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Thailand’s Image from the Perspectives of Chinese Non-Visitors and Visitors

Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, 49 - 75, 01.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.972877

Abstract

This study examined Chinese non-visitors’ and visitors’ perceptions of Thailand as an outbound destination. It employed a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. Data were gathered from 24 Chinese respondents, of which 12 had visited Thailand and 12 had not. Thematic analysis was undertaken. The findings showed that the perceptions of non-visitors and visitors were quite different, mainly due to the types of information sources these people used in their destination image formation process. The non-visitors tended to have positive images, whereas the visitors had more mixed perceptions of Thailand.

References

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  • Ashworth, G., & Kavaratzis, M. (2009). Beyond the logo: Brand management for cities. Journal of Brand Management, 16(8), 520-531. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave. bm.2550133
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  • Kladou, S., & Mavragani, E. (2015). Assessing destination image: An online marketing approach and the case of TripAdvisor. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(3), 187-193. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.04.003
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  • Kong, W. H., Du Cros, H., & Ong, C. E. (2015). Tourism destination image development: A lesson from Macau. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 1(4), 299–316. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-08-2014-0016
  • Kotler, P., & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4), 249-261. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540076
  • Krider, R. E., Arguello, A., Campbell, C., & Mora, J. D. (2010). Trait and image interaction: In ecotourism preference. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 779–801. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.annals.2010.01.009
  • Li, M., Cai, L., Lehto, X., & Huang, J. (2010). A missing link in understanding revisit intention – The role of motivation and image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(4), 335-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2010.481559
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  • Peña, A. I. P., Jamilena, D. M. F., & Molina, M. A. R. (2012). Validation of cognitive image dimensions for rural tourist destinations: A contribution to the management of rural tourist destinations. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(4), 261-73. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1356766712449351
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Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, 49 - 75, 01.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.972877

