus mycoplasma Haemominutum infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats. Vet J 193: 433-438.
  • Lappin MR (2004): Haemobartonellosis. Scientific Proceedings of the 29 th World Small Animal Cngress-WSAVA meeeting, Rhodes, 2004.
  • Lappin MR, Griffin B, Brunt J, Burney D, Hawley J, Brewer MM, Jensen WA (2006): Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Neorickettsia risticii DNA in the blood of cats and their fleas in the United States. J Feline Med Surg 8: 85-90.
  • Maede Y, Hata R (1975): Studies on feline haemobartonellosis. II. The mechanism of anemia produced by infection with Haemobartonella felis. Jpn J Vet Sci 37: 49-54.
  • Maggi RG, Compton SM, Trull CL, Mascarelli PE, Mozayeni BR, Breitschwerdt EB (2013): Infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma species in patients with or without extensive arthropod or animal contact. J Clin Microbiol 51: 3237-3241.
  • Messick JB (2004): Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas): a review and new insights intopathogenic potential. Vet Clin Pathol 33(1): 2-13.
  • Museux K, Boretti FS, Willi B, Riond B, Hoelzle K, Hoelzle LE, Wittenbrink MM, Tasker S, Wengi N, Reusch CE, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2009): In vivo transmission studies of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in the domestic cat. Vet Res 40(5): 45.
  • Namiki K, Goodison S, Porvasnik S, Allan RW, Iczkowski KA, Urbanek C, Reyes L, Sakamoto N, Rosser CJ (2009): Persistent exposure to Mycoplasma induces malignant transformation of human prostate cells. PLoS ONE 4: 68-72.
  • Obara H, Fujihara M, Watanabe Y, Ono HK, Harasawa R (2011): A feline hemoplasma,Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, detected in dog in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 73(6): 841-3.
  • Peters IR, Helps CR, Willi B, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Tasker S (2008): The prevalence of three species of feline haemoplasmas in samples submitted to a diagnostics service as determined by three novel real-time duplex PCR assays. Vet Microbiol 126: 142-150.
  • Peters IR, Helps CR, Willi B (2011): Detection of feline haemoplasma species in experimental infections by in-situ hybridisation. Microb Pathog 50(2): 94.
  • Splitter E, Castro E, Kanawyer W (1956): Feline infectious anemia. Vet Med 51:17-22.
  • Steer JA, Tasker S, Barker EN, Jensen J, Mitchell J, Stocki T, Chalker VJ, Hamon M (2011): A novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (hemoplasma) in a patient with hemolytic anemia and pyrexia. Clin Infect Dis 53: 147-151.
  • Sykes JE, Drazenovich NL, Ball LM, Leutenegger CM (2007): Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epidemiology of hemoplasma infections in anemic and nonanemic cats. J Vet Intern Med 21:685-693.
  • Sykes JE, Lindsay LL, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB (2010): Human coinfection with Bartonella henselae and two hemotropic Mycoplasma variants resembling Mycoplasma ovis. J Clin Microbiol 48: 3782-5.
  • Tanahara M, Mi Yamato S, Nishio T, Yoshii Y, Sakuma M, Sakata Y, Nishigaki K, Tsujimoto H, Setoguchi A, Endo Y (2010): An epidemiological survey of feline hemoplasma infection in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 72(12): 1575-81.
  • Taroura S, Shimada Y, Sakata Y, Miyama T, Hiraoka H, Watanabe M, Itamoto K, Okuda M, Inokuma H (2005): Detection of DNA of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and Spiroplasma sp. in unfed ticks collected from vegetation in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 67: 1277-9.
  • Tasker S. (2010): Haemotropic Mycoplasma: What’s their real significance in cats? J Feline Med Surg 12(5): 369-81.
  • Tasker S, Binns SH, Day MJ, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Harbour DA, Helps CR, Jensen WA, Olver CS, Lappin MR. (2010): Use of a PCR assay to assess the prevalence and risk factors for Mycoplasma haemofelis and “Candidatus M. haemominutum” in cats in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 152 (7): 193-8.
