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Adverse drug reactions with antidepressants drugs: Significance of pharmacovigilance in depression pharmacotherapy

Year 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, 151 - 159, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.17827/aktd.1112770

Abstract

Depression is a major public health psychiatric problem that affects people all over the world, with a high lifetime incidence and severe disability. Depending on the severity and pattern of depression episodes over time, antidepressant (ADs) medication may be advised as one of the therapeutic methods. On the other hand, ADs medication may have adverse drug reactions (ADRs). ADRs reduce people's quality of life, which leads to poor adherence to ADs, longer hospital stays, higher healthcare costs, poor therapeutic outcomes, physical morbidity, stigma and also death in the worst-case scenario. Psychiatrists must be familiar with the procedures for identifying and reporting ADRs, especially those that are new or unknown. Pharmacovigilance is a medical discipline based on these processes. Pharmacovigilance is not a "specialist" activity; it is a requirement for all those involved in the care of patients on medications, including doctors, nurses, and pharmacists and paramedical staff. This narrative review paper provides an overview of depression, ADs, Antidepressant-related ADRs, and the significance of pharmacovigilance. Articles were found using PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and DergiPark databases. Firstly, we examined the title, then the abstract and finally the entire study. Depression appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing ADRs. Various ADRs are associated with ADs as per previously published literature. This review emphasizes the implementation of the pharmacovigilance system and the importance of monitoring ADRs in psychiatric depressive patients regularly by all healthcare professionals.

