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Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles

Year 2019, Volume , Issue , 0 - 0, 01.01.2019

Abstract

This experiment was aimed at assessing healing processes in juvenile Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fed varying levels of Lactobacillus plantarum (Strain 762) and Psidium guajava (Linneaus) meal. Eighty-four C. gariepinus with mean body weight of 125g were used. Fish were randomly selected in completely randomised design. They were distributed into 21 aquaria of 40L capacity of water. A wound model adopted was a standard 10 mm2 incision made on lateral and caudal regions. Fish were fed using 42% crude protein diet at 0, 40, 60, and 80 of L. plantarum (cells-1000mL) and guava leaf meals (g-1000g) respectively. Wound closures were observed daily for quantitative measurements. Healing rates were measured on the regions at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P<0.05. The results showed a better healing rate at lateral parts across treatments with complete healing recorded on the 12th day. The fastest healing rates and percentage healing were in fish fed LPA-Basal diet+40 cells-1000mLL. plantarum per kg of feed and GMC- Basal diet+ 80 g-1000g guava meal per kg of feed. These results reveal L. plantarum at lower and P. guajava at higher concentrations had faster healing performance than the control. Cite this article as: Ajani, E.K., Emikpe, B.O., Temitope, O.S., Setufe, S.B., 2020. Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles. Acta Vet Eurasia, DOI: 10.5152/actavet.2020.19008

References

  • Abo, A., Olugbuyiro, J.A.O., Famakinde, S.A., 2004. Anti-infective and wound healing properties of Flabellaria paniculata. African Journal of Biomedical Research 7, 85-87. Abramczuk, J., 1972. Effect of formalin fixation on the dry mass of isolated rat liver nuclei. Histochemie 29, 207–12. Adeniyi, O.V., Olaifa F.E., Emikpe B.O., Oyagbemi A.A., 2018. Experimental Evaluation of Wound-healing and Antioxidant Activities of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Pulp and Leaf Meal in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Acta Vet Eurasia 44. 2,1-10. Agaliya, P.J., Jeevaratnam, K., 2013. Molecular characterization of Lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 44.4, 1199-1206. Agyare, C.E., Amuah, M.A., Osei-Asante S., Osei, P.S., 2014. Medicinal plants used for treatment of wounds and skin infections: Assessment of wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of Mallotus oppositifolius and Momordica charantia. International Journal of Phytomedicine 6, 50-58. Akanmu O.A., Emikpe B.O., Omitoyin .B. O., Alao S.O., 2016. Evaluation of the wound healing potential of the diets fortified with Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their combination in Heterobranchus bidorsalis juveniles. Zoology and Ecology 26.4, 323-330. Ammar, I., Bardaa, S., Mzid, M., Sanoun, Z., Rebaii, T., Attia, H., Ennouri. M., 2015. Antioxidants, antibacterial and in vivo dermal wound healing effects of Opuntia flower extracts. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 81, 483-490. Bell, J.J., 2002. Regeneration rates of a sublittoral demosponge. Journal of Marine Biology Association 82, 169–70. Bello, O.S., Emikpe, B.O., Olaifa, A.K., Olaifa, F.E., 2013. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) leaf and onion (Allium cepa) bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 45, 291-297. Bleau, C., Lamontagne, L., Savard. R., 2005. ‘New Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates reduce the release of leptin by murine adipocytes leading to lower interferon-γ production. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 140, 427–35. Boakye, Y.D., Agyare, C., Ayande, G.P., Titiloye, N., Asiamah, E.A., Danquah, K.O., 2018. Assessment of Wound-Healing Properties of Medicinal Plants: The Case of Phyllanthus muellerianus. Frontiers in Pharmacology 9, 945. Brackett, B., Halper, J., 2005. “Culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulates proliferation of embryonic cells”. Experimental Biology and Medicine 230, 494–501. Castillo, S.R., Pohlenz, C., Gatlin, D.M., 2014. Effects of organic acids on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture 433, 6– 12. Chen, K.L., Kho, W.L., You, S.H., Yeh, R.H., Tang, S.W., Hsieh. C.W., 2009. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermented feed on the enhanced growth performance of broilers. Poultry Science 88, 309-315. Dongarra, M.L., Rizzello, V., Muccio, L., Fries, W., Cascio A., Bonaccorsi. I., 2013. Mucosal immunology and probiotics. Current Allergy and Asthma reports 13, 19-26. Gonçalves, F.A., Andrade, N., Bezerra, M.J.N., Macrae, S., Sousa A., Fonteles-Filho, O. V., 2008. Antibacterial activity of guava, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller). Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de SaoPaulo 50, 11-15. Gosain, A., DiPietro, L. A., 2004. Aging and wound healing. World Journal of Surgery 28,321-26. Guerra, R.R., Santos, N.P., Cecarelli, P., Silva, J.R.M.C., Hernandez‐Blazquez, F.J., 2008. Healing of skin wounds in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Journal of fish biology 73.3, 572-583. Gutiérrez, R.M.P., Mitchell S., Solis. R.V., 2008. Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117, 1-27. Junqueira, M.E.P., 2006. Bacterial contamination of the catfish (Cathorops agassizii – Valenciennes, 1839 and Genidens genidens – Agassiz, 1829) sting. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases 12, 22. Kaileh, M., Berghe, W.V., Boone, E., Essawi T., Haegeman. G., 2007. Screening of indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113, 510-16. Kurokawa, T., Suzuki, T., Funakoshi. S., 1993. Purification Of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fibronec-tin and its localization during re-epithelialization at a fin wound. Journal of Fish Biology 43, 421-432. Lahteinen, T. A., Lindholm, T., Renttili, S., Junnikkala. K.R., 2014. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 158, 14-25. Martin, F.M., Dumas, Y., Wang, C., Legido-Quigle, I., Yap H., Tang, S., 2007. “A top-down systems biology view of microbiome-mammalian metabolic interactions in a mouse model”. Molecular Systems Biology Pp, 112. Martins, M.D., Marques, M.M., Bussadori, S.K., Martins, M.A., Pavesi, V.C., Mesquita-Ferrari, R.A., 2009. Comparative analysis between Chamomilla recutita and corticosteroids on wound healing. An in vitro and in vivo study. Phytotherapy Research 23, 274-8. Mbuh, F.A., Asika, U., Doughari, J.H., 2008. Studies on antibacterial activities of leaf extract of Psidium guajava. Biodiversity and Environmental Science in the Tropics 5, 44-47. Nowroozi, I.J., Mirzaii, I.M., Norouzi, M., 2004. “Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria”. Iranian Journal of Public Health 33, 1 -7. Ogbonnia, S.O., Enwuru, N.V., Onyemenem, E.U., Oyedele, G.A., Enwuru, C.A., 2008. Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial profile of Treculia Africana Decne bark extract on gastrointestinal pathogens. African Journal of Biotechnology 10.13, 85-89. Peral, M.C., Rachid, M.M., Gobbato, N.M., Martinez, M.A.H., Valdez. J.C., 2009. Interleukin-8 production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic infected leg ulcers treated with Lactobacillus plantarum. Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 16, 281– 286. Rask, C.I., Adlerberth, A., Berggren, A., Ahren I.L., Wold, A.E., 2013. Differential effect on cellmediated immnunity in human volunteer after intake of different Lactobacilli. Clinical Experimental Immunology and Immunopathology 172, 321-332. Reid G., Bruce, A., 2006. “Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence” World Journal of Urology 24, 28–32. Salvador, R., Toazza, C.S., Moraes, J.R.E., Moraes, F.R., 2012. Inflammatory responses of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus agalactiae: effects of vaccination and yeast diet supplement. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 98. 3, 235-241. SenthiKumar, R.P., Pandey, P.K., Mohanty, S., Kumar. A., Kumar. K., 2013. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 34: 564–73. Setufe, S.B., Ajani, E.K., Emikpe, B.O., Ogunbanwo S.T., 2018. Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus on Diets Fortified with Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava Leaf. Acta Vet Eurasia 44, 105-111. Setufe, S.B., Ajani, E.K., Emikpe, B.O., Ogunbanwo, S.T., 2018. Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Potential of Psidium guajava (Linneaus) Ethanolic and Aqueous Leaf Extracts. Proceedings of 1st Conference of Association of Nigerian Fisheries Scientists, University of Ibadan conference hall. “Science, Innovation and Aquabusiness: A Tripod for Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in Nigeria”175-179. Szynanski, H., Pejcz, J., Jawien, M., Chmielarczyk, A., Strus, M., Heczko. P., 2006. “Treatment of acute infectious characters in infants and children with a mixture of three Lactobacillus rhamnosusstrains a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”Ailment. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23, 247. Umeh, A.U., Olma H.O.A., Igoli. J.O., 2005. Antibacterial screening of local plants using an indicator-based micro dilution technique. African Journal of Traditional medicine 2, 238-43. Weber, C.M., Martindale, M.Q., Tapscott, S.J., Unguez, G.A., 2012. Activation of Pax7-positive cells in a non-contractile tissue contributes to regeneration of myogenic tissues in the electric fish S. macrurus. PLoS ONE 7, 1-11. Weston, S., Halbert, A., Richmond, P., Prescott, S. L., 2005. Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90, 892-97.