  • Tasker S, Carney SM, Day MJ (2006): Effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency infection and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment on ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma Haemominutum’infection. Microbes Infect 8(3): 653-61.
  • Tasker S, Lappin MR (2002): Haemobartonella felis: recent developments in diagnosis and treatment J Felin Med Surg 4: 3-11.
  • Tasker S, Peters IR, Papasouliotis K, Cue SM, Willi B, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Knowles TG, Day MJ, Helps CR (2009): Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers haematology Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations. Vet Microbiol 139(3-4): 323-32.
  • Tsai S, Wear DJ, Shih JW, Lo SC (1995): Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: Persistent infection and multistage malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 10197-201.
  • Tüzer E, Göksu K, Bilal T, Yeşildere T (1993): A case of Haemobartonellosis in a cat in Istanbul. The J Protozool Res 3:69-70.
  • Ural K, Kurtdede A, Ulutaş B (2009): Prevalence of haemoplasma infection in pet cats from 4 different provinces in Turkey. Revue Méd Vét 5: 226-30.
  • Ural K (2006): İç Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi. Hemobartonellozisli Kedilerde Klinik Hematolojik Bulgular FIV/FeLV Enfeksiyonları ile Sağaltımda enrofloksasin uygulamaları. Ankara.
  • Werner LL (1980): Coombs positive anemias in the dog and cat. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2: 96-101.
  • Willi B, Boretti FS, Cattori V, Tasker S, Meli ML, Reusch C, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R. (2005): Identification molecular characterization and experimental transmission of a new hemoplasmaisolate from a cat with hemolytic anemia in Switzerland. J Clin Microb 43(6): 2581-5.
  • Willi B, Tasker S, Boretti FS, Doherr MG, Cattori V, Meli ML, Lobetti RG, Malik R, Reusch CE, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2006): Phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ isolates from pet cats in the United Kingdom Australia and South Africa with analysis of risk factors for infection. J Clin Microbiol 44:4430-5.
  • Willi B, Boretti FS, Meli ML, Bernasconi MV, Casati S, Hegglin D, Puorger M, Neimark H, Cattori V, Wengi N, Reusch CE, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2007): Real-time PZR investigation of potential vectors reservoirs and shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 3798-802.
  • Yang H, Qu L, Ma H, Chen L, Liu W, Liu C, Meng L, Wu J, Shou C (2010): Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection in gastric carcinoma and its effects on the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. BMC Gastroenterol 10: 132.
  • Zulty JC, Kociba GJ (1990): Cold agglutinins in cats with haemobartonellosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196: 907-10.

Hemotropik mikoplazmalar: Haemobartonella’dan Mycoplasma’ya

Yıl 2016, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 31 - 40, 11.12.2016

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, hemotropik mikoplazmalar ile ilgili son gelişmelerin özetlenmesidir. Hemotropik mikoplazmalar eritrosit yüzeyine yerleşen, kültürü yapılamayan, gram-negatif, obligat ve hücre zarı olmayan bakteriler olup pek çok memeli türünde infeksiyöz aneminin etkeni olarak bilinmektedir. Önceleri Haemobartonella ve Eperythrozoon olarak bilinen bu mikroorganizmalar, Haemobartonella ve Eperythrozoon spp. türlerinin 16S rRNA genlerinin sekans analizleri neticesinde riketsiyalardan çok farklı olarak Mollicutes üyesi olan hemotropik mikoplazma olduğu belirlenmiş ve Mycoplasma ailesi içinde tekrar sınıflandırılmıştır. Bu patojenler kan frotilerinin Giemsa, Wrigth Giemsa ya da DiffQuick gibi Romanowsky-tip boyanmasında, eritrosit yüzeylerinde mor-mavi renkli, kokoid, yüzük ya da kısa zincir formunda görüntülenmektedir. Fakat, 16S rRNA geninin temel alındığı polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu yöntemi sitolojiden çok daha spesifik ve duyarlı bir yöntemdir. Doksisiklin, enrofloksasin ve oksitetrasiklin grubu antibiyotikler günümüzde tedavi için en yaygın kullanılan antibiyotiklerdir. Bununla birlikte, gelecekte hemotropik mikoplazmaların tedavisi, bulaşmada etkili vektörler, türler arası bulaşma ve zoonotik potansiyeli ile ilgili araştırmalar yapılması gerekmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Akkan HA, Karaca M, Tutuncu M, Ozdal N, Yuksek N, Agaoglu Z, Deger S (2005): Haemobatonellosis in Van cats. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29: 709-712.