References

  • 1. Akhtar M. A common mental health disorder. This topic choice ground of Pakistan and try clear the women and my country with others. European Psychiatry. 2016;33(S1):S291-S291.
  • 2. Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N. Depression in patients with cardiac disease: a practical review. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2000;48(4-5):379-391.
  • 3. World Health Organization (WHO). The global burden of disease: 2004 update: World Health Organization 2008.
  • 4. Smith K, De Torres I. A world of depression. Nature. 2014;515(181):10.1038.
  • 5. World Health Organization (WHO) The World Health Report 2001: Mental health: new understanding, new hope. 2001.
  • 6. World Health Organization (WHO). Live life: an implementation guide for suicide prevention in countries. 2021.
  • 7. Thornicroft G, Alem A, Dos Santos RA, et al. WPA guidance on steps, obstacles and mistakes to avoid in the implementation of community mental health care. World Psychiatry. 2010;9(2):67.
  • 8. Baddeley JL, Pennebaker JW, Beevers CG. Everyday social behavior during a major depressive episode. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2013;4(4):445-452.
  • 9. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Pessin H, et al. Depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death in terminally ill patients with cancer. Jama. 2000;284(22):2907-2911.
  • 10. Sackeim HA. The definition and meaning of treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2001;62:10-17.
  • 11. Southwick SM, Charney DS. The science of resilience: implications for the prevention and treatment of depression. Science. 2012;338(6103):79-82.
  • 12. Durlak JA, Wells AM. Evaluation of indicated preventive intervention (secondary prevention) mental health programs for children and adolescents. American journal of community psychology. 1998;26(5):775-802.
  • 13. Domhardt M, Baumeister H. Psychotherapy of adjustment disorders: current state and future directions. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 2018;19(sup1):S21-S35.
  • 14. Winokur A, Gary KA, Rodner S, et al. Depression, sleep physiology, and antidepressant drugs. Depression and anxiety. 2001;14(1):19-28.
  • 15. Ferguson JM. SSRI Antidepressant Medications: Adverse Effects and Tolerability. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;3(1):22-27.
  • 16. Wen SW, Yang Q, Garner P, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005;193(6):S36.
  • 17. Shelton RC. Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2019;250:145-180.
  • 18. Chamberlain SR, Baldwin DS. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in psychiatric practice: how to use them safely and effectively. CNS drugs. 2021;35(7):703-716.
  • 19. Češková E, Šedová M, Kellnerová R, et al. Once-a-day trazodone in the treatment of depression in routine clinical practice. Pharmacology. 2018;102(3-4):206-212.
  • 20. Aubin H-J. Tolerability and safety of sustained-release bupropion in the management of smoking cessation. Drugs. 2002;62(2):45-52.
  • 21. Biswas PN, Wilton LV, Shakir SA. The pharmacovigilance of mirtazapine: results of a prescription event monitoring study on 13 554 patients in England. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2003;17(1):121-126.
  • 22. Ramachandraih CT, Subramanyam N, Bar KJ, et al. Antidepressants: from MAOIs to SSRIs and more. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2011;53(2):180.
  • 23. Celikyurt IK, Mutlu O, Ulak G. Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Effects of Antidepressants: IntechOpen 2012.
  • 24. Kent JM. SNaRIs, NaSSAs, and NaRIs: new agents for the treatment of depression. The Lancet. 2000;355(9207):911-918.
  • 25. Anderson IM. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of affective disorders. 2000;58(1):19-36.
  • 26. Ryckmans T, Balançon L, Berton O, et al. First dual NK1 antagonists–serotonin reuptake inhibitors: synthesis and SAR of a new class of potential antidepressants. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2002;12(2):261-264.
  • 27. Sockol LE. A systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for treating and preventing perinatal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015;177:7-21.
  • 28. Sundaran S, Udayan A, Hareendranath K, et al. Study on the classification, causality, preventability and severity of adverse drug reaction using spontaneous reporting system in hospitalized patients. Pharmacy. 2018;6(4):108.
  • 29. Antidepressant-related ADRs common in patients with MDD. Reactions Weekly. 2022;1891(1):5-5.
  • 30. Solanke B, Mahatme MS, Dakhale G, et al. Adverse drug reaction profile at psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary referral centre in Central India. 2013.
  • 31. Patel TK, Bhabhor PH, Desai N, et al. Adverse drug reactions in a psychiatric department of tertiary care teaching hospital in India: analysis of spontaneously reported cases. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2015;17:42-49.
  • 32. Haddad PM. Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndromes. Drug Safety. 2001;24(3):183-197.
