Year 2017, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 37 - 42 2017-09-30

Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes

Drew Rykert [1] , Chad Harris [2] , Kent J. Adams [3] , Mark DeBeliso [4]

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The ideal performance state is manifested by psychological and physiological efficiency. The psychological effects of anxiety and self-confidence has been shown to alter the efficiency of performance. This study attempted to identify the state anxiety and self-confidence of high school athletes just prior to a one repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat and determine if the number of spotters affects an athlete’s level of state anxiety and/or self-confidence. Male high school athletes (10th and 11th grades) were randomly separated into two experimental groups who performed the 1-RM back squat (BSQ) with either 1 spotter (1SG: n=52) or 3 spotters (3SG: n=54). Following a dynamic warm-up period and several progressive BSQ warm-up sets, and just prior to attempts at a 1-RM BSQ, the participants completed the revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R). The CSAI-2R included the number of spotters (1 or 3) that would be present during the subsequent 1-RM BSQ attempts. The CSAI-2R is a17-question instrument with three subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety). The subscale scores were compared between the 1SG and 3SG with an independent t-test (alpha≤0.05). None of the subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety) were significantly different between the 1SG and 3SG experimental groups (p>0.05). Within the parameters of this study, the number of spotters present during the execution of the 1-RM BSQ had no practical or statistical impact on self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. Coaches and athletes could use this information in the training environment in order to make best use of personnel (assigned to spotting tasks), physical resources (ex. squat racks), and time management.
CSAI-2, self-confidence, somatic, state anxiety
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Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Original Articles
Authors

Author: Drew Rykert

Author: Chad Harris

Author: Kent J. Adams

Author: Mark DeBeliso
Institution: Southern Utah University
Country: United States


Bibtex @research article { turkjkin330401, journal = {Turkish Journal of Kinesiology}, issn = {}, eissn = {2459-0134}, address = {Nurtekin ERKMEN}, year = {2017}, volume = {3}, pages = {37 - 42}, doi = {}, title = {Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes}, key = {cite}, author = {Rykert, Drew and Harris, Chad and Adams, Kent J. and DeBeliso, Mark} }
APA Rykert, D , Harris, C , Adams, K , DeBeliso, M . (2017). Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes. Turkish Journal of Kinesiology, 3 (3), 37-42. Retrieved from http://dergipark.org.tr/turkjkin/issue/30367/330401?publisher=turkjkin
MLA Rykert, D , Harris, C , Adams, K , DeBeliso, M . "Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes". Turkish Journal of Kinesiology 3 (2017): 37-42 <http://dergipark.org.tr/turkjkin/issue/30367/330401?publisher=turkjkin>
Chicago Rykert, D , Harris, C , Adams, K , DeBeliso, M . "Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes". Turkish Journal of Kinesiology 3 (2017): 37-42
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes AU - Drew Rykert , Chad Harris , Kent J. Adams , Mark DeBeliso Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Turkish Journal of Kinesiology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 37 EP - 42 VL - 3 IS - 3 SN - -2459-0134 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Kinesiology Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes %A Drew Rykert , Chad Harris , Kent J. Adams , Mark DeBeliso %T Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes %D 2017 %J Turkish Journal of Kinesiology %P -2459-0134 %V 3 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Rykert, Drew , Harris, Chad , Adams, Kent J. , DeBeliso, Mark . "Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes". Turkish Journal of Kinesiology 3 / 3 (September 2017): 37-42.