  • Atalay T, Aslan O, Bekdik İK (2015): Diagnosis of mycoplasma haemofelis and candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum using PCR assay in cats. Journal of Health Sciences 24 (1): 1-6.
  • Barker EN, Helps CR, Heesom KJ, Arthur CJ, Peters IR, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Tasker S (2010): Detection of humoral response using a recombinant heat shock protein 70, DnaK, of Mycoplasma haemofelis in experimentally and naturally hemoplasma-infected cats. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17(12): 1926-32.
  • Bobade P, Nash AS, Rogerson P (1988): Feline hemobartonellosis: Clinical, haematological and pathological studies in natural infections and the relationship to infection with feline leukaemia virus. Vet Rec 122: 32-36.
  • Bobade P, Nash AS (1987): A comparative study of the efficiency of acridine orange and some Romanowsky staining procedures in the demonstration of Haemobartonella felis in feline blood. Vet Parasitol 26: 169-172
  • Carney HC, England JJ (1993): Feline hemobartonellosis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 23: 79-90.
  • Chalker VJ (2005): Canine mycoplasmas. Res Vet Sci 79: 1-8.
  • Criado-Fornelio A, Martinez-Marcos A, Buling-Saraña A, Barba-Carretero JC (2003): Presence of Mycoplasma haemofelis, Mycoplasma haemominutum and piroplasmids in cats from southern Europe: a molecular study. Vet Microbiol 93: 307-317.
  • Dean RS, Helps CR, Gruffydd Jones TJ (2008): Use of real-time PZR to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in the saliva and salivary glands of haemoplasma-infected cats. J Feline Med Surg 10(4): 413-7.
  • dos Santos AP, dos Santos RP, Biondo AW, Dora JM, Goldani LZ, de Oliveira ST, de Sá Guimarães AM, Timenetsky J, de Morais HA, González FH, Messick JB (2008): Hemoplasma infection in an HIV-positive patient, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 1922-4.
  • Fard RMN, Vahedi SM, Mohammadkhan F (2014): Haemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas): a review. Int J Adv Biol Biom Res 2: 1484-1503.
  • Flint JC, McKelvie DH (1955): Feline Infectious Anaemia, Diagnosis and Treatment. In 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Minneapolis, 1955, 240-242.
  • Flint JC, Moss LC (1953): Infectious anaemia in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 122: 45-48.
  • Flint JC, Roepke MH, Jensen R (1959): Feline infections anemia. II. Experimental cases. Am J Vet Res 20: 33-40.
  • Foley JE, Harrus S, Poland A (1998): Molecular, clinical, and pathologic comparison of two distinct strains of Haemobartonella felis in domestic cats. Am J Vet Res 59: 1581-8
  • Foley JE, Pedersen NC (2001): Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, a low-virulence epierythrocytic parasite of cats. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51: 815-7.
  • Grindem CB, Corbett WT, Tomkins MT (1990): Risk factors for Haemobartonella felis infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196: 96-99.
  • Harvey JW, Gaskin JM (1977): Experimental feline haemobartonellosis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 13: 28-38
  • Hayes HM, Priester WA (1973): Feline infectious anaemia. Risk bye age, sex, and breed; prior disease, seasonal occurence;mortality. J Small Anim Pract 14: 797-804.
