Year 2019, Volume 2 , Issue 1, Pages 52 - 66 2019-06-24

The Evaluation of the Miles that were Factories of the Middle Age in the East-West Axis
Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi

Pınar ÜLGEN [1]


The Middle Ages, both the mystery and the scientific technological background that housed it is an important transition age. In this period, there have been important developments in both the East and the Western world. It is even thought that the first industrial revolution took place in the middle Ages. One of the area’s leading the industrial revolution is the developments in the field of energy. As is known, science and technology have caused important developments and changes that will affect world history in the century that we live. The technology that affects life all over the world has begun to solve many problems of the increasing world population. This situation is a turning point for both the East and the Western world. The development of technology, which has a major role in reaching the present level of civilization in the world, has also been fast, although it has been based on old times. The needs and conditions of that period are of great importance in the acceleration of this development.

The top of the technological developments related to energy resources are mills. If we diversify, water mills are the most used. This technology is a good example of engineering.

The Romans had begun to use the water wheels seriously. In the following period, Roman engineers developed these mills further. They were also used in different fields such as mills, beating mines, blowing bellows.

In this case, the direction of the force had to be changed. Generally, water energy had a significant impact on the middle Ages society and economy. However, hydraulic engineering in the Near East is more developed than in Europe; but the water wheel did not play a more important role than in Europe.

The reason is that it needs long flowing rivers. However, these mills began to be seen as a kind of mechanical slaves or robots that served their masters. Water power, as it is understood, was of great importance both in the Near East and in Europe.

Providing the opportunity to benefit from water power in the middle Ages in such areas has enabled the development of industry and trade in parallel. The mills had a characteristic that influenced the economy both in the Near East and in Europe. In time, the Muslim influence in Europe was reflected in modern Spain.

Because of this, many words related to agriculture and irrigation are of Arab origin. In this case, we are attracting our attention to the large irrigation systems that provide more technological and sociological interest in Near East. Another mill type is windmills.

Windmills are the principal origin of the mills. Fernand Braudel calls these mills mechanical slaves. And he states that the importance of mills in the economy is very high.

The difference that this invention creates in daily life is very important. Another is the gear grinder. And it is adapted to the use of other power shapes. The amount of power included in hand power and horse power was not great.

But these features mean the production and application of the amount of industrially important power. A similar mechanism for horse-related applications appears in the notebooks of the Hussite engineer.

On the other hand, this situation was different in Europe. This is because the water wheel has been further developed with new and important applications such as the powerful and top-up vertical wheel. Another mill type is sawmills.

In the Middle Ages, both in the Near East and in Europe, mills have acquired a significant place as a source of income and as a source of income. At this point, whether the mills were the cause or the result of the changes in Europe?

We call Europe in particular; because much more important developments in Europe than in the Near East - like steamers - have led to mills. Indeed, the answer to this question is not clear. Because everything was in a cause-and-effect relationship. This can be said to be both a characteristic and a symptom of the early modern age in Europe.

In this study, we will try to evaluate the developments of the mills comparatively  which are called the factories of the Middle Ages, both in the East and in the Western world, which is one of the most important developments in the field of energy in the Middle Ages.


Orta Çağ, hem gizemiyle hem içinde barındırdığı bilimsel teknolojik gelişmelerle önemli bir geçiş çağıdır. Bu dönemde hem Doğu hem de Batı dünyasında önemli gelişmeler olmuştur. Hatta ilk endüstri devriminin Orta Çağ’da gerçekleştiği düşünülmektedir. Endüstri devrimine öncülük eden alanlardan biri de enerji alanındaki gelişmelerdir. Bilindiği üzere bilim ve teknoloji, yaşadığımız yüzyılda dünya tarihini etkileyecek önemli gelişmelere ve değişimlere neden olmuştur. Tüm dünyada yaşamı etkileyen teknoloji, artan dünya nüfusunun pek çok sorununa da çözüm getirmeye başlamıştır. Bu durum hem Doğu hem de Batı dünyası için birer dönüm noktası olma özelliğini taşımaktadır.  Dünyanın bugünkü medeniyet seviyesine ulaşmasında büyük payı olan teknolojinin gelişimi de çok eskilere dayanmakla birlikte hızlı da olmuştur. Bu gelişmenin hızlanmasında o dönemin ihtiyaç ve koşullarının büyük önemi vardır.  Bu çalışmamızda ise Orta Çağ’da meydana gelen enerji alanındaki gelişmelerin en önemlilerinden olan ve de Orta Çağ’ın fabrikaları olarak adlandırılan değirmenlerin hem Doğu hem de Batı dünyası eksenindeki gelişmelerini kıyaslamalı olarak değerlendirme yapmaya çalışacağız.

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Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-1587-657X
Author: Pınar ÜLGEN
Institution: TOKAT GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : June 24, 2019

Bibtex @research article { antakiyat536423, journal = {Antakiyat}, issn = {}, eissn = {2667-4017}, address = {}, publisher = {Mustafa Kemal University}, year = {2019}, volume = {2}, pages = {52 - 66}, doi = {}, title = {Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {ÜLGEN, Pınar} }
APA ÜLGEN, P . (2019). Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi. Antakiyat , 2 (1) , 52-66 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/antakiyat/issue/45661/536423
MLA ÜLGEN, P . "Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi". Antakiyat 2 (2019 ): 52-66 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/antakiyat/issue/45661/536423>
Chicago ÜLGEN, P . "Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi". Antakiyat 2 (2019 ): 52-66
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi AU - Pınar ÜLGEN Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Antakiyat JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 52 EP - 66 VL - 2 IS - 1 SN - -2667-4017 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Antakiyat Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi %A Pınar ÜLGEN %T Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi %D 2019 %J Antakiyat %P -2667-4017 %V 2 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD ÜLGEN, Pınar . "Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi". Antakiyat 2 / 1 (June 2019): 52-66 .
AMA ÜLGEN P . Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi. Antakiyat. 2019; 2(1): 52-66.
Vancouver ÜLGEN P . Orta Çağ’ın Fabrikaları Olan Değirmenlerin Doğu–Batı Ekseninde Değerlendirilmesi. Antakiyat. 2019; 2(1): 66-52.