Year 2020, Volume 10 , Issue 2, Pages 447 - 485 2020-12-31

Muhtars and Community-Based Disaster Governance
Muhtarlar ve Topluluk-Temelli Afet Yönetişimi

Fahri ÇAKI [1] , Goncagül GÜLTEKİN ÖZBAYRAM [2]


Born as a product of Turkey’s modernization efforts, the institute of muhtarlık is
an indigenous and unique organization that has been able to protect its presence
since 1829 to date. Muhtars (headmen of neighborhood) are elected for a certain
period of time by direct votes of local people, mostly from local people. This leads
them to build closer ties with the local community, to know closely local problems
and needs, and to become a rich source of data on their neighborhoods. With these
characteristics, muhtars have the potential to become important actors in community-
based disaster governance and in its essential stage of preparedness.
But to what extent do muhtars play or are allowed to play this role? Are muhtars
natural partners of governance in terms of disaster preparedness? These questions
constitute the problematic of this paper. The paper aims to examine special status
of community-based disaster management in Turkey within the framework of a
case study of Balikesir, which is one of the provinces where of many natural disaster
risks are felt intensely. In doing so the study is focused on muhtars whose role in
natural disaster governance is generally neglected.
The paper uses data obtained from 50 muhtars using an in-depth interview technique
with a phenomenological methodology. The most important finding is that
due to the tendency of the political elite to ignore and not include local knowledge,
the muhtars are excluded from the disaster preparedness processes and their potential
contribution is limited.
Türkiye’de devletin modernleşme çabalarının bir ürünü olarak doğan ve 1829’dan beri
varlığını bugüne kadar koruyan muhtarlık kurumu yerli ve özgün bir teşkilattır. Muhtarlar,
belli sürelerle çoğunlukla yerel halk içinden doğrudan yerel halkın oylarıyla seçilirler.
Bu durum onları yerel halk ile daha yakın bağlar kurmaya, yerel sorunlar ve ihtiyaçları
yakından bilmeye ve mahalleleri hakkında zengin bir veri kaynağı olmaya sevk eder.
Bu özellikleriyle muhtarlar topluluk temelli afet yönetişiminde ve onun asli bir aşaması
olan hazırbulunuşluk sürecinde önemli aktörler olma potansiyelini taşırlar.
Ancak fiili durumda muhtarlar ne denli bu rolü oynamaktadırlar ya da oynamalarına
olanak sağlanmaktadır? Muhtarlar, afetlere hazırbulunuşluk süreçlerinde yönetişim
ilkesine ne kadar ortaktırlar? Bu sorular bu makalenin problematiğini teşkil etmektedir.
Makale, topluluk temelli doğal afet yönetiminin Türkiye’deki özel durumunu birçok
doğal afet riskinin yoğun hissedildiği illerden biri olan Balıkesir örnek olay incelemesi
çerçevesinde, doğal afet yönetişimindeki rolü genellikle ihmal edilen muhtarlar
üzerinden incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır.
Makale, fenomenolojik bir yöntem anlayışıyla derinlemesine mülakat tekniği kullanılarak
50 muhtardan elde edilen verileri kullanmaktadır. Ulaşılan en önemli bulgu,
politik seçkinlerin yerel bilgiyi önemsememe ve sürece dâhil etmeme eğilimlerinden
dolayı muhtarların afet hazırbulunuşluğu süreçlerinden dışlandıkları ve potansiyel
katkılarının kısıtlandığıdır.
  • KAYNAKÇA Aguirre, B. (2002). “Can Sustainable Development Help Us?” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. 20:111-125.
  • Ainuddin, S., Aldrich, D. P., Routray, J. K., Ainuddin, S., & Achkazai, A. (2013). “The Need for Local Involvement: Decentralization of Disaster Management Institutions in Baluchistan, Pakistan.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 6, 50–58. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.04.001
  • Akpınar, R. (2017). "Halka En Yakın Birim Olan Muhtarlık Müessesesi: İzmir Karşıyaka İlçesinde Nitel Bir Araştırma," Yalova Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Yıl: 8, Sayı: 13, Nisan-Eylül 2017, Ss. 99-110.