  • Hooper CD, Sparkes AH, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Crispin SM, Muir P, Harbour DA, Stokes CR (1989): Clinical and laboratory findings in cats infected with felineimmunodeficiency virus. Vet Rec 125: 341-6.
  • Jensen WA, Lappin MR, Kamkar S, Reagan WJ (2001): Use of a polymerase chainreaction assay to detect and differentiate two strains of Haemobartonella felis in naturally infected cats. Am J Vet Res 62: 604-608.
  • Korman RM, Ceron JJ, Knowles TG, Barker EN, Eckersall PD, Tasker S (2012): Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and Canditatus mycoplasma Haemominutum infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats. Vet J 193: 433-438.
  • Lappin MR (2004): Haemobartonellosis. Scientific Proceedings of the 29 th World Small Animal Cngress-WSAVA meeeting, Rhodes, 2004.
  • Lappin MR, Griffin B, Brunt J, Burney D, Hawley J, Brewer MM, Jensen WA (2006): Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Neorickettsia risticii DNA in the blood of cats and their fleas in the United States. J Feline Med Surg 8: 85-90.
  • Maede Y, Hata R (1975): Studies on feline haemobartonellosis. II. The mechanism of anemia produced by infection with Haemobartonella felis. Jpn J Vet Sci 37: 49-54.
  • Maggi RG, Compton SM, Trull CL, Mascarelli PE, Mozayeni BR, Breitschwerdt EB (2013): Infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma species in patients with or without extensive arthropod or animal contact. J Clin Microbiol 51: 3237-3241.
  • Messick JB (2004): Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas): a review and new insights intopathogenic potential. Vet Clin Pathol 33(1): 2-13.
  • Museux K, Boretti FS, Willi B, Riond B, Hoelzle K, Hoelzle LE, Wittenbrink MM, Tasker S, Wengi N, Reusch CE, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2009): In vivo transmission studies of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in the domestic cat. Vet Res 40(5): 45.
  • Namiki K, Goodison S, Porvasnik S, Allan RW, Iczkowski KA, Urbanek C, Reyes L, Sakamoto N, Rosser CJ (2009): Persistent exposure to Mycoplasma induces malignant transformation of human prostate cells. PLoS ONE 4: 68-72.
  • Obara H, Fujihara M, Watanabe Y, Ono HK, Harasawa R (2011): A feline hemoplasma,Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, detected in dog in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 73(6): 841-3.
  • Peters IR, Helps CR, Willi B, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Tasker S (2008): The prevalence of three species of feline haemoplasmas in samples submitted to a diagnostics service as determined by three novel real-time duplex PCR assays. Vet Microbiol 126: 142-150.
  • Peters IR, Helps CR, Willi B (2011): Detection of feline haemoplasma species in experimental infections by in-situ hybridisation. Microb Pathog 50(2): 94.
  • Splitter E, Castro E, Kanawyer W (1956): Feline infectious anemia. Vet Med 51:17-22.
  • Steer JA, Tasker S, Barker EN, Jensen J, Mitchell J, Stocki T, Chalker VJ, Hamon M (2011): A novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (hemoplasma) in a patient with hemolytic anemia and pyrexia. Clin Infect Dis 53: 147-151.
  • Sykes JE, Drazenovich NL, Ball LM, Leutenegger CM (2007): Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epidemiology of hemoplasma infections in anemic and nonanemic cats. J Vet Intern Med 21:685-693.
  • Sykes JE, Lindsay LL, Maggi RG, Breitschwerdt EB (2010): Human coinfection with Bartonella henselae and two hemotropic Mycoplasma variants resembling Mycoplasma ovis. J Clin Microbiol 48: 3782-5.