Year 2019, Volume , Issue , 0 - 0, 01.01.2019

Abstract

References

  • Abo, A., Olugbuyiro, J.A.O., Famakinde, S.A., 2004. Anti-infective and wound healing properties of Flabellaria paniculata. African Journal of Biomedical Research 7, 85-87. Abramczuk, J., 1972. Effect of formalin fixation on the dry mass of isolated rat liver nuclei. Histochemie 29, 207–12. Adeniyi, O.V., Olaifa F.E., Emikpe B.O., Oyagbemi A.A., 2018. Experimental Evaluation of Wound-healing and Antioxidant Activities of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Pulp and Leaf Meal in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Acta Vet Eurasia 44. 2,1-10. Agaliya, P.J., Jeevaratnam, K., 2013. Molecular characterization of Lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 44.4, 1199-1206. Agyare, C.E., Amuah, M.A., Osei-Asante S., Osei, P.S., 2014. Medicinal plants used for treatment of wounds and skin infections: Assessment of wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of Mallotus oppositifolius and Momordica charantia. International Journal of Phytomedicine 6, 50-58. Akanmu O.A., Emikpe B.O., Omitoyin .B. O., Alao S.O., 2016. Evaluation of the wound healing potential of the diets fortified with Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their combination in Heterobranchus bidorsalis juveniles. Zoology and Ecology 26.4, 323-330. Ammar, I., Bardaa, S., Mzid, M., Sanoun, Z., Rebaii, T., Attia, H., Ennouri. M., 2015. Antioxidants, antibacterial and in vivo dermal wound healing effects of Opuntia flower extracts. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 81, 483-490. Bell, J.J., 2002. Regeneration rates of a sublittoral demosponge. Journal of Marine Biology Association 82, 169–70. Bello, O.S., Emikpe, B.O., Olaifa, A.K., Olaifa, F.E., 2013. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) leaf and onion (Allium cepa) bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 45, 291-297. Bleau, C., Lamontagne, L., Savard. R., 2005. ‘New Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates reduce the release of leptin by murine adipocytes leading to lower interferon-γ production. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 140, 427–35. Boakye, Y.D., Agyare, C., Ayande, G.P., Titiloye, N., Asiamah, E.A., Danquah, K.O., 2018. Assessment of Wound-Healing Properties of Medicinal Plants: The Case of Phyllanthus muellerianus. Frontiers in Pharmacology 9, 945. Brackett, B., Halper, J., 2005. “Culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulates proliferation of embryonic cells”. Experimental Biology and Medicine 230, 494–501. Castillo, S.R., Pohlenz, C., Gatlin, D.M., 2014. Effects of organic acids on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture 433, 6– 12. Chen, K.L., Kho, W.L., You, S.H., Yeh, R.H., Tang, S.W., Hsieh. C.W., 2009. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermented feed on the enhanced growth performance of broilers. Poultry Science 88, 309-315. Dongarra, M.L., Rizzello, V., Muccio, L., Fries, W., Cascio A., Bonaccorsi. I., 2013. Mucosal immunology and probiotics. Current Allergy and Asthma reports 13, 19-26. Gonçalves, F.A., Andrade, N., Bezerra, M.J.N., Macrae, S., Sousa A., Fonteles-Filho, O. V., 2008. Antibacterial activity of guava, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller). Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de SaoPaulo 50, 11-15. Gosain, A., DiPietro, L. A., 2004. Aging and wound healing. World Journal of Surgery 28,321-26. Guerra, R.R., Santos, N.P., Cecarelli, P., Silva, J.R.M.C., Hernandez‐Blazquez, F.J., 2008. Healing of skin wounds in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Journal of fish biology 73.3, 572-583. Gutiérrez, R.M.P., Mitchell S., Solis. R.V., 2008. Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117, 1-27. Junqueira, M.E.P., 2006. Bacterial contamination of the catfish (Cathorops agassizii – Valenciennes, 1839 and Genidens genidens – Agassiz, 1829) sting. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases 12, 22. Kaileh, M., Berghe, W.V., Boone, E., Essawi T., Haegeman. G., 2007. Screening of indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113, 510-16. Kurokawa, T., Suzuki, T., Funakoshi. S., 1993. Purification Of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fibronec-tin and its localization during re-epithelialization at a fin wound. Journal of Fish Biology 43, 421-432. Lahteinen, T. A., Lindholm, T., Renttili, S., Junnikkala. K.R., 2014. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 158, 14-25. Martin, F.M., Dumas, Y., Wang, C., Legido-Quigle, I., Yap H., Tang, S., 2007. “A top-down systems biology view of microbiome-mammalian metabolic interactions in a mouse model”. Molecular Systems Biology Pp, 112. Martins, M.D., Marques, M.M., Bussadori, S.K., Martins, M.A., Pavesi, V.C., Mesquita-Ferrari, R.A., 2009. Comparative analysis between Chamomilla recutita and corticosteroids on wound healing. An in vitro and in vivo study. Phytotherapy Research 23, 274-8. Mbuh, F.A., Asika, U., Doughari, J.H., 2008. Studies on antibacterial activities of leaf extract of Psidium guajava. Biodiversity and Environmental Science in the Tropics 5, 44-47. Nowroozi, I.J., Mirzaii, I.M., Norouzi, M., 2004. “Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria”. Iranian Journal of Public Health 33, 1 -7. Ogbonnia, S.O., Enwuru, N.V., Onyemenem, E.U., Oyedele, G.A., Enwuru, C.A., 2008. Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial profile of Treculia Africana Decne bark extract on gastrointestinal pathogens. African Journal of Biotechnology 10.13, 85-89. Peral, M.C., Rachid, M.M., Gobbato, N.M., Martinez, M.A.H., Valdez. J.C., 2009. Interleukin-8 production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic infected leg ulcers treated with Lactobacillus plantarum. Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 16, 281– 286. Rask, C.I., Adlerberth, A., Berggren, A., Ahren I.L., Wold, A.E., 2013. Differential effect on cellmediated immnunity in human volunteer after intake of different Lactobacilli. Clinical Experimental Immunology and Immunopathology 172, 321-332. Reid G., Bruce, A., 2006. “Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence” World Journal of Urology 24, 28–32. Salvador, R., Toazza, C.S., Moraes, J.R.E., Moraes, F.R., 2012. Inflammatory responses of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus agalactiae: effects of vaccination and yeast diet supplement. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 98. 3, 235-241. SenthiKumar, R.P., Pandey, P.K., Mohanty, S., Kumar. A., Kumar. K., 2013. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 34: 564–73. Setufe, S.B., Ajani, E.K., Emikpe, B.O., Ogunbanwo S.T., 2018. Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus on Diets Fortified with Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava Leaf. Acta Vet Eurasia 44, 105-111. Setufe, S.B., Ajani, E.K., Emikpe, B.O., Ogunbanwo, S.T., 2018. Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Potential of Psidium guajava (Linneaus) Ethanolic and Aqueous Leaf Extracts. Proceedings of 1st Conference of Association of Nigerian Fisheries Scientists, University of Ibadan conference hall. “Science, Innovation and Aquabusiness: A Tripod for Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in Nigeria”175-179. Szynanski, H., Pejcz, J., Jawien, M., Chmielarczyk, A., Strus, M., Heczko. P., 2006. “Treatment of acute infectious characters in infants and children with a mixture of three Lactobacillus rhamnosusstrains a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”Ailment. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23, 247. Umeh, A.U., Olma H.O.A., Igoli. J.O., 2005. Antibacterial screening of local plants using an indicator-based micro dilution technique. African Journal of Traditional medicine 2, 238-43. Weber, C.M., Martindale, M.Q., Tapscott, S.J., Unguez, G.A., 2012. Activation of Pax7-positive cells in a non-contractile tissue contributes to regeneration of myogenic tissues in the electric fish S. macrurus. PLoS ONE 7, 1-11. Weston, S., Halbert, A., Richmond, P., Prescott, S. L., 2005. Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90, 892-97.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary
Journal Section Original Article
Authors

Emmanuel Kolawole AJANİ This is me
Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Andorra


Benjamin Obukowho EMİKPE This is me
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
Andorra


Ogunbanwo Samuel TEMİTOPE This is me
Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Andorra


Seyramsarah Blossom SETUFE This is me
Department of Fisheries and Water Resources, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani-Ghana
Andorra

Publication Date January 1, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume , Issue

Cite

Bibtex @research article { actavet674609, journal = {Acta Veterinaria Eurasia}, issn = {2618-639X}, eissn = {2619-905X}, address = {}, publisher = {İstanbul University-Cerrahpasa}, year = {2019}, pages = {0 - 0}, title = {Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles}, key = {cite}, author = {Ajani, Emmanuel Kolawole and Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho and Temitope, Ogunbanwo Samuel and Setufe, Seyramsarah Blossom} }
APA Ajani, E. K. , Emikpe, B. O. , Temitope, O. S. & Setufe, S. B. (2019). Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles . Acta Veterinaria Eurasia , , 0-0 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/actavet/issue/48090/674609
MLA Ajani, E. K. , Emikpe, B. O. , Temitope, O. S. , Setufe, S. B. "Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles" . Acta Veterinaria Eurasia (2019 ): 0-0 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/actavet/issue/48090/674609>
Chicago Ajani, E. K. , Emikpe, B. O. , Temitope, O. S. , Setufe, S. B. "Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles". Acta Veterinaria Eurasia (2019 ): 0-0
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles AU - Emmanuel Kolawole Ajani , Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe , Ogunbanwo Samuel Temitope , Seyramsarah Blossom Setufe Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Acta Veterinaria Eurasia JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 0 EP - 0 VL - IS - SN - 2618-639X-2619-905X M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Acta Veterinaria Eurasia Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles %A Emmanuel Kolawole Ajani , Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe , Ogunbanwo Samuel Temitope , Seyramsarah Blossom Setufe %T Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles %D 2019 %J Acta Veterinaria Eurasia %P 2618-639X-2619-905X %V %N %R %U
ISNAD Ajani, Emmanuel Kolawole , Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho , Temitope, Ogunbanwo Samuel , Setufe, Seyramsarah Blossom . "Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles". Acta Veterinaria Eurasia / (January 2019): 0-0 .
AMA Ajani E. K. , Emikpe B. O. , Temitope O. S. , Setufe S. B. Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles. Actavet. 2019; 0-0.
Vancouver Ajani E. K. , Emikpe B. O. , Temitope O. S. , Setufe S. B. Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles. Acta Veterinaria Eurasia. 2019; 0-0.
IEEE E. K. Ajani , B. O. Emikpe , O. S. Temitope and S. B. Setufe , "Wound-healing Potentials of Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum and Psidium guajava leaf meal in Clarias gariepinus Juveniles", Acta Veterinaria Eurasia, pp. 0-0, Jan. 2019