  • 33. Alper K, Schwartz KA, Kolts RL, et al. Seizure incidence in psychopharmacological clinical trials: an analysis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) summary basis of approval reports. Biological psychiatry. 2007;62(4):345-354.
  • 34. Specchio LM, Iudice A, Specchio N, et al. Citalopram as treatment of depression in patients with epilepsy. Clinical neuropharmacology. 2004;27(3):133-136.
  • 35. Kumlien E, Lundberg PO. Seizure risk associated with neuroactive drugs: data from the WHO adverse drug reactions database. Seizure. 2010;19(2):69-73.
  • 36. Taylor D, Paton C, Kapur S. Prescribing guidelines: Informa healthcare 2009.
  • 37. Baldessarini RJ. Drug therapy of depression and anxiety disorders. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics Edited by Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL New York, McGraw-Hill. 2006:429-460.
  • 38. Thai V, Fainsinger RL. Chapter 7 - Pain. In Emanuel LL, Librach SL, (Eds). Palliative Care (Second Edition). Saint Louis: W.B. Saunders 2011:95-114.
  • 39. Whiskey E, Taylor D. A review of the adverse effects and safety of noradrenergic antidepressants. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(8):732-739.
  • 40. Dvir Y, Smallwood P. Serotonin syndrome: a complex but easily avoidable condition. General hospital psychiatry. 2008;30(3):284-287.
  • 41. Giroud C, Horisberger B, Eap C, et al. Death following acute poisoning by moclobemide. Forensic science international. 2004;140(1):101-107.
  • 42. Montastruc F, Sommet A, Bondon-Guitton E, et al. The importance of drug–drug interactions as a cause of adverse drug reactions: a pharmacovigilance study of serotoninergic reuptake inhibitors in France. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012;68(5):767-775.
  • 43. Eizadi-Mood N, Aboofazeli E, Hajhashemi V, et al. Effect of intravenous midazolam on cardiac parameters in acute tricyclic antidepressants poisoning. ARYA Atheroscler. 2016;12(4):195-200.
  • 44. Frölich MA, Arabshahi A, Katholi C, et al. Hemodynamic characteristics of midazolam, propofol, and dexmedetomidine in healthy volunteers. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2011;23(3):218-223.
  • 45. Lahon K, Shetty HM, Paramel A, et al. A retrospective study of the metabolic adverse effects of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers in the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in south India. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases. 2012;2(3):237.
  • 46. Hudson TJ, Fortney JC, Pyne JM, et al. Reduction of patient-reported antidepressant side effects, by type of collaborative care. Psychiatric Services. 2015;66(3):272-278.
  • 47. Rajkumar RP, Melvin G. Pharmacovigilance for psychiatrists: An introduction. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2014;56(2):176.
  • 48. Ionescu DF, Rosenbaum JF, Alpert JE. Pharmacological approaches to the challenge of treatment-resistant depression. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2022.
  • 49. Wolff J, Hefner G, Normann C, et al. Polypharmacy and the risk of drug–drug interactions and potentially inappropriate medications in hospital psychiatry. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2021;30(9):1258-1268.
  • 50. Ambwani S, Dutta S, Mishra G, et al. Adverse Drug Reactions Associated With Drugs Prescribed in Psychiatry: A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Cureus. 2021;13(11).
  • 51. Akici A, Oktay S. Rational pharmacotherapy and pharmacovigilance. Current drug safety. 2007;2(1):65-69.
  • 52. Hakkarainen KM, Hedna K, Petzold M, et al. Percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions and preventability of adverse drug reactions–a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2012;7(3):e33236.
  • 53. Sridhar SB, Al-Thamer SSF, Jabbar R. Monitoring of adverse drug reactions in psychiatry outpatient department of a Secondary Care Hospital of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy. 2016;7(3):80.
  • 54. Nairn J, Ostendorf B, Bi P. Performance of excess heat factor severity as a global heatwave health impact index. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(11):2494. 55. Sankhi S, Marasine NR, Sankhi S, et al. Adverse Drug Reaction due to Antidepressants among Patients with Depression in a Private Psychiatric Hospital of Nepal. BioMed Research International. 2020;2020.
  • 56. Khan Z, Karatas Y, Martins MAP, et al. Knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting among healthcare professionals in Turkey: a systematic review. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2022;38(1):145-154.
  • 57. MiShra S, Swain TR, Mohanty M. Adverse drug reaction monitoring of antidepressants in the psychiatry outpatients department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2013;7(6):1131.
  • 58. Watanabe Y, Hirano Y, Asami Y, et al. A unique database for gathering data from a mobile app and medical prescription software: a useful data source to collect and analyse patient-reported outcomes of depression and anxiety symptoms. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 2017;21(4):318-321.
  • 59. Revet A, Montastruc F, Roussin A, et al. Antidepressants and movement disorders: a postmarketing study in the world pharmacovigilance database. BMC psychiatry. 2020;20(1):1-13.