  • Tanahara M, Mi Yamato S, Nishio T, Yoshii Y, Sakuma M, Sakata Y, Nishigaki K, Tsujimoto H, Setoguchi A, Endo Y (2010): An epidemiological survey of feline hemoplasma infection in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 72(12): 1575-81.
  • Taroura S, Shimada Y, Sakata Y, Miyama T, Hiraoka H, Watanabe M, Itamoto K, Okuda M, Inokuma H (2005): Detection of DNA of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum and Spiroplasma sp. in unfed ticks collected from vegetation in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 67: 1277-9.
  • Tasker S. (2010): Haemotropic Mycoplasma: What’s their real significance in cats? J Feline Med Surg 12(5): 369-81.
  • Tasker S, Binns SH, Day MJ, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Harbour DA, Helps CR, Jensen WA, Olver CS, Lappin MR. (2010): Use of a PCR assay to assess the prevalence and risk factors for Mycoplasma haemofelis and “Candidatus M. haemominutum” in cats in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 152 (7): 193-8.
  • Tasker S, Carney SM, Day MJ (2006): Effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency infection and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment on ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma Haemominutum’infection. Microbes Infect 8(3): 653-61.
  • Tasker S, Lappin MR (2002): Haemobartonella felis: recent developments in diagnosis and treatment J Felin Med Surg 4: 3-11.
  • Tasker S, Peters IR, Papasouliotis K, Cue SM, Willi B, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Knowles TG, Day MJ, Helps CR (2009): Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers haematology Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations. Vet Microbiol 139(3-4): 323-32.
  • Tsai S, Wear DJ, Shih JW, Lo SC (1995): Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: Persistent infection and multistage malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 10197-201.
  • Tüzer E, Göksu K, Bilal T, Yeşildere T (1993): A case of Haemobartonellosis in a cat in Istanbul. The J Protozool Res 3:69-70.
  • Ural K, Kurtdede A, Ulutaş B (2009): Prevalence of haemoplasma infection in pet cats from 4 different provinces in Turkey. Revue Méd Vét 5: 226-30.
  • Ural K (2006): İç Hastalıkları Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi. Hemobartonellozisli Kedilerde Klinik Hematolojik Bulgular FIV/FeLV Enfeksiyonları ile Sağaltımda enrofloksasin uygulamaları. Ankara.
  • Werner LL (1980): Coombs positive anemias in the dog and cat. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2: 96-101.
  • Willi B, Boretti FS, Cattori V, Tasker S, Meli ML, Reusch C, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R. (2005): Identification molecular characterization and experimental transmission of a new hemoplasmaisolate from a cat with hemolytic anemia in Switzerland. J Clin Microb 43(6): 2581-5.
  • Willi B, Tasker S, Boretti FS, Doherr MG, Cattori V, Meli ML, Lobetti RG, Malik R, Reusch CE, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2006): Phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ isolates from pet cats in the United Kingdom Australia and South Africa with analysis of risk factors for infection. J Clin Microbiol 44:4430-5.
  • Willi B, Boretti FS, Meli ML, Bernasconi MV, Casati S, Hegglin D, Puorger M, Neimark H, Cattori V, Wengi N, Reusch CE, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2007): Real-time PZR investigation of potential vectors reservoirs and shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 3798-802.
  • Yang H, Qu L, Ma H, Chen L, Liu W, Liu C, Meng L, Wu J, Shou C (2010): Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection in gastric carcinoma and its effects on the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. BMC Gastroenterol 10: 132.
  • Zulty JC, Kociba GJ (1990): Cold agglutinins in cats with haemobartonellosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196: 907-10.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Düzeltme
Yazarlar

Öznur ASLAN>
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5479-3737

Yayımlanma Tarihi 11 Aralık 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 27 Ocak 2017
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Aslan, Ö. (2016). Hemotropic mycoplasmas: From Haemobartonella to Mycoplasma . Journal of Advances in VetBio Science and Techniques , 1 (1) , 31-40 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/vetbio/issue/27373/288267

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