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GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS

Year 2012, Volume 2, Issue 2, 101 - 117, 30.01.2012

Abstract

The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cholesterol rich diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits can be reversed by long-term treatment of antioxidants (proanthocyanidin and silymarin) and antihyperlipidemic drug(simvastatin). In this study 35 adult New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits were used and divided into five groups. The rabbits in Group 1(control) was fed with rabbit chow diet. Group 2 was fed with only cholesterol (2% w/w) rich diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. The other groups received GPSE 100mg/kg (Group 3), silymarin 10mg/kg (Group 4) and simvastatin10mg/kg (Group 5) with cholesterol in addition to rabbit chow diet. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrified and their aorta were excised for intimal lesion analysis. Vessells were dissected, trimmed, and then placed fixed in neutral formalin. All tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(H&E). Apoptotic process was detected by using TUNEL.

Cholesterol treatment produced a sustainable state of atheromatous plaque formation In addition, only cholesterol rich diet-induced animals have shown a considerably high number apoptotic cells by using TUNEL and plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found.



References

  • Agli, M.D., Busciala, A. and Bosisio, E. (1998). Vascular effects of wine polyphenols. Cardiovascular Research. Cardiovascular Research 63, 593-602.
  • Alegret, M., Verd, J.C., Diaz, C., Hernandez, G., Adzet, T., Sanchez, R.M. and Laguna, J.C. (1998). Effect of hypolipidemic drugs on key enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in normolipidemic rabbits. European Journal of Pharmacology 347, 283-291.
  • Al-Zuhair, H., El-Fattah, A.A. and El Latif, H.A. (1997). Efficacy of simvastatin and pumpkin-seed oil in the management of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Pharmacological Research 35(5), 403408.
  • Amom, Z., Zakaria, Z., Mohamed, J., Azlan, A., Bahari, H., Baharuldin, M.T.H., Moklas, M.A., Osman, K., Asmawi, Z. and Hassan, M.K.N. (2008). Lipid lowering effect of antioxidant alpha-li8poic acid in experimental atherosclerosis. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry Nutrition 43, 88-94.
  • Ariga, T. (2004). The antioxidative function, preventive action on disease and utilization of proanthocyanidins. Biofactors Ios Press 21, 197-201.
  • Ashgar, Z. and Masood, Z. (2008). Evaluation of antioxidant properties of silymarin and its potential to inhibit peroxyl radicals in vitro. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 21(3), 249-254
  • Bagchi, D., Krohn, R.L., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D.J., Balmoori, J. and Stohs, S.J. (1998). Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants againts tpa-ınduced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and dna fragmentation and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. General Pharmacology 144, 771776.
  • Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Stohs, S.J., Das, K.D., Ray, D.S., Kuszynski, C.A., Joshi, S.S. and Preuss, H.G. (2000). Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148, 187-197.
  • Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Stohs, SJ., Ray, S.D., Sen, C.K. and Preuss, H.G. (2002). Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Annals of the New York Academy Science 957, 260-270.
  • Bagchi, D., Sen, K.C., Ray, D.S., Das, K.D., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H.G. and Vinson, J.A. (2003). Molecular mechanism of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutation Research 523-524, 87-97.
  • Ballatyne, C.M., Olsson, A.G., Cook, T.J., Mercuri, M.F., Pedersan, T.R. and Kjekshus, J. (2001). Influence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated triglyceride on coronary heart disease events and response to simvastatin therapy in 4S. Circulation 104, 3046-51.