  • Akyıldız, A. (2003). “Muhtar,” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi (TDVİA)- Cilt: 31 Bölüm adı:(Muhtar).
  • Alexander, D. (2005). "An Interpretation of Disaster in Terms of Changes in Culture, Society and International Relations", iç. What Is A Dısaster? New Answers to Old Questions, Ronald W. Perry, E.L. Quarantelli (Eds), USA.
  • Arıkboğa, E. (2018). "Mahalle Muhtarlığı ve Muhtarlık-Belediye İlişkileri" iç. Yerel Yönetim ve İyi Yönetişim, Argüden Yönetişim Akademisi Yayınları No: 13, Ss. 19-35.
  • Barton, A. H. (2005). “Disaster and Collective Stress”, iç. WHAT IS A DISASTER? New Answers to Old Questions, Ronald W. Perry, E.L. Quarantelli (Eds), USA.
  • Bayraktar, N. ve Dalyılmaz, N. (2018). “Vulnerability of Elderly People in Dısasters: A Systematıc Revıew”, Turkish Journal of Geriatrics DOI: 10.31086/tjgeri.2018344062. 2018; 21(3):467-482.
  • Beydilli, K, (2002). “İmam, Osmanlı Devleti’nde İmamlık”, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, C. 22, İstanbul.
  • Bodstein, A. ve Barros, A. M. A. (2014). “The Vulnerability of the Elderly in Disasters: The Need for An Effective Resilience Policy,” Ambiente & Sociedade 17(2):157-174.
  • Boin, A. (2005). “From Crisis To Disaster: Towards An Integrative Perspective” iç. WHAT IS A DISASTER? New Answers to Old Questions, Ronald W. Perry, E.L. Quarantelli (Eds), USA.
  • Buckle, P. (2005). “Disaster: Mandated Definitions, Local Knowledge and Complexity” WHAT IS A DISASTER? New Answers to Old Questions, iç. Ronald W. Perry, E.L. Quarantelli (Eds), USA.
  • Bulut, Y. (2001). “Mahalle Muhtarlığı Üzerine Bir Araştırma”, Çağdaş Yerel Yönetimler Dergisi, Cilt. 10, Sayı:3, s.32-51.
  • Cannon, T. (1994). “Vulnerability Analysis and the Explanation of ‘Natural Disasters,” iç. Valley, A.1994 (ed). Disasters, Development and Environment. Chichester: John Willey & Sons Ltd.
  • Çadırcı, M. (1970); “Türkiye’de Muhtarlık Kurulması Üzerine Bir İnceleme”, Belleten, Cilt 34, Sayı 135, ss. 409-420.
  • Emergency Management Australia. (1998). Australian Emergency Manuals Series. Canberra: Emergency Management Australia.
  • Enarson E. (2012). Women Confronting Natural Disaster: from Vulnerability to Resilience. Lynne Rienner Publ. US.
  • Eryılmaz, B. (1997). Yerel Yönetimlerin Yeniden Yapılanması, Bileşik Yay., İstanbul.
  • Escaleras, M. ve Register, C. A. (2012). “Fiscal Decentralization And Natural Hazard Risks.” Public Choice, 151(1), 165–183. doi:10.1007/s11127-010-9740-4
  • Fan, F., Zhang, Y., Yang, Y., Mo, L., ve Liu, X. (2011). “Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Anxiety Among Adolescents Following The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China”, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 44-53.
  • Fritz, C. (1961). “Disaster,” Pp. 651-694, iç. Merton, R. ve Nisbet, R. (Eds.) Contemporary Social Problems. Ny: Harcourt.
  • Garschagen, M. (2015). “Decentralizing Urban Disaster Risk Management in A Centralized System? Agendas, Actors And Contentions in Vietnam.” Habitat International. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.08.030
  • German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). (2002). Disasters: A Challenge for Developing Countries and Development Cooperation: Disaster Risk Management Working Concept: The German Technical Cooperation: http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/02-5001.pdf. (Erişim tarihi: 20 Haziran 2016).
  • Hartog, J. (2014). Disaster Resilience in an Ageing World: How to Make Policies and Programmes Inclusive of Older People. HelpAge International. https://www.unisdr.org/2014/iddr/documents/DisasterResilienceAgeingWorld.pdf
  • Hussain, A., Weisaeth, L., ve Heir, T. (2011). “Changes in Religious Beliefs and the Relation of Religiosity to Posttraumatic Stress and Life Satisfaction after A Natural Disaster”, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 1027-1032.
  • Ile, I., (2009). Managing Intergovernmental Relations: A Case Review of Intergovernmental Relations Systems in Nigeria and South Africa. Saarbrucken:VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG.
  • Kahn, M. E. (2005). “The Death Toll from Natural Disasters: The Role of Income, Geography, and Institutions”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 87(2), 271-284. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/0034653053970339
  • Keskinen-Rosenqvist, R., Michélsen, H., Schulman, A., ve Wahlström, L. (2011). “Physical Symptoms 14 Months After A Natural Disaster in Individuals with or without Injury are Associated with Different Types of Exposure”, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 71, 180-187.
  • Kirschenbaum, A. (2004). “Generic Sources of Disaster Communities: A social Network Approach.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 24 (10/11), 94-129.
  • Meshack, M.V. (2004). Potential and Limitations of Stakeholders’ Participation in Community-based Projects: The Case of Hanna Nassif Roads and Drains Construction and Maintenance. Dar es Salaam, University College of Lands and Architectural Studies.
  • Nick, G.A., Savoia, E., Elqura, L., Crowther, S., Cohen, B., Leary, M., Wright, T., Auerbach, J. Kohn, H. K. (2009). “Emergency Preparedness for Vulnerable Populations: People with Special Health-care Needs” Public Health Rep. 2009, 124(2): 338–343. doi: 10.1177/003335490912400225.
  • Norris, F. 2001. 50,000 Disaster Victims Speak: An Empirical Review of The Empirical Literature. Washington, DC: National Center For Ptsd and The Center For Mental Health Services (Samhsa).
  • Noy, I. ve Yonson, R. (2016). “A Survey of the Theory and Measurement of Economic Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards,” SEF WORKING PAPER 03/2016.
  • Odabaş, Z. Y. (2010). Sürdürülebilir Afet Yönetimi ve Kadın. Ankara Üniversitesi Rektörlüğü Yayınları, No: 256, Ankara.
  • Ortaylı, İ. (1985). Tanzimattan Cumhuriyete Yerel Yönetim Geleneği, Hil Yay., İstanbul.
  • Ortaylı, İ. (1978). Türkiye İdare Tarihi, TODAİE yayınları, Ankara.
  • Palabıyık, H. ve Atak, Ş. (2002). ''Türkiye'de Mahalle Yönetimi'', iç. Avrupa Birliği ile Bütünleşme Sürecinde Türkiye'de Yerel Yönetimler, Alfa Kitabevi, İstanbul.
  • Patterson, O., Weil, F. ve Patel, K., (2009). “The Role of Community in Disaster Response: Conceptual Models,” Popul Res Policy Review. 29, 127-141.
  • Peduzzi, P., Dao, H., Herold, C., ve Mouton, F. (2009). “Assessing Global Exposure And Vulnerability Towards Natural Hazards: the Disaster Risk Index,” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences., 9, 1149–1159, doi:10.5194/nhess-9-1149-2009
  • Pollitt, C. (2005). “Decentralization. A Central Concept in Contemporary Public Management”. İç. E. Ferlie, L. E. Lynn, Jr., & C. Pollitt (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Public Management (ss. 371–397). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Perry, R. W. ve Lindell, M. K. (2003). “Preparedness for Emergency Response: Guidelines for The Emergency Planning Process”, Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
  • Pillay, P. (2001). South Africa in the 21st Century: Key Social Economic Challenges. Johannesburg: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
  • Pincha, C. (2008). Indian Ocean Tsunami Through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India. Mumbai: Earthworm Books.
  • Raschky, P. A. (2008). “Institutions and the Losses from Natural Hazards”, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (8), 627-634. http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/8/627/2008/nhess-8-627-2008.pdf (Erişim: 22 Nisan 2018).
  • Rumbach, A. (2015). “Decentralization and Small Cities: Towards More Effective Urban Disaster Governance?” Habitat International. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.08.026
  • Sahoo, N. (2005). Decentralising Disaster Management. Observer Research Foundation, South Asia Politics, 4:7, 1-9.
  • Scott, Z. ve Tarazona, M. (2011). Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Study on Disaster Risk Reduction, Decentralization and Political Economy, UNDP.
  • Slattery, M. (2008). Sosyolojide Temel Fikirler. Ü. Tatlıcan, G. Demiriz, Dü, Ö. Balkız, H. Harlak, Ü. Tatlıcan, G. Demiriz, C. Özdemir, & Ş. Özkan, (Çev.) İstanbul: Sentez Yayıncılık.
  • Stough, L. (2010). “Children with Disabilities in the Context of Disaster: A Social Vulnerability Perspective”, Child Development, 81(4):1260-70.
  • Sutton, J. ve Tierney, K. (2006). “Disaster Preparedness: Concepts, Guidance, and Research.” Natural Hazards Center Institute of Behavioral Science University of Colorado Boulder, CO http://www.colorado.edu/hazards (Erişim: 22 Nisan 2018).
  • Toya, H., & Skidmore, M. (2013). “Natural Disaster Impacts and Fiscal Decentralization.” https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6350227.pdf (Erişim: 22 Nisan 2018).
  • United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2015). “Strengthening Disaster Risk Governance." https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/crisis%20prevention/disaster/Strengthening%20Disaster%20Risk%20Governance-Full-Report.pdf (Erişim: 22 Nisan 2018).
  • Waters, M. (2008). Modern Sosyoloji Kuramları. (Z. Cirhinlioğlu, Dü.) İstanbul: Gündoğan Yayınları.
  • WHO/EHA. (2002). Disasters & Emergencies Definitions Training Package Who/Eha Panafrican Emergency Training Centre, Addis Ababa Updated March 2002 By Eha.
  • Wolfenstein, M. (1957). Disaster: A Psychological Essay Glencoe, Il: Free Press.
  • www.fema.gov (Erişim: 21 Ocak 2018).
  • http://www.muhtarlarkonfederasyonu.org/il-muhtarlari.html (Erişim: 21 Ekim 2019).
  • https://www.afad.gov.tr/tr/15362/AFAD-okullari-harekete-geciriyor (Erişim: 21 Ağustos 2017).
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Fahri ÇAKI (Primary Author)
Institution: Balıkesir Üniversitesi
Country: Turkey


Author: Goncagül GÜLTEKİN ÖZBAYRAM
Institution: Balıkesir Büyükşehir Belediyesi
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution TÜBİTAK
Project Number 116K208
Thanks Bu makaleye kaynaklık eden 116K208 nolu projeye verdiği destekten dolayı TÜBİTAK'a teşekkür ederiz.
Dates

Publication Date : December 31, 2020

APA Çakı, F , Gülteki̇n Özbayram, G . (2020). Muhtarlar ve Topluluk-Temelli Afet Yönetişimi . Adam Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 10 (2) , 447-485 . DOI: 10.31679/adamakademi.667171