Abstract

References

  • Afshardoost, M., & Eshaghi, M. S. (2020). Destination image and tourist behavioural intentions: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 81, 104154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman. 2020.104154
  • Agapito, D., Valle, P., & Mendes, J. (2013). The cognitive-affective-conative model of destination image: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2013.803393
  • Ahmad, A., Jamaludin, A., Zuraimi, N. S. M., & Valeri, M. (2020). Visit intention and destination image in post-Covid-19 crisis recovery, Current Issues in Tourism. 24(17), 2392-2397. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1842342
  • Alcocer, N. H., & Ruiz, V. R. L. (2020). The role of destination image in tourist satisfaction: the case of a heritage site. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 33(1), 2444-2461. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2019.1654399
  • Alvarez, M. D., & Campo, S. (2014). The influence of political conflicts on country image and intention to visit: A study of Israel’s image. Tourism Management, 40, 70- 78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.05.009
  • Ashworth, G., & Kavaratzis, M. (2009). Beyond the logo: Brand management for cities. Journal of Brand Management, 16(8), 520-531. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave. bm.2550133
  • Baloglu, S. (1999). A path analytic model of visitation intention involving information sources, socio-psychological motivations, and destination image. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 8(3), 81–91. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v08n03_05
  • Baloglu, S. (2001). Image variations of Turkey by familiarity index: Informational and experiential dimensions. Tourism Management, 22(2), 127-133. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00049-2
  • Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999a). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868–897. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4
  • Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999b). US international pleasure travelers’ images of four Mediterranean destinations: A comparison of visitors and nonvisitors. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2), 144–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759903800207
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https:// doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
  • Carballo, M. M., Araña, J. E., León, C. J., & Moreno-Gil, S. (2015). Economic valuation of tourism destination image. Tourism Economics, 21(4), 741–759. https://doi.org/10. 5367/te.2014.0381
  • Carey, M. (2013). The social work dissertation: Using small-scale qualitative methodology. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.
  • Chen, Z. (2019). A qualitative pilot study exploring tourists’ pre-and post-trip perceptions on the destination image of Macau. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 36(3), 330-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2018.1541777
  • Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.06.007
  • Cifci, I., Atsiz, O., & Gupta, V. (2021). The street food experiences of the local-guided tour in the meal-sharing economy: The case of Bangkok. British Food Journal, 123(12), 4030-4048. https://doi.org/ 10.1108/BFJ-01-2021-0069
  • Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of Tourism Studies, 2(2), 2–12.
  • Emmel, N. (2013). Sampling and choosing cases in qualitative research: A realist approach. London: Sage.
  • Gallarza, M. Saura, G., & García, H. C. (2002). Destination image: Towards a Conceptual Framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 56-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0160-7383(01)00031-7
  • Gartner, W. C., & Hunt, J. D. (1987). An analysis of state image change over a twelve-year period (1971–1983). Journal of Travel Research, 26(2), 15–19. https://doi.org/10. 1177/004728758702600204
  • George, B. P., & George, B. P. (2004). Past visit and the intention to revisit a destination: Place attachment as the mediator and novelty seeking as the moderator. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 15(2), 51–66.
  • Gholamhosseinzadeh, M. S., Chapuis, J., & Lehu, J. (2021). Tourism netnography: how travel bloggers influence destination image. Tourism Recreation Research. https//doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2021.1911274
  • Glover, P. (2009). Celebrity endorsement in tourism advertising: Effects on destination Image. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 16(1), 16-23. https://doi.org/10.1375/jhtm.16.1.16
  • Hernández‐Mogollón, J. M., Duarte, P. A., & Folgado‐Fernández, J. A. (2018). The contribution of cultural events to the formation of the cognitive and affective images of a tourist destination. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 170-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.03.004
  • Henkel, R., Henkel, P., Agrusa, W., Agrusa, J., & Tanner, J. (2006). Thailand as a tourist destination: Perception of International Visitors and Thai residents. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 11(3), 269-287. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10941660600753299
  • Hughes, H. L., & Allen, D. (2008). Visitor and non-visitor images of Central and Eastern Europe: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(1), 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.622
  • Jennings, G. (2011). Tourism research. 2nd ed. Milton, Queensland: John Wiley& Sons. Kasikorn Research Center. (2018). Industry Outlook Analysis. Retrieved June 10, 2021, from https://kasikornresearch.com/ en/ analysis/k-econ/business/Pages/z2925.aspx
  • Kasikorn Research Center. (2019). Industry Outlook Analysis. Retrieved June 10, 2021 from https://kasikornresearch.com/ en/analysis/k-econ/business/Pages/z2963.aspx
  • Kavaratzis, M., & Hatch, M. J. (2013). The dynamics of place brands: An identity-based approach to place branding theory. Marketing Theory, 13(1), 69–86. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1470593112467268
  • Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Factors influencing destination image and visit intention among young women travellers: Role of travel motivation, perceived risks, and travel constraints. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(11), 1139-1155. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2017.1374985
  • Kim, S. (2012). Audience involvement and film tourism experiences: Emotional places, emotional experiences. Tourism Management, 33(2), 387-396. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.04.008
  • Kim, H., & Chen, J. (2016). Destination image formation process: A holistic model. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 22(2), 154-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766715591870
  • Kim, H., & Richardson, S. L. (2003). Motion picture impacts on destination images. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 216–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00062-2
  • Kladou, S., & Mavragani, E. (2015). Assessing destination image: An online marketing approach and the case of TripAdvisor. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(3), 187-193. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.04.003
  • Konecnik, M., & Ruzzier, M. (2006). The influence of previous visitation on customer’s evaluation of a tourism destination. Managing Global Transitions, 4(2), 145-165.
  • Kong, W. H., Du Cros, H., & Ong, C. E. (2015). Tourism destination image development: A lesson from Macau. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 1(4), 299–316. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-08-2014-0016
  • Kotler, P., & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4), 249-261. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540076
  • Krider, R. E., Arguello, A., Campbell, C., & Mora, J. D. (2010). Trait and image interaction: In ecotourism preference. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 779–801. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.annals.2010.01.009
  • Li, M., Cai, L., Lehto, X., & Huang, J. (2010). A missing link in understanding revisit intention – The role of motivation and image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(4), 335-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2010.481559
  • Magnusson, P, Krishnan, V, Westjohn, S. A., & Zdravkovic, S. (2014). The spillover effects of prototype brand transgressions on country image and related brands. Journal of International Marketing, 22(1), 21-38. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.13.0068
  • Martín, H. S., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. A. (2008). Exploring the cognitive-affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29(2), 263-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.012
  • Michael, N., James, R., & Michael, I. (2018). Australia’s cognitive, affective and conative destination image: An Emirati tourist perspective. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 9(1), 36-59. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-06-2016-0056
  • National Statistical Office. (2021). Tourism and Sport Branch. Retrieved June 24, 2021, from http://statbbi.nso.go.th/ staticreport/page/sector/en/17.aspx
  • Pan, S., & Tsang, N. (2014). Inducible or not—A telltale from two movies. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 31(3), 397–416. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2014. 883345
  • Papadimitriou, D., Apostolopoulou, A., & Kaplanidou, K. (2015). Destination personality, affective image, and behavioural intentions in domestic urban tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 54(3), 302-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287513516389
  • Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. London: Sage.
  • Peña, A. I. P., Jamilena, D. M. F., & Molina, M. A. R. (2012). Validation of cognitive image dimensions for rural tourist destinations: A contribution to the management of rural tourist destinations. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(4), 261-73. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1356766712449351
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Raweewan PROYRUNGROJ (Primary Author)
Woosong University
0000-0002-3904-9827
South Korea

Supporting Institution Woosong University
Publication Date March 1, 2022
Application Date July 18, 2021
Acceptance Date November 29, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

APA Proyrungroj, R. (2022). Thailand’s Image from the Perspectives of Chinese Non-Visitors and Visitors . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) , 10 (1) , 49-75 . DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.972877


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