  • Bellosta, S., Bernini, F., Feri, N., Quarato, P., Canavesi, M., Arnaboldi, L., Fumagalli, R., Paoletti, R. and Corsini, A. (1998). Direct vascular effects of HMG- COA reductase inhibitors. Atherosclerosis 137, 101-109.
  • Bonomini, F., Tengattini, A., Fabiano, R., Bianchi, R. and Rezzani, R. (2008). Atherosclerosis and oxidative stres. Histol Histopathol 23, 381-390.
  • Chien, S. (2003). Molecular and mechanical bases of focal lipid accumulation in arterial wall. Progress In Biophysics&Molecular Biology 83, 131-151.
  • Choy, K.J., Deng, Y.M., Hou, J.Y., Wu, B., Lau, A., Witting, P.K. and Stocker, R. (2003). Coenzim Q10 supplementation inhibits aortic lipid oxidation but fails to attenuate intimal thickening in balon-injured new zealand white rabbits. Free Radical Biology&Medicine 35(3), 300-309.
  • El-Alfy, A.T., Ahmed, A.E. and Fatani, A.J. (2005). Protective effect of red grape seeds proanthocyanidins against induction of diabetes by alloxan in rats. Pharmacological Research 52, 264-270.
  • Feng-Xia, M., Li-Ying, L. and Xiao Ming, X. (2003). Protective effects of lovastatin on vascular endothelium injured by low density lipoprotein. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 24, 1027-103.
  • Fine, A.M. (2000). Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Alternative Medicine Review 5(2), 144-151.
  • Gotto, A.M. (2005). Review of primary and secondary prevention trials with lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. The American Journal of Cardiology 96(59), 34-38.
  • Hasdai, D., Sangiorgi, G., Spagnoli, L., Simari, D., Holmes, J.R., Moon, H.K., Carlson, P., Schwartz, R.S. and Lerman, A. (1999). Coronary artery apoptosis in experimental hypercholesterolemia Atherosclerosis 142, 317-325.
  • Haunstetter, A. and Izumo, S. (1998). Basic mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular disease. Review Apoptosis. Circulation Research 82, 1111–1129.
  • Hecht, H.S. and Harman, S.M. (2003). Comparison of the effects of atorvastatin versus simvastatin on subclinical atherosclerosis in primary prevention as determined by electron beam tomography. American Journal of Cardiology 91, 42-45.
  • Heinecke, J.W. (2003). New approaches to diagnosis and prognosis in atherosclerosis. American Journal of Cardiology 91(suppl), 12-16.
  • Hernandez-Presa, M., Ortego, M., Tunon, J., Martin-Ventura, J.L., Mas, S., Blanco-Colio, L.M., Aparicio, C., Ortega, L., Gomez-Gerique, J. and Vivanco, F. (2003). Simvastatin reduces NFK-Kb activity in peripheral mononuclear and in plaque cells of rabbit atheroma more markedly than lipid lowering diet. Journal of Cardiovascular Research 57, 168-177.
  • Jiang, J., Jiang, D., Tang, Y., Li, N., Deng, H. and Li, Y. (2004). Effect of simvastatin on endotheliumdependent vasorelaxation and endogeneous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 25(7), 893-901.
  • Joshi, S.S., Kuszynski, C.A., Bagchi, M. and Bagchi, D. (2000). Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on chang liver cells. Toxicology 155(1-3), 83-90.
  • Joshi, S.S., Kuszynski, C.A. and Bagchi, M. (2001). The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Current Pharmacentical Biotecnology 2, 187-200.
  • Katıyar, S.K. (2002). Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, presents ultraviolet lightinduced immune suppression and oxidative stres in mouse skin. International Journal of Oncology 21,1213-1222.
  • Kockx, M.M., De Meyer, G.R., Muhring, J., Bult, H., Bultinck, J. and Herman, A.G. (1996). Distrubition of cell replication and apoptosis in atheroclerotic plaques of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 120, 115-24.
  • Krecman, V., Skottava, N., Walterova, D., Ulrichhova, J. and Simanek, V. (1998). Silymarin inhibits the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Planta Medica 64, 138-142.
  • Lefer, D.J. and Granger, D.N. (1999). Monocytes rolling in early atherogenesis. Circulation Research 84, 1353-1355.
  • Li, L.H., Wu, L.J., Tashiro, S., Onodera, S., Uchiumi, F. and Ikejima, T. (2004). The roles of Akt and MAPK family members in silymarin’s protection against UVinduced A375-S2 cell apoptosis. International Immunopharmacology 6, 190-97.
  • Mayr, M. and Xu, Q. (2001). Smooth muscle cell apoptosis in arteriosclerosis. Experimental Gerontology 36, 969-987.
  • Nishimura, T., Vaszar, L.T., Faul, J.L., Zhao, G., Berry, G.J., Shi, L., Qiu, D., Benson, G., Pearl, R.G. and Kao, P.N. (2003). Simvastatin rescues rats from fatal polmonary hypertension by inducing apoptosis of neointimal smooth muscle cells. Circulation 108, 1640-1645.
  • Noguchi, N. (2002). Novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antiatherosclerotic properties of antioxidants: the alternatives to radical scavenging. Free Radical Biology&Medicine. 33(11), 14801489.
  • Ozçelikay, T., Tay, A., Dinçer, D., Meral, S., Yıldızoğlu, N., Altan, A. and Altan, V.M. (1999). The effects of chronic L-arginine treatment on vascular responsiveness of streptozosindiabetic rats. General Pharmacology 33, 299-306.
  • Pataki, T., Bak, I., Kovacs, P., Bagchi, D., Das, D.K. and Tosaki, A. (2002). Grape seed proanthocyanidins ımproved cardiac recovery during reperfusion after ischemia in isolated rat hearts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75(5), 894-899.
  • Prasadi, K. (2005). Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of flax lignan complex isolated from flaxseed. Atherosclerosis 179, 269-275.
  • Rosenson, R.S. (2004). Statins in atherosclerosis. Lipid-lowering agents with antioxidant capabilities. Atherosclerosis 173(1),1-12.
  • Sakai, M., Kobori, S., Matsumura, T., Biwa, T., Sato, Y., Takemura, T., Hakamata, H., Horiuchi, S. and Shichiri, M. (1997). HMG-COA Reductase ınhibitors suppress macrophage growth ınduce by oxidized low density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 133, 51-9.
  • Satoi, M., Maulik, G., Ray, P.S., Bagchi, D. and Das, D. (1999). Cardioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin against ischemic reperfusion injury. Journal of Mollecular and Cellular Cardiology 31, 1289-1297.
  • Shabanzadehi, A.P., Shuaib, A. and Wang, C.X. (2005). Simvastatin reduced ischemic brain ınjury and perfusion deficits in an embolic model of stroke. Brain Research 1042, 1-5.
  • Shaoi, Z.H., Becker, L.B., Hoek, T.L., Schumacker, P.T., Li, C.Q., Zhao, D., Wojcik, K., Anderson, T., Qin, Y., Dey, L. and Yuan, C.S. (2003). Grape seed proanthocyaniiin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological Research 47, 463-469.
  • Shiomi, M., Yamada, S. and Ito, T. (2005). Atheroma stabilizing effects of simvastatin due to depression of macrophages or lipid accumulation in the atheromatous plaques of coronary plaque-prone whhl rabbits. Atherosclerosis 178, 287-294.
  • Simionescu, M., Stancu, C., Costache, G. and Sima, A. (2002). Endothelial cell response to hyperlipemia activation-dysfunctioninjury, the protective role of simvastatin. Vascular Pharmacology 38, 275-282.
  • Singh, R., Shinde, S., Chopra, R., Niaz, M., Thakur, A. and Onouchi, Z. (2000). Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on experimental atherosclerosis and chemical composition and quality of atheroma in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 148, 275-282.
  • Skottava, N., Krecman, V., Walterova, D., Ulrichhova, J., and Simanek, V. (1997). Effects of silymarin and silybin on lipoprotein cholesterol levels and oxidatibility of low density lipoprotein in rats. Atherosclerosis 134, 134.
  • Skottava, N., Krecman, V. and Simanek, V. (1999). Activities of silymarin and its flavanolignans upon low density lipoprotein oxidizability in vitro. Photother Research 13, 535-537.
  • Skottova, N. and Krecman, V. (1998). Dietary silymarin improves of low density lipoproteins by the perfused rat liver. Acta Universitasis Palackianase Olomucensis Facultasis Medicae 141, 39-40.
  • Skottova, N., Vecera, R., Urbanek, K., Vana, P., Walterová, D. and Cvak, L. (2003). Effects of polyphenolic fraction of silymarin on lipoprotein profile in rats fed cholesterol-rich diets. Pharmacological Research 47, 17-23.
  • Skottava, N., Kazdova, L., Olyarnk, O., Vecera, R., Sobolova, L. and Ulrichhova, J. (2004). Phenolicsrich extracts from Silybum marianum and Prunella Vulgaris reduca a high-sucrosw diet induced oxidative stres in hereditