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Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei

Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 1, 11 - 15, 29.04.2022

Abstract

This study determined the levels of Vitamin E, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in sheep naturally infected with Sarcoptes scabiei (S. scabiei). It also determined the dominant cytokine response and investigated its relationship with 25(OH)D3. For this purpose, 20 sheep between the ages of 1-4 years, naturally infected with S. scabiei, with crusted wounds were compared with 10 healthy sheep in the same age range. Five ml of blood was collected from each animal and stored at -20 °C until the serum was analyzed. To detect scabies, scrapings were taken and examined under a microscope. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was to determine IL-2 and IL-4 serum levels, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for Vitamin E analysis, and immunoassay for 25(OH)D3 determination. Vitamin E and 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly lower in infected sheep compared to the control group (P < .05) whereas the IL-4 level of the infected animals was significantly higher (P < .05) compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for IL-2 level (P > .05). In conclusion, serum vitamin E and 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in crusted scabies in sheep infected with S. scabiei, T lymphocytes had a critical role, and the immune response was in the direction of Th2.

References

  • 1. Cordero del Campillo M, Rojo-Vazquez FA. Parasitologia Veterinaria. 1st edn., McGraw-Hill Interamericana, Spain, 1999.
  • 2. Doukas D, Lıakou Z, Tontis D. Sarcoptes scabiei dermatitis in adult sheep: an immunohistochemical study of 34 chronic cases with extensive lesions. J Hell Vet Medical Soc. 2021;72(1):2755-2764. [Crossref]
  • 3. Arlian LG, Morgan MS. A review of Sarcoptes scabiei: past, present and future. Parasites & Vectors. 2017;10(1):1-22. [Crossref]
  • 4. Walton SF, Currie BJ. Problems in diagnosing scabies, a global disease in human and animal populations. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(2):268-279. [Crossref]
  • 5. Walton SF, Pizzutto S, Slender A, et al. Increased allergic immune response to arcoptes scabiei antigens in crusted versus ordinary scabies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17(9):1428-1438. [Crossref]
  • 6. Jiang Y, Tsoi LC, Billi AC, et al. Cytokinocytes: the diverse contribution of keratinocytes to immune responses in skin. JCI Insight. 2020;5(20):1-15. [Crossref]
  • 7. Akdis CA, Arkwright PD, Brüggen MC, et al. Type 2 immunity in the skin and lungs. Allergy. 2020;75(7):1582-1605. [Crossref]
  • 8. Stephen B, Hajjar J. Overview of basic immunology and clinical application. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1244:1-36. [Crossref]
  • 9. Al-Musawi MM, Hasan HR, Maluki AH. Relationship between TH1, TH2 immune responses and serum SOD activity in scabies. J Adv Biomed Pathobiol Res. 2014;4(1):1-15.
  • 10. Martens PJ, Gysemans C, Verstuyf A, Mathieu C. Vitamin D’s effect on immune function. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1248. [Crossref]
  • 11. Bishop EL, Ismailova A, Dimeloe S, Hewison M, White JH. Vitamin D and immune regulation: antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory. JBMR Plus. 2021;5(1):e10405. [Crossref]
  • 12. Karagöz Güral N. Köpeklerde Bazı Paraziter Dermatozlarda Serum 25 Hidroksi Vitamin D3 Düzeyinin Belirlenmesi. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Türkiye, 2017.
  • 13. Dimri U, Sharma MC, Yamdagni A, Ranjan R, Zama MMS. Psoroptic mange infestation increases oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant status in sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168(3-4):318-322. [Crossref]
  • 14. Gombart AF, Pierre A, Maggini S. A review of micronutrients and the immune system-working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection. Nutrients. 2020;12(1):236. [Crossref]
  • 15. Fthenakis GC, Papadopoulos E, Himonas C, Leontides L, Kritas S, Papatsas J. Efficacy of moxidectin against sarcoptic mange and effects on milk yield of ewes and growth of lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2000;87(2-3):207-216. [Crossref]
  • 16. William MS, Margo JP, Alan Kocan A. Parasitic diseases of wild mammals. 1st edn., 115, Iowa state university press, Ames, 2001.
  • 17. Hayran M, Hayran M. Sağlık Araştırmaları İçin Temel İstatistik. 2st edn., Azim Matbaacılık, Ankara, Türkiye, 2018.
  • 18. Bickhardt K, Ganter M, Sallmann P, Fuhrmann H. Investigations on manifestations of vitamin E and selenium deficiency in sheep and goats. Dtsch Tierarztl Wschr. 1999;106(6):242-247.
  • 19. Lewis ED, Meydani, SN, Wu D. Regulatory role of vitamin E in the immune system and inflammation. IUBMB Life. 2019;71(4):487-494. [Crossref]
  • 20. Li-Weber M, Giaisi M, Treiber MK, Krammer PH. Vitamin E inhibits IL-4 gene expression in peripheralv blood T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32(9):2401-2408. [Crossref]
  • 21. Malmberg KJ, Lenkei R, Petersson M, et al. Short-term dietary supplementation of high doses of vitamin E increases T helper 1 cytokine production in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(6):1772-1778.
  • 22. Han SN, Wu D, Ha WK, et al. Vitamin E supplementation increases T helper 1 cytokine production in old mice infected with influenza virus. Immunology. 2000;100(4):487-493. [Crossref]
  • 23. Ural K, Tunca R, Ural DA, et al. Interpretation of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 concentartions in sheep with naturally occurring sarcoptic mange. J Adv VetBio Sci Tech. 2018;3(1):35-40. [Crossref]
  • 24. Başbuğ O, Tuzcu N, Ercan N, Aydoğdu U, Oğrak YZ. Serum vitamin D levels in sheep with Caseous Lymphadenitis. FÜ Sağ Bil Vet Derg. 2014;28(2):77-80.
  • 25. Hammouda MB, Ford AE, Liu Y, Zhang JY. The JNK signaling pathway in inflammatory skin disorders and cancer. Cells. 2020;9(4):857. [Crossref]
  • 26. Singh SK, Dimri U, Sharma B, Saxena M, Kumari P. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2014;206(3-4):253-257. [Crossref]
  • 27. Lalli PN, Morgan MS, Arlian LG. Skewed Th1/Th2 immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei. J Parasitol. 2004;90(4):711-714. [Crossref]
  • 28. Mounsey KE, McCarthy JS, Walton SF. Scratching the itch: new tools to advance understanding of scabies. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29(1):35-42. [Crossref]
  • 29. Walton SF, Beroukas D, Roberts-Thomson P, Currie BJ. New insights into disease pathogenesis in crusted (Norwegian) scabies: the skin immune response in crusted scabies. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(6):1247-1255. [Crossref]
  • 30. Roberts LJ, Huffam SE, Walton SF, Currie BJ. Crusted scabies: clinical and immunological findings in seventy-eight patients and a review of the literature. J Infect. 2005; 50(5):375-381. [Crossref]
  • 31. Sarre C, Gonzalez-Hernandez A, Van Coppernolle S, et al. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange. Vet Res. 2015;46(1):1-10. [Crossref]
  • 32. Bayraktar MR, Mehmet N, Durmaz R. Th1 and Th2 inducing cytokines in Cystic echinococcosis. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2005;29(3):167-170.
  • 33. Maggi E. The TH1/TH2 paradigm in allergy. Immunotechnology. 1998;3(4):233-244. [Crossref]
  • 34. Stone KD, Prussin C, Metcalfe DD. IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;125(2):73-80. [Crossref]
  • 35. Bhat SA, Mounsey KE, Liu X, Walton SF. Host immune responses to the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, in humans. Parasites & Vectors. 2017;10(1):1-12. [Crossref]
  • 36. Van den Broek AH, Huntley JF, MacHell J, et al. Cutaneous and systemic responses during primary and challenge infestations of sheep with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis. Parasite Immunol. 2000; 22(8):407-414. [Crossref]
  • 37. Guillot X, Semerano L, Saidenberg-Kermanac’h N, Falgarone G, Boissier MC. Vitamin D and inflammation. Jt Bone Spine. 2010;77(6):552-557. [Crossref]
  • 38. Cantorna MT, Zhu Y, Froicu M, Wittke A. Vitamin D status, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and the immune system. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80(6):1717-1720. [Crossref]
  • 39. Smolders J, Thewissen M, Peelen E, et al. Vitamin D status is positively correlated with regulatory T cell function in patients with multiple sclerosis. PloS One. 2009;4(8):e6635. [Crossref]
  • 40. Cantorna MT, Hullett DA, Redaelli C, Brandt CR, Humpal-Winter J, Sollinger HW, Hector D. 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 prolongs graft survival without compromising host resistance to infection or bone mineral density. Transplantation. 1998;66(7):828-831. [Crossref]
  • 41. Meckel K, Li YC, Lim J, Kocherginsky M, Weber C, Almoghrabi A, Cohen RD. Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with mucosal inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(1):113-120. [Crossref]
  • 42. Jiao X, Wang L, Wei Z, Liu B, Liu X, Yu X. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy affects the function of Th1/Th2 cells and methylation of IFN-γ gene in offspring rats. Immunol Lett. 2019;212:98-105. [Crossref]

Sarcoptes Scabiei ile Enfeste Koyunlarda İnterlökin ve Vitamin Düzeylerinin Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 1, 11 - 15, 29.04.2022

Abstract

Çalışmanın amacı S. scabiei ile doğal enfekte koyunlarda vitamin E, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), interleukin-2 (IL-2) ve interleukin-4 (IL-4) seviyelerinin tespit edilmesi ayrıca baskın sitokin yanıtının belirlenerek 25(OH)D3 ile ilişkisinin araştırılmasıdır. Bu amaçla, 1-4 yaşları arasında S. scabiei ile doğal enfekte, kabuklu yaralara sahip 20 ve kontrol grubu olarak aynı yaş aralığında sağlıklı 10 koyun kullanıldı. Her hayvandan 5 ml kan alınıp serumları analiz edilinceye kadar -20 °C’de saklandı. Uyuz akarlarının tespiti için kazıntı alınarak mikroskopta muayene edildi. Serumda IL-2 ve IL-4 tayini enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA), E vitamini analizleri için high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ve 25 (OH)D3 tayini için İmmunoassay kullanıldı. E vitamini ve 25(OH)D3 seviyelerinin enfekte koyunlarda kontrol grubuna göre istatistiksel olarak azaldığı (P < ,05) görüldü. Enfekte hayvanların IL-4 seviyesi kontrol grubuna göre istatistiksel olarak artış (P < ,05) gösterirken, IL-2 seviyesinde gruplar arasında istatistiksel fark tespit edilemedi (P > ,05). Sonuç olarak, S. scabiei ile enfekte koyunlarda meydana gelen kabuklu uyuzlarda serum E vitamini ve 25(OH)D3 düzeylerinin azaldığı, T lenfositlerin kritik rolünün olduğu ve immun yanıtın Th2 yönünde olduğu görülmüştür.

References

  • 1. Cordero del Campillo M, Rojo-Vazquez FA. Parasitologia Veterinaria. 1st edn., McGraw-Hill Interamericana, Spain, 1999.
  • 2. Doukas D, Lıakou Z, Tontis D. Sarcoptes scabiei dermatitis in adult sheep: an immunohistochemical study of 34 chronic cases with extensive lesions. J Hell Vet Medical Soc. 2021;72(1):2755-2764. [Crossref]
  • 3. Arlian LG, Morgan MS. A review of Sarcoptes scabiei: past, present and future. Parasites & Vectors. 2017;10(1):1-22. [Crossref]
  • 4. Walton SF, Currie BJ. Problems in diagnosing scabies, a global disease in human and animal populations. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(2):268-279. [Crossref]
  • 5. Walton SF, Pizzutto S, Slender A, et al. Increased allergic immune response to arcoptes scabiei antigens in crusted versus ordinary scabies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17(9):1428-1438. [Crossref]
  • 6. Jiang Y, Tsoi LC, Billi AC, et al. Cytokinocytes: the diverse contribution of keratinocytes to immune responses in skin. JCI Insight. 2020;5(20):1-15. [Crossref]
  • 7. Akdis CA, Arkwright PD, Brüggen MC, et al. Type 2 immunity in the skin and lungs. Allergy. 2020;75(7):1582-1605. [Crossref]
  • 8. Stephen B, Hajjar J. Overview of basic immunology and clinical application. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1244:1-36. [Crossref]
  • 9. Al-Musawi MM, Hasan HR, Maluki AH. Relationship between TH1, TH2 immune responses and serum SOD activity in scabies. J Adv Biomed Pathobiol Res. 2014;4(1):1-15.
  • 10. Martens PJ, Gysemans C, Verstuyf A, Mathieu C. Vitamin D’s effect on immune function. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1248. [Crossref]
  • 11. Bishop EL, Ismailova A, Dimeloe S, Hewison M, White JH. Vitamin D and immune regulation: antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory. JBMR Plus. 2021;5(1):e10405. [Crossref]
  • 12. Karagöz Güral N. Köpeklerde Bazı Paraziter Dermatozlarda Serum 25 Hidroksi Vitamin D3 Düzeyinin Belirlenmesi. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Türkiye, 2017.
  • 13. Dimri U, Sharma MC, Yamdagni A, Ranjan R, Zama MMS. Psoroptic mange infestation increases oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant status in sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168(3-4):318-322. [Crossref]
  • 14. Gombart AF, Pierre A, Maggini S. A review of micronutrients and the immune system-working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection. Nutrients. 2020;12(1):236. [Crossref]
  • 15. Fthenakis GC, Papadopoulos E, Himonas C, Leontides L, Kritas S, Papatsas J. Efficacy of moxidectin against sarcoptic mange and effects on milk yield of ewes and growth of lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2000;87(2-3):207-216. [Crossref]
  • 16. William MS, Margo JP, Alan Kocan A. Parasitic diseases of wild mammals. 1st edn., 115, Iowa state university press, Ames, 2001.
  • 17. Hayran M, Hayran M. Sağlık Araştırmaları İçin Temel İstatistik. 2st edn., Azim Matbaacılık, Ankara, Türkiye, 2018.
  • 18. Bickhardt K, Ganter M, Sallmann P, Fuhrmann H. Investigations on manifestations of vitamin E and selenium deficiency in sheep and goats. Dtsch Tierarztl Wschr. 1999;106(6):242-247.
  • 19. Lewis ED, Meydani, SN, Wu D. Regulatory role of vitamin E in the immune system and inflammation. IUBMB Life. 2019;71(4):487-494. [Crossref]
  • 20. Li-Weber M, Giaisi M, Treiber MK, Krammer PH. Vitamin E inhibits IL-4 gene expression in peripheralv blood T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32(9):2401-2408. [Crossref]
  • 21. Malmberg KJ, Lenkei R, Petersson M, et al. Short-term dietary supplementation of high doses of vitamin E increases T helper 1 cytokine production in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(6):1772-1778.
  • 22. Han SN, Wu D, Ha WK, et al. Vitamin E supplementation increases T helper 1 cytokine production in old mice infected with influenza virus. Immunology. 2000;100(4):487-493. [Crossref]
  • 23. Ural K, Tunca R, Ural DA, et al. Interpretation of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 concentartions in sheep with naturally occurring sarcoptic mange. J Adv VetBio Sci Tech. 2018;3(1):35-40. [Crossref]
  • 24. Başbuğ O, Tuzcu N, Ercan N, Aydoğdu U, Oğrak YZ. Serum vitamin D levels in sheep with Caseous Lymphadenitis. FÜ Sağ Bil Vet Derg. 2014;28(2):77-80.
  • 25. Hammouda MB, Ford AE, Liu Y, Zhang JY. The JNK signaling pathway in inflammatory skin disorders and cancer. Cells. 2020;9(4):857. [Crossref]
  • 26. Singh SK, Dimri U, Sharma B, Saxena M, Kumari P. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2014;206(3-4):253-257. [Crossref]
  • 27. Lalli PN, Morgan MS, Arlian LG. Skewed Th1/Th2 immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei. J Parasitol. 2004;90(4):711-714. [Crossref]
  • 28. Mounsey KE, McCarthy JS, Walton SF. Scratching the itch: new tools to advance understanding of scabies. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29(1):35-42. [Crossref]
  • 29. Walton SF, Beroukas D, Roberts-Thomson P, Currie BJ. New insights into disease pathogenesis in crusted (Norwegian) scabies: the skin immune response in crusted scabies. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(6):1247-1255. [Crossref]
  • 30. Roberts LJ, Huffam SE, Walton SF, Currie BJ. Crusted scabies: clinical and immunological findings in seventy-eight patients and a review of the literature. J Infect. 2005; 50(5):375-381. [Crossref]
  • 31. Sarre C, Gonzalez-Hernandez A, Van Coppernolle S, et al. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange. Vet Res. 2015;46(1):1-10. [Crossref]
  • 32. Bayraktar MR, Mehmet N, Durmaz R. Th1 and Th2 inducing cytokines in Cystic echinococcosis. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2005;29(3):167-170.
  • 33. Maggi E. The TH1/TH2 paradigm in allergy. Immunotechnology. 1998;3(4):233-244. [Crossref]
  • 34. Stone KD, Prussin C, Metcalfe DD. IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;125(2):73-80. [Crossref]
  • 35. Bhat SA, Mounsey KE, Liu X, Walton SF. Host immune responses to the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, in humans. Parasites & Vectors. 2017;10(1):1-12. [Crossref]
  • 36. Van den Broek AH, Huntley JF, MacHell J, et al. Cutaneous and systemic responses during primary and challenge infestations of sheep with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis. Parasite Immunol. 2000; 22(8):407-414. [Crossref]
  • 37. Guillot X, Semerano L, Saidenberg-Kermanac’h N, Falgarone G, Boissier MC. Vitamin D and inflammation. Jt Bone Spine. 2010;77(6):552-557. [Crossref]
  • 38. Cantorna MT, Zhu Y, Froicu M, Wittke A. Vitamin D status, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and the immune system. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80(6):1717-1720. [Crossref]
  • 39. Smolders J, Thewissen M, Peelen E, et al. Vitamin D status is positively correlated with regulatory T cell function in patients with multiple sclerosis. PloS One. 2009;4(8):e6635. [Crossref]
  • 40. Cantorna MT, Hullett DA, Redaelli C, Brandt CR, Humpal-Winter J, Sollinger HW, Hector D. 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 prolongs graft survival without compromising host resistance to infection or bone mineral density. Transplantation. 1998;66(7):828-831. [Crossref]
  • 41. Meckel K, Li YC, Lim J, Kocherginsky M, Weber C, Almoghrabi A, Cohen RD. Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with mucosal inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(1):113-120. [Crossref]
  • 42. Jiao X, Wang L, Wei Z, Liu B, Liu X, Yu X. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy affects the function of Th1/Th2 cells and methylation of IFN-γ gene in offspring rats. Immunol Lett. 2019;212:98-105. [Crossref]

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Araştırma Makaleleri
Authors

Pelin Fatoş POLAT DİNÇER> (Primary Author)
DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
0000-0003-4885-6513
Türkiye


Ömer Faruk GÖKCECİK>
Bornova Veterinary Control Institute, Department of Parasitology, Izmir, Turkey
0000-0002-5070-6656
Türkiye


Alper BAŞA>
Akçakale Directorate of Provincial Agriculture and Forestry, Şanlıurfa, Turkey
Türkiye

Publication Date April 29, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ataunivbd985825, journal = {Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {1306-6137}, eissn = {2147-9615}, address = {}, publisher = {Ataturk University}, year = {2022}, volume = {17}, number = {1}, pages = {11 - 15}, title = {Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei}, key = {cite}, author = {Polat Dinçer, Pelin Fatoş and Gökcecik, Ömer Faruk and Başa, Alper} }
APA Polat Dinçer, P. F. , Gökcecik, Ö. F. & Başa, A. (2022). Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei . Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi , 17 (1) , 11-15 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ataunivbd/issue/69774/985825
MLA Polat Dinçer, P. F. , Gökcecik, Ö. F. , Başa, A. "Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei" . Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 17 (2022 ): 11-15 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ataunivbd/issue/69774/985825>
Chicago Polat Dinçer, P. F. , Gökcecik, Ö. F. , Başa, A. "Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei". Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 17 (2022 ): 11-15
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei AU - Pelin FatoşPolat Dinçer, Ömer FarukGökcecik, AlperBaşa Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 11 EP - 15 VL - 17 IS - 1 SN - 1306-6137-2147-9615 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Atatürk University Journal of Veterinary Sciences Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei %A Pelin Fatoş Polat Dinçer , Ömer Faruk Gökcecik , Alper Başa %T Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei %D 2022 %J Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi %P 1306-6137-2147-9615 %V 17 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Polat Dinçer, Pelin Fatoş , Gökcecik, Ömer Faruk , Başa, Alper . "Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei". Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi 17 / 1 (April 2022): 11-15 .
AMA Polat Dinçer P. F. , Gökcecik Ö. F. , Başa A. Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 17(1): 11-15.
Vancouver Polat Dinçer P. F. , Gökcecik Ö. F. , Başa A. Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei. Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 17(1): 11-15.
IEEE P. F. Polat Dinçer , Ö. F. Gökcecik and A. Başa , "Evaluation of Interleukin and Vitamin Levels in Sheep Infested with Sarcoptes Scabiei", Atatürk Üniversitesi Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 11-15, Apr. 2022