Antidepresan ilaçlarla advers ilaç reaksiyonları: Depresyon farmakoterapisinde farmakovijilansın önemi

Year 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, 151 - 159, 30.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.17827/aktd.1112770

Abstract

Depresyon, tüm dünyadaki insanları etkileyen, yaşam boyu insidansı yüksek ve ağır hastalık gösterebilen, önemli bir halk sağlığı psikiyatrik sorunudur. Zaman içerisinde depresyon ataklarının ciddiyetine ve ataklarına bağlı olarak, antidepresan ilaçları terapötik yöntemlerden biri olarak önerilmektedir. Öte yandan, antidepresan ilaçları advers ilaç reaksiyonlarına (AIR'ler) yol açabilir. AIR'ler insanların yaşam kalitesini düşürür, bu da antidepresanları kullanma isteksizliği, hastalıkta dalgalanmalara, hastanede kalma süresinin uzamasına, daha yüksek sağlık maliyetlerine, yeterli olmayan terapötik sonuçlara, fiziksel morbiditeye ve en kötü senaryoda ölüme neden olabilecektir. Psikiyatristler, özellikle de yeni veya bilinmeyen AIR’ları tanımlama ve bildirme prosedürlerine aşina olmalıdır. Farmakovijilans, bu süreçlere dayalı bir tıp disiplindir. Farmakovijilans bir 'uzmanlık' faaliyeti değildir; doktorlar, hemşireler, eczacılar ve paramedik sağlık personeli de dahil olmak üzere ilaç kullanan hastaların bakımıyla ilgilenen herkes için bir gerekliliktir. Bu anlatı derleme makalesi, depresyon, antidepresanlar, antidepresanla ilişkili AIR'ler ve farmakovijilansın önemi hakkında genel bir bakış sunmaktadır. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, MEDLINE ve DergiPark veri tabanları kullanılarak makalelere ulaşılmıştır. Önce başlığı, sonra özeti ve son olarak da tüm çalışmayı inceledik. Depresyon, AIR gelişme riskinin artmasıyla ilişkili olduğu görünmektedir. Çeşitli AIR'ler, daha önce yayınlanmış literatüre göre antidepresanlarla ilişkilendirilmiştir. Bu derlemede, farmakovijilans sisteminin uygulanması ve psikiyatrik depresif hastalarda AIR'lerin tüm sağlık çalışanları tarafından düzenli olarak izlenmesinin önemi vurgulanmaktadır.

References

  • 1. Akhtar M. A common mental health disorder. This topic choice ground of Pakistan and try clear the women and my country with others. European Psychiatry. 2016;33(S1):S291-S291.
  • 2. Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N. Depression in patients with cardiac disease: a practical review. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2000;48(4-5):379-391.
  • 3. World Health Organization (WHO). The global burden of disease: 2004 update: World Health Organization 2008.
  • 4. Smith K, De Torres I. A world of depression. Nature. 2014;515(181):10.1038.
  • 5. World Health Organization (WHO) The World Health Report 2001: Mental health: new understanding, new hope. 2001.
  • 6. World Health Organization (WHO). Live life: an implementation guide for suicide prevention in countries. 2021.
  • 7. Thornicroft G, Alem A, Dos Santos RA, et al. WPA guidance on steps, obstacles and mistakes to avoid in the implementation of community mental health care. World Psychiatry. 2010;9(2):67.
  • 8. Baddeley JL, Pennebaker JW, Beevers CG. Everyday social behavior during a major depressive episode. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2013;4(4):445-452.
  • 9. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Pessin H, et al. Depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death in terminally ill patients with cancer. Jama. 2000;284(22):2907-2911.
  • 10. Sackeim HA. The definition and meaning of treatment-resistant depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2001;62:10-17.
  • 11. Southwick SM, Charney DS. The science of resilience: implications for the prevention and treatment of depression. Science. 2012;338(6103):79-82.
  • 12. Durlak JA, Wells AM. Evaluation of indicated preventive intervention (secondary prevention) mental health programs for children and adolescents. American journal of community psychology. 1998;26(5):775-802.
  • 13. Domhardt M, Baumeister H. Psychotherapy of adjustment disorders: current state and future directions. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 2018;19(sup1):S21-S35.
  • 14. Winokur A, Gary KA, Rodner S, et al. Depression, sleep physiology, and antidepressant drugs. Depression and anxiety. 2001;14(1):19-28.
  • 15. Ferguson JM. SSRI Antidepressant Medications: Adverse Effects and Tolerability. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;3(1):22-27.
  • 16. Wen SW, Yang Q, Garner P, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIS) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005;193(6):S36.
  • 17. Shelton RC. Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2019;250:145-180.
  • 18. Chamberlain SR, Baldwin DS. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in psychiatric practice: how to use them safely and effectively. CNS drugs. 2021;35(7):703-716.
  • 19. Češková E, Šedová M, Kellnerová R, et al. Once-a-day trazodone in the treatment of depression in routine clinical practice. Pharmacology. 2018;102(3-4):206-212.
  • 20. Aubin H-J. Tolerability and safety of sustained-release bupropion in the management of smoking cessation. Drugs. 2002;62(2):45-52.
  • 21. Biswas PN, Wilton LV, Shakir SA. The pharmacovigilance of mirtazapine: results of a prescription event monitoring study on 13 554 patients in England. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2003;17(1):121-126.
  • 22. Ramachandraih CT, Subramanyam N, Bar KJ, et al. Antidepressants: from MAOIs to SSRIs and more. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2011;53(2):180.
  • 23. Celikyurt IK, Mutlu O, Ulak G. Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Effects of Antidepressants: IntechOpen 2012.
  • 24. Kent JM. SNaRIs, NaSSAs, and NaRIs: new agents for the treatment of depression. The Lancet. 2000;355(9207):911-918.
  • 25. Anderson IM. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Journal of affective disorders. 2000;58(1):19-36.
  • 26. Ryckmans T, Balançon L, Berton O, et al. First dual NK1 antagonists–serotonin reuptake inhibitors: synthesis and SAR of a new class of potential antidepressants. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2002;12(2):261-264.
  • 27. Sockol LE. A systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for treating and preventing perinatal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015;177:7-21.
  • 28. Sundaran S, Udayan A, Hareendranath K, et al. Study on the classification, causality, preventability and severity of adverse drug reaction using spontaneous reporting system in hospitalized patients. Pharmacy. 2018;6(4):108.
  • 29. Antidepressant-related ADRs common in patients with MDD. Reactions Weekly. 2022;1891(1):5-5.
  • 30. Solanke B, Mahatme MS, Dakhale G, et al. Adverse drug reaction profile at psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary referral centre in Central India. 2013.
  • 31. Patel TK, Bhabhor PH, Desai N, et al. Adverse drug reactions in a psychiatric department of tertiary care teaching hospital in India: analysis of spontaneously reported cases. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2015;17:42-49.
  • 32. Haddad PM. Antidepressant Discontinuation Syndromes. Drug Safety. 2001;24(3):183-197.
  • 33. Alper K, Schwartz KA, Kolts RL, et al. Seizure incidence in psychopharmacological clinical trials: an analysis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) summary basis of approval reports. Biological psychiatry. 2007;62(4):345-354.
  • 34. Specchio LM, Iudice A, Specchio N, et al. Citalopram as treatment of depression in patients with epilepsy. Clinical neuropharmacology. 2004;27(3):133-136.
  • 35. Kumlien E, Lundberg PO. Seizure risk associated with neuroactive drugs: data from the WHO adverse drug reactions database. Seizure. 2010;19(2):69-73.
  • 36. Taylor D, Paton C, Kapur S. Prescribing guidelines: Informa healthcare 2009.
  • 37. Baldessarini RJ. Drug therapy of depression and anxiety disorders. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics Edited by Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL New York, McGraw-Hill. 2006:429-460.
  • 38. Thai V, Fainsinger RL. Chapter 7 - Pain. In Emanuel LL, Librach SL, (Eds). Palliative Care (Second Edition). Saint Louis: W.B. Saunders 2011:95-114.
  • 39. Whiskey E, Taylor D. A review of the adverse effects and safety of noradrenergic antidepressants. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(8):732-739.
  • 40. Dvir Y, Smallwood P. Serotonin syndrome: a complex but easily avoidable condition. General hospital psychiatry. 2008;30(3):284-287.
  • 41. Giroud C, Horisberger B, Eap C, et al. Death following acute poisoning by moclobemide. Forensic science international. 2004;140(1):101-107.
  • 42. Montastruc F, Sommet A, Bondon-Guitton E, et al. The importance of drug–drug interactions as a cause of adverse drug reactions: a pharmacovigilance study of serotoninergic reuptake inhibitors in France. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012;68(5):767-775.
  • 43. Eizadi-Mood N, Aboofazeli E, Hajhashemi V, et al. Effect of intravenous midazolam on cardiac parameters in acute tricyclic antidepressants poisoning. ARYA Atheroscler. 2016;12(4):195-200.
  • 44. Frölich MA, Arabshahi A, Katholi C, et al. Hemodynamic characteristics of midazolam, propofol, and dexmedetomidine in healthy volunteers. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2011;23(3):218-223.
  • 45. Lahon K, Shetty HM, Paramel A, et al. A retrospective study of the metabolic adverse effects of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers in the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in south India. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases. 2012;2(3):237.
  • 46. Hudson TJ, Fortney JC, Pyne JM, et al. Reduction of patient-reported antidepressant side effects, by type of collaborative care. Psychiatric Services. 2015;66(3):272-278.
  • 47. Rajkumar RP, Melvin G. Pharmacovigilance for psychiatrists: An introduction. Indian journal of psychiatry. 2014;56(2):176.
  • 48. Ionescu DF, Rosenbaum JF, Alpert JE. Pharmacological approaches to the challenge of treatment-resistant depression. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2022.
  • 49. Wolff J, Hefner G, Normann C, et al. Polypharmacy and the risk of drug–drug interactions and potentially inappropriate medications in hospital psychiatry. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2021;30(9):1258-1268.
  • 50. Ambwani S, Dutta S, Mishra G, et al. Adverse Drug Reactions Associated With Drugs Prescribed in Psychiatry: A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Cureus. 2021;13(11).
  • 51. Akici A, Oktay S. Rational pharmacotherapy and pharmacovigilance. Current drug safety. 2007;2(1):65-69.
  • 52. Hakkarainen KM, Hedna K, Petzold M, et al. Percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions and preventability of adverse drug reactions–a meta-analysis. PloS one. 2012;7(3):e33236.
  • 53. Sridhar SB, Al-Thamer SSF, Jabbar R. Monitoring of adverse drug reactions in psychiatry outpatient department of a Secondary Care Hospital of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy. 2016;7(3):80.
  • 54. Nairn J, Ostendorf B, Bi P. Performance of excess heat factor severity as a global heatwave health impact index. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(11):2494. 55. Sankhi S, Marasine NR, Sankhi S, et al. Adverse Drug Reaction due to Antidepressants among Patients with Depression in a Private Psychiatric Hospital of Nepal. BioMed Research International. 2020;2020.
  • 56. Khan Z, Karatas Y, Martins MAP, et al. Knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers towards pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting among healthcare professionals in Turkey: a systematic review. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2022;38(1):145-154.
  • 57. MiShra S, Swain TR, Mohanty M. Adverse drug reaction monitoring of antidepressants in the psychiatry outpatients department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2013;7(6):1131.
  • 58. Watanabe Y, Hirano Y, Asami Y, et al. A unique database for gathering data from a mobile app and medical prescription software: a useful data source to collect and analyse patient-reported outcomes of depression and anxiety symptoms. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. 2017;21(4):318-321.
  • 59. Revet A, Montastruc F, Roussin A, et al. Antidepressants and movement disorders: a postmarketing study in the world pharmacovigilance database. BMC psychiatry. 2020;20(1):1-13.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Review
Authors

Yusuf KARATAŞ>
CUKUROVA UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-2892-5625
Türkiye


Zakir KHAN> (Primary Author)
Cukurova University
0000-0003-1365-548X
Türkiye


Faiz Ullah KHAN>
Xi’an Jiaotong University
0000-0002-1022-8688
China

Publication Date September 30, 2022
Acceptance Date August 15, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3

Cite

AMA Karataş Y. , Khan Z. , Khan F. U. Adverse drug reactions with antidepressants drugs: Significance of pharmacovigilance in depression pharmacotherapy. aktd. 2022; 31(3): 151-159.