The clinical syndrome that prevents individuals from living a functional and independent life due to impairments in various cognitive areas is called dementia. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is very common worldwide and mortality rates due to Alzheimer's disease are very high. Age is the most important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In addition to the medical history, laboratory tests and physical examination for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; brain imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and electroencephalography are used. Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized histopathologically by the presence of amyloid-β peptides in extracellular senile plaques and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Trace elements are associated with the formation of amyloid-β plaques and play an important role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
It is thought that the deterioration in metal homeostasis may be a cause of Alzheimer's disease. It was determined that amyloid-β misfolding was significantly affected by the presence of metals both in and around the established Alzheimer's disease plaques. The presence of copper, iron, and zinc in amyloid-β clusters has been recently associated with neurotoxicity. In addition, it has been shown that the redox activity of metal ions can trigger cellular cascades that leads to the production of reactive oxygen species. Studies have shown that restoring the proper metal ion balance in the brain can stop amyloid-β aggregation, break up amyloid plaques, and slow down the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
In this review study, the effect of metal ions on Alzheimer's disease is discussed in the light of current studies in the literature.