Research Article
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Comparison of Air Transportation Systems of Turkey and Spain as the Competitors in Tourism Sector

Year 2017, Volume: 5 Issue: 2, 120 - 138, 28.12.2017

Abstract

The growth of air transportation in a country affects positively
the development of other industries especially tourism. Turkey
and Spain rank among the top countries in the world with their
most developed air transportation and tourism sectors. In this
study, the similarities and differences of air transportation
systems of both countries and their dependency on tourism are
examined. In this framework, the structure and the development
process of Turkish and Spanish air transportation is revealed,
then the future development trends of air passenger and air
freight demands are estimated by using trend and regression
analyses. Finally, the factors which may accelerate the
development of air transportation and tourism sectors and the
threats against the growth of these sectors are explored. The
analysis results show that the tourism is crucial for the
development of air transportation in both countries.

References

  • Acar, A. Z., & Karabulak, S. (2015). Competition between full service network carriers and low cost carriers in Turkish airline market. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 642 – 651.
  • ACI (2016). Top 30 European Airports 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from https://www.acieurope.org/policy/position-papers.html?view=group&group=1&id=11
  • AENA (2016). Annual Statistics. Retrieved May 15, 2016, from http://www.aena.es/csee/Satellite?pagename=Estadisticas/Home Aerostat (2016). Air Transport Statistics. Retrieved April 8, 2016, from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Air_transport_statistic s
  • ATAG (2014). Aviation Benefits Beyond Borders. Switzerland: Air Transport Action Group. Bieger, T., &Wittmer, A. (2006). Air transport and tourism—Perspectives and challenges for destinations, airlines and governments. Journal of Air Transport Management, 12 (1), 40-46.
  • Çetin, T. (2016). Airline Deregulation in Turkey. Retrieved December 20, 2016, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298370439_Airline_Deregulation_in_T urkey
  • Çetin, T., & Benk, S. (2011). The political economy of regulation in Turkey. In T. Çetin & F. Oğuz (Eds.), Regulation, Deregulation, and Competition in the Turkish Airline Industry. (pp.193-214). London: Springer.
  • DHMI (2016). İstatistikler [Statistics]. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.dhmi.gov.tr/istatistik.aspx
  • Euromonitor International (2016). Air Transport in Spain: ISIC 62, Country Report. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://www.euromonitor.com/air-transport-in-spainisic-62/report Givoni, M. (2006). Development and impact of the modern high-speed train: A review. Transport Reviews, 26 (5), 593–611.
  • IAG (2017). About Us: İberia Profile. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://www.iairgroup.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=240949&p=aboutoverview
  • ICAO (2013). Case Study on Commercialization, Privatization and Economic Oversight of Airports and Air Navigation Services Providers: Turkey. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://www.icao.int/sustainability/CaseStudies/Turkey.pdf
  • INE (2016). INEbase / Demography and Population. Retrieved January 5, 2017, from http://www.ine.es/inebmenu/mnu_cifraspob.htm
  • Intervistas (2015). Economic Impact of European Airports. United Kingdom: InterVISTAS Consulting Ltd.
  • Kozak, M. (2002). Measuring comparative destination performance: A study in Spain and Turkey. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 13 (3), 83-110.
  • Madanoglu, M., Olsen, M.D., & Kwansa, F. A. (2007). The impact of terrorist bombings on the market values of hospitality and tourism enterprises: Global evidence from Turkey, Spain, and Indonesia. Journal of Hospitality Financial Management, 15 (2), 49-60.
  • Merkert, R., Voorde, E. V., & Wit J. (2017). Making or breaking - Key success factors in the air cargo market. Journal of Air Transport Management, 61, 1–5.
  • Ministry of Culture and Tourism (2016). Number of Arriving-Departing Visitors, Foreigners and Citizens. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from https://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN,153018/number-of-arriving-departing-visitorsforeigners-and-ci-.html
  • Ministry of Tourism and Energy (2016). Estadísticas Turísticas. Retrieved December 25, 2016 from http://estadisticas.tourspain.es/es-ES/turismobase/Paginas/default.aspx
  • Oğuztimur, S., & Çolak, K. (2013). The Analysis of Turkey’s Freight Transport In Terms of Transport Modes. 53rd ERSA Congress, Palermo, Italy.
  • Orhan, G., & Gerede E. (2013). A study of the strategic responses of Turkish airline companies to the deregulation in Turkey. Journal of Management Research, 5 (4), 34- 63.
  • Özer, K. O., Latif, H., Sarıışık M., & Ergün Ö. (2012). International competitive advantage of Turkish tourism industry: A comparative analyse of Turkey and Spain by using the diamond model of M. Porter. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 1064-1076.
  • Ozturk, A. B., & Niekerk M. (2014). Volume or value: A policy decision for Turkey׳s tourism industry. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 3 (4), 193-197
  • Rey, M. B. (2003). Structural changes in the Spanish scheduled flights market as a result of air transport deregulation in Europe. Journal of Air Transport Management, 9 (3), 195-200.
  • Saldıraner, Y. (2013). Airport master planning in Turkey; planning and development problems and proposals. Journal of Air Transport Management, 32, 71-77.
  • Scharpenseel, M. F. (2001). Consequences of E.U. airline deregulation in the context of the global aviation market. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 22 (1), 91-116.
  • SHGM (2016). Tarihçe. Retrieved May 15, 2016, from http://web.shgm.gov.tr/tr/kurumsal/1--tarihce
  • Thomas, M. (2015). Transport in Turkey: Major Trends and Issues, European Parliament. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/540362/IPOL_BRI(20 15)540362_EN.pdf
  • TÜİK (2016a). Transportation Statistics. Retrieved December 25, 2016, from http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1051
  • TÜİK (2016b). Turizm İstatistikleri. Retrieved December 25, 2016, from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1072
  • Ülkü, T. (2015). A comparative efficiency analysis of Spanish and Turkish airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 46, 56-68.
  • UNWTO (2016). Tourism Highlights 2016 Edition. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.
  • World Bank (2016). Countries and Economies. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://data.worldbank.org/country/
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (2016a). Economic Impact 2016 Turkey. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://docplayer.net/20979612-Travel-tourism-economicimpact-2016-turkey.html
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (2016b). Economic Impact 2016 Spain. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economicimpact-research/countries-2016/spain2016.pdf
Year 2017, Volume: 5 Issue: 2, 120 - 138, 28.12.2017

Abstract

References

  • Acar, A. Z., & Karabulak, S. (2015). Competition between full service network carriers and low cost carriers in Turkish airline market. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 642 – 651.
  • ACI (2016). Top 30 European Airports 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from https://www.acieurope.org/policy/position-papers.html?view=group&group=1&id=11
  • AENA (2016). Annual Statistics. Retrieved May 15, 2016, from http://www.aena.es/csee/Satellite?pagename=Estadisticas/Home Aerostat (2016). Air Transport Statistics. Retrieved April 8, 2016, from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Air_transport_statistic s
  • ATAG (2014). Aviation Benefits Beyond Borders. Switzerland: Air Transport Action Group. Bieger, T., &Wittmer, A. (2006). Air transport and tourism—Perspectives and challenges for destinations, airlines and governments. Journal of Air Transport Management, 12 (1), 40-46.
  • Çetin, T. (2016). Airline Deregulation in Turkey. Retrieved December 20, 2016, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298370439_Airline_Deregulation_in_T urkey
  • Çetin, T., & Benk, S. (2011). The political economy of regulation in Turkey. In T. Çetin & F. Oğuz (Eds.), Regulation, Deregulation, and Competition in the Turkish Airline Industry. (pp.193-214). London: Springer.
  • DHMI (2016). İstatistikler [Statistics]. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.dhmi.gov.tr/istatistik.aspx
  • Euromonitor International (2016). Air Transport in Spain: ISIC 62, Country Report. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://www.euromonitor.com/air-transport-in-spainisic-62/report Givoni, M. (2006). Development and impact of the modern high-speed train: A review. Transport Reviews, 26 (5), 593–611.
  • IAG (2017). About Us: İberia Profile. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://www.iairgroup.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=240949&p=aboutoverview
  • ICAO (2013). Case Study on Commercialization, Privatization and Economic Oversight of Airports and Air Navigation Services Providers: Turkey. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://www.icao.int/sustainability/CaseStudies/Turkey.pdf
  • INE (2016). INEbase / Demography and Population. Retrieved January 5, 2017, from http://www.ine.es/inebmenu/mnu_cifraspob.htm
  • Intervistas (2015). Economic Impact of European Airports. United Kingdom: InterVISTAS Consulting Ltd.
  • Kozak, M. (2002). Measuring comparative destination performance: A study in Spain and Turkey. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 13 (3), 83-110.
  • Madanoglu, M., Olsen, M.D., & Kwansa, F. A. (2007). The impact of terrorist bombings on the market values of hospitality and tourism enterprises: Global evidence from Turkey, Spain, and Indonesia. Journal of Hospitality Financial Management, 15 (2), 49-60.
  • Merkert, R., Voorde, E. V., & Wit J. (2017). Making or breaking - Key success factors in the air cargo market. Journal of Air Transport Management, 61, 1–5.
  • Ministry of Culture and Tourism (2016). Number of Arriving-Departing Visitors, Foreigners and Citizens. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from https://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN,153018/number-of-arriving-departing-visitorsforeigners-and-ci-.html
  • Ministry of Tourism and Energy (2016). Estadísticas Turísticas. Retrieved December 25, 2016 from http://estadisticas.tourspain.es/es-ES/turismobase/Paginas/default.aspx
  • Oğuztimur, S., & Çolak, K. (2013). The Analysis of Turkey’s Freight Transport In Terms of Transport Modes. 53rd ERSA Congress, Palermo, Italy.
  • Orhan, G., & Gerede E. (2013). A study of the strategic responses of Turkish airline companies to the deregulation in Turkey. Journal of Management Research, 5 (4), 34- 63.
  • Özer, K. O., Latif, H., Sarıışık M., & Ergün Ö. (2012). International competitive advantage of Turkish tourism industry: A comparative analyse of Turkey and Spain by using the diamond model of M. Porter. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 1064-1076.
  • Ozturk, A. B., & Niekerk M. (2014). Volume or value: A policy decision for Turkey׳s tourism industry. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 3 (4), 193-197
  • Rey, M. B. (2003). Structural changes in the Spanish scheduled flights market as a result of air transport deregulation in Europe. Journal of Air Transport Management, 9 (3), 195-200.
  • Saldıraner, Y. (2013). Airport master planning in Turkey; planning and development problems and proposals. Journal of Air Transport Management, 32, 71-77.
  • Scharpenseel, M. F. (2001). Consequences of E.U. airline deregulation in the context of the global aviation market. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 22 (1), 91-116.
  • SHGM (2016). Tarihçe. Retrieved May 15, 2016, from http://web.shgm.gov.tr/tr/kurumsal/1--tarihce
  • Thomas, M. (2015). Transport in Turkey: Major Trends and Issues, European Parliament. Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/540362/IPOL_BRI(20 15)540362_EN.pdf
  • TÜİK (2016a). Transportation Statistics. Retrieved December 25, 2016, from http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1051
  • TÜİK (2016b). Turizm İstatistikleri. Retrieved December 25, 2016, from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1072
  • Ülkü, T. (2015). A comparative efficiency analysis of Spanish and Turkish airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 46, 56-68.
  • UNWTO (2016). Tourism Highlights 2016 Edition. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.
  • World Bank (2016). Countries and Economies. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://data.worldbank.org/country/
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (2016a). Economic Impact 2016 Turkey. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://docplayer.net/20979612-Travel-tourism-economicimpact-2016-turkey.html
  • World Travel and Tourism Council (2016b). Economic Impact 2016 Spain. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economicimpact-research/countries-2016/spain2016.pdf

Details

Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Hakan Oktal

Lucía Rodríguez García This is me

Publication Date December 28, 2017
Submission Date April 4, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017 Volume: 5 Issue: 2

Cite

APA Oktal, H., & García, L. R. (2017). Comparison of Air Transportation Systems of Turkey and Spain as the Competitors in Tourism Sector. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), 5(2), 120-138.


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