Araştırma Makalesi
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Odun sirkesinin çayır otu silajının besin değeri ve fermentasyonu üzerine etkisi

Yıl 2020, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, 90 - 95, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.31797/vetbio.753680

Öz

Bu çalışma, odun sirkesinin (OS) farklı konsantrasyonlarda kullanımının çayır otu silajında besin madde bileşimi, fermantasyon gelişimi ve mikroflora üzerindeki etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma materyalleri kontrol ve OS (%0.5, %1 ve %2) uygulanan gruplar olmak üzere dört deneme gruba ayrılmıştır. Her uygulama dörder tekerrürlü olarak yapılmıştır. Kafkas Üniversitenin doğal çayırından biçilen ve laboratuvar ortamında hazırlanan otlara sprey yöntemiyle OS belirtilen oranlarda (%0.5, %1 ve %2) uygulanmıştır. Numuneler 1.0 L’ lik anaerobik şişelerde silolanmıştır. Fermantasyonun 60. gününde açılan örneklerde pH, kuru madde, ham protein, ham yağ, ham kül, asit deterjan fiber ve nötral deterjan fiber analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ayrıca laktik asit bakterleri, maya ve küf sayımları için yüzeye yayma yöntemiyle mikrobiyolojik analizler yapılmıştır. Laboratuvar ortamında yapılan silaj çalışması sonucunda, odun sirkesinin besin değerleri üzerine herhangi bir etkisi olmamıştır (P>0.05). Deneme gruplarındaki en yüksek pH’ nın %2 ilaveli OS grubunda olduğu görülmüştür (P<0.05). OS gruplarındaki (%0.5 ve %1) laktik asit bakteri sayısı kontrol grubuna göre değişmezken (P>0.05), en yüksek oranda (%2) OS ilavesi laktik asit bakterileri üzerine önemli antimikrobiyal aktivite göstermiştir (P<0.05). Ayrıca OS ilavesinin maya ve küf gelişimini kontrol grubuna göre düşürebileceği belirlenmiştir (P<0.05).

Kaynakça

  • Chen, Zheng, Z., Fu, K., Zeng, Z., Wang, J., & Lu, M. (2015). Torrefaction of biomass stalk and its effect on the yield and quality of pyrolysis products. Fuel, 159, 27-32
  • Chen, J. (1994). Effects of enzyme-inoculant systems on preservation and nutritive value of haycrop and corn silages. Journal of Dairy Science, 77(2), 501-12 doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)76978-2
  • Driehuis, F., Oude Elferink, S., & Van Wikselaar, P. (2001). Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of grass silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri, with or without homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Grass and Forage Science, 56(4), 330-43
  • Elferink, S., Driehuis, F., Gottschal, J. C., & Spoelstra, S. F. (2000). Silage fermentation processes and their manipulation. FAO Plant Production and Protection Papers, 17-30
  • Filya, İ. (2001). Silaj teknolojisi. İzmir: Hakan Ofset.
  • Filya, İ. (2003). Organik asitlerin buğday, mısır ve sorgum silajlarının mikrobiyal flora ile aerobik stabiliteleri üzerine etkileri. III. Paper presented at the III. Ulusal Zootekni Bilim Kongresi.
  • Filya, İ., & Sucu, E. (2003). Silajlarda fermantasyon kalitesi ve aerobik stabilitenin geliştirilmesi üzerinde araştırmalar. Paper presented at the GAP III. Tarım Kongresi.
  • Garillo, E., Pradhan, R., & Tobioka, H. (1995). Effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics, blood profiles and feed digestibility in growing sheep. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu Tokai University.
  • Goering, H. K., & Van Soest, P. J. (1970). Forage fiber analysis. Agricultural handbook no. 379. Virginia, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri: U.S. Agricultural Research Service.
  • Gül, S., & Coşkuntuna, L. (2016). Çayır Otu Silajlarına Farklı Katkı Maddesi İlavesinin Silaj Fermantasyonu ve Aerobik Stabilite Üzerine Etkileri.
  • Jalč, D., Lauková, A., Simonová, M., Váradyová, Z., & Homolka, P. (2009). The use of bacterial inoculants for grass silage: their effects on nutrient composition and fermentation parameters in grass silages. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 54(2), 84-91
  • Jatkauskas, J., & Vrotniakiene, V. (2011). The effects of silage inoculants on the fermentation and aerobic stability of legume-grass silage. Žemdirbystė-Agriculture, 98, 367-74
  • Jatkauskas, J., Vrotniakiene, V., Ohlsson, C., & Lund, B. (2013). The effects of three silage inoculants on aerobic stability in grass, clover-grass, lucerne and maize silages. Agriculture and Food Science, 22(1), 137-44
  • Ke, W. C., Ding, W. R., Xu, D. M., Ding, L. M., Zhang, P., Li, F. D., et al. (2017). Effects of addition of malic or citric acids on fermentation quality and chemical characteristics of alfalfa silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(11), 8958-66
  • Kitcherside, M., Glen, E. F., & Webster, A. J. F. (2000). Fibrecap: an improved method for the rapid analysis of fibre in feeding stuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 86(1-2), 125-32
  • Koç, I., Öğün, E., Namlı, A., Mendeş, M., Kutlu, E., & Yardım, E. N. (2019). The effects of wood vinegar on some soil microorganisms. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(2), 2437-47
  • Koç, I., Yardım, E. N., Çelik, A., Mendeş, M., Mirtagİoğlu, H., & Namlı, A. (2018). Fındık kabuklarından elde edilmiş odun sirkesi’nin in-vitro şartlarında küf etmenlerine karşı antifungal etkisinin belirlenmesi. Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 296-300 doi:10.17798/bitlisfen.425809
  • Lee, S. S., Lee, H. J., Paradhipta, D. H. V., Joo, Y. H., Kim, S. B., Kim, D. H., et al. (2019). Temperature and microbial changes of corn silage during aerobic exposure. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 32(7), 988
  • Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Biochar for environmental management. London and New York: Earthscan London.
  • Lindgren, S., Kaspersson, A., Rydberg, E., Lingvall, P., & Kartzow, A. d. (1983). Effect of inoculants, grain and formic acid on silage fermentation. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research (Sweden)
  • McDonald, P., Henderson, A., & Heron, S. (1991). The biochemistry of silage. Marlow, UK: Chalcombe publications.
  • Namli, A., Akça, M. O., Turgay, E. B., & Soba, M. R. (2014). Odun sirkesinin tarımsal kullanım potansiyelinin araştırılması. Toprak Su Dergisi, 3(1), 44-52
  • Norgate, T., Haque, N., Somerville, M., & Jahanshahi, S. (2012). Biomass as a source of renewable carbon for iron and steelmaking. ISIJ International, 52(8), 1472-81
  • Pereira, R. C., Muetzel, S., Arbestain, M. C., Bishop, P., Hina, K., & Hedley, M. (2014). Assessment of the influence of biochar on rumen and silage fermentation: A laboratory-scale experiment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 196, 22-31
  • Rakmai, J. (2009). Chemical determinations, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thai wood vinegars. Prince of Songkla University.
  • Rui, Z., Wei, D., Zhibin, Y., Chao, Z., & Xiaojuan, A. (2014). Effects of wood vinegar on the soil microbial characteristics. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(3), 1254-60
  • Skaar, I., & Stenwig, H. (1996). Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(10), 3614-9
  • Steen, R. W. J., Unsworth, E. F., Gracey, H. I., Kennedy, S. J., Anderson, R., & Kilpatrick, D. J. (1989). Evaluation studies in the development of a commercial bacterial inoculant as an additive for grass silage: 3. Responses in growing cattle and interaction with protein supplementation. Grass and Forage Science, 44(4), 381-90
  • Tiilikkala, K., Fagernäs, L., & Tiilikkala, J. (2010). History and use of wood pyrolysis liquids as biocide and plant protection product. Open Agriculture, 4, 111-8
  • Villalba, J. J., Provenza, F. D., & Banner, R. E. (2002). Influence of macronutrients and activated charcoal on intake of sagebrush by sheep and goats. Journal of Animal Science, 80(8), 2099-109
  • Winters, A. L., Fychan, R., & Jones, R. (2001). Effect of formic acid and a bacterial inoculant on the amino acid composition of grass silage and on animal performance. Grass and Forage Science, 56(2), 181-92
  • Woolford, M. K. (1984). The silage fermentation: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
  • Zellagui, S., Schönnenbeck, C., Zouaoui-Mahzoul, N., Leyssens, G., Authier, O., Thunin, E., et al. (2016). Pyrolysis of coal and woody biomass under N2 and CO2 atmospheres using a drop tube furnace-experimental study and kinetic modeling. Fuel, 148, 99-109
  • Zhao, G. Q., Ju, Z. L., Chai, J. K., Jiao, T., Jia, Z. F., Casper, D. P., et al. (2018). Effects of silage additives and varieties on fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of oat silage. Journal of Animal Science, 96(8), 3151-60

The effect of wood vinegar on nutritional value and fermentation of grass silage

Yıl 2020, Cilt 5, Sayı 3, 90 - 95, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.31797/vetbio.753680

Öz

This study was carried out to determine the effects of wood vinegar (WV) used in different concentrations on nutrient composition, fermentation progress and microflora of grass silage. The study material was composed one control (0% WV) and three experimental groups consisting 0.5%, 1% and 2% WV, respectively. Each group was made with four replicates. WV was applied to the grass prepared from the natural meadow of Kafkas University and prepared in the laboratory scale conditions by spray method at the given rates (0.5%, 1% and 2%). The samples were ensiled in 1.0 L anaerobic jars. pH, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber analyses were performed on the samples opened on the 60th day of fermentation. Also, microbiological analyses were performed for lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and mold by the plate count method. As a result of silage trials carried out under laboratory-scale conditions, WV did not affect nutritional values (P>0.05). The highest pH among the treatment groups was observed in the 2% WV added group (P<0.05). While the number of lactic acid bacteria in the WV groups (0.5 and 1%) did not change when compared to the control group (P>0.05), the highest (2%) concentration of WV showed significant antimicrobial activity on lactic acid bacteria (P<0.05). Also, it has been determined that WV may reduce yeast and mold growth compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Kaynakça

  • Chen, Zheng, Z., Fu, K., Zeng, Z., Wang, J., & Lu, M. (2015). Torrefaction of biomass stalk and its effect on the yield and quality of pyrolysis products. Fuel, 159, 27-32
  • Chen, J. (1994). Effects of enzyme-inoculant systems on preservation and nutritive value of haycrop and corn silages. Journal of Dairy Science, 77(2), 501-12 doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)76978-2
  • Driehuis, F., Oude Elferink, S., & Van Wikselaar, P. (2001). Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of grass silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri, with or without homofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Grass and Forage Science, 56(4), 330-43
  • Elferink, S., Driehuis, F., Gottschal, J. C., & Spoelstra, S. F. (2000). Silage fermentation processes and their manipulation. FAO Plant Production and Protection Papers, 17-30
  • Filya, İ. (2001). Silaj teknolojisi. İzmir: Hakan Ofset.
  • Filya, İ. (2003). Organik asitlerin buğday, mısır ve sorgum silajlarının mikrobiyal flora ile aerobik stabiliteleri üzerine etkileri. III. Paper presented at the III. Ulusal Zootekni Bilim Kongresi.
  • Filya, İ., & Sucu, E. (2003). Silajlarda fermantasyon kalitesi ve aerobik stabilitenin geliştirilmesi üzerinde araştırmalar. Paper presented at the GAP III. Tarım Kongresi.
  • Garillo, E., Pradhan, R., & Tobioka, H. (1995). Effects of activated charcoal on growth, ruminal characteristics, blood profiles and feed digestibility in growing sheep. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu Tokai University.
  • Goering, H. K., & Van Soest, P. J. (1970). Forage fiber analysis. Agricultural handbook no. 379. Virginia, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri: U.S. Agricultural Research Service.
  • Gül, S., & Coşkuntuna, L. (2016). Çayır Otu Silajlarına Farklı Katkı Maddesi İlavesinin Silaj Fermantasyonu ve Aerobik Stabilite Üzerine Etkileri.
  • Jalč, D., Lauková, A., Simonová, M., Váradyová, Z., & Homolka, P. (2009). The use of bacterial inoculants for grass silage: their effects on nutrient composition and fermentation parameters in grass silages. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 54(2), 84-91
  • Jatkauskas, J., & Vrotniakiene, V. (2011). The effects of silage inoculants on the fermentation and aerobic stability of legume-grass silage. Žemdirbystė-Agriculture, 98, 367-74
  • Jatkauskas, J., Vrotniakiene, V., Ohlsson, C., & Lund, B. (2013). The effects of three silage inoculants on aerobic stability in grass, clover-grass, lucerne and maize silages. Agriculture and Food Science, 22(1), 137-44
  • Ke, W. C., Ding, W. R., Xu, D. M., Ding, L. M., Zhang, P., Li, F. D., et al. (2017). Effects of addition of malic or citric acids on fermentation quality and chemical characteristics of alfalfa silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(11), 8958-66
  • Kitcherside, M., Glen, E. F., & Webster, A. J. F. (2000). Fibrecap: an improved method for the rapid analysis of fibre in feeding stuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 86(1-2), 125-32
  • Koç, I., Öğün, E., Namlı, A., Mendeş, M., Kutlu, E., & Yardım, E. N. (2019). The effects of wood vinegar on some soil microorganisms. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(2), 2437-47
  • Koç, I., Yardım, E. N., Çelik, A., Mendeş, M., Mirtagİoğlu, H., & Namlı, A. (2018). Fındık kabuklarından elde edilmiş odun sirkesi’nin in-vitro şartlarında küf etmenlerine karşı antifungal etkisinin belirlenmesi. Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 296-300 doi:10.17798/bitlisfen.425809
  • Lee, S. S., Lee, H. J., Paradhipta, D. H. V., Joo, Y. H., Kim, S. B., Kim, D. H., et al. (2019). Temperature and microbial changes of corn silage during aerobic exposure. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 32(7), 988
  • Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Biochar for environmental management. London and New York: Earthscan London.
  • Lindgren, S., Kaspersson, A., Rydberg, E., Lingvall, P., & Kartzow, A. d. (1983). Effect of inoculants, grain and formic acid on silage fermentation. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research (Sweden)
  • McDonald, P., Henderson, A., & Heron, S. (1991). The biochemistry of silage. Marlow, UK: Chalcombe publications.
  • Namli, A., Akça, M. O., Turgay, E. B., & Soba, M. R. (2014). Odun sirkesinin tarımsal kullanım potansiyelinin araştırılması. Toprak Su Dergisi, 3(1), 44-52
  • Norgate, T., Haque, N., Somerville, M., & Jahanshahi, S. (2012). Biomass as a source of renewable carbon for iron and steelmaking. ISIJ International, 52(8), 1472-81
  • Pereira, R. C., Muetzel, S., Arbestain, M. C., Bishop, P., Hina, K., & Hedley, M. (2014). Assessment of the influence of biochar on rumen and silage fermentation: A laboratory-scale experiment. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 196, 22-31
  • Rakmai, J. (2009). Chemical determinations, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thai wood vinegars. Prince of Songkla University.
  • Rui, Z., Wei, D., Zhibin, Y., Chao, Z., & Xiaojuan, A. (2014). Effects of wood vinegar on the soil microbial characteristics. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(3), 1254-60
  • Skaar, I., & Stenwig, H. (1996). Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(10), 3614-9
  • Steen, R. W. J., Unsworth, E. F., Gracey, H. I., Kennedy, S. J., Anderson, R., & Kilpatrick, D. J. (1989). Evaluation studies in the development of a commercial bacterial inoculant as an additive for grass silage: 3. Responses in growing cattle and interaction with protein supplementation. Grass and Forage Science, 44(4), 381-90
  • Tiilikkala, K., Fagernäs, L., & Tiilikkala, J. (2010). History and use of wood pyrolysis liquids as biocide and plant protection product. Open Agriculture, 4, 111-8
  • Villalba, J. J., Provenza, F. D., & Banner, R. E. (2002). Influence of macronutrients and activated charcoal on intake of sagebrush by sheep and goats. Journal of Animal Science, 80(8), 2099-109
  • Winters, A. L., Fychan, R., & Jones, R. (2001). Effect of formic acid and a bacterial inoculant on the amino acid composition of grass silage and on animal performance. Grass and Forage Science, 56(2), 181-92
  • Woolford, M. K. (1984). The silage fermentation: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
  • Zellagui, S., Schönnenbeck, C., Zouaoui-Mahzoul, N., Leyssens, G., Authier, O., Thunin, E., et al. (2016). Pyrolysis of coal and woody biomass under N2 and CO2 atmospheres using a drop tube furnace-experimental study and kinetic modeling. Fuel, 148, 99-109
  • Zhao, G. Q., Ju, Z. L., Chai, J. K., Jiao, T., Jia, Z. F., Casper, D. P., et al. (2018). Effects of silage additives and varieties on fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of oat silage. Journal of Animal Science, 96(8), 3151-60

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Mükremin ÖLMEZ (Sorumlu Yazar)
KAFKAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5003-3383
Türkiye


Fatih BÜYÜK
KAFKAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-3278-4834
Türkiye


Tarkan ŞAHİN
KAFKAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-0155-2707
Türkiye


Eray BÜYÜK Bu kişi benim
KAFKAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2071-8901
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 16 Haziran 2020
Kabul Tarihi 9 Eylül 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 5, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Ölmez, M. , Büyük, F. , Şahin, T. & Büyük, E. (2020). The effect of wood vinegar on nutritional value and fermentation of grass silage . Journal of Advances in VetBio Science and Techniques , 5 (3) , 90-95 . DOI: 10.31797/vetbio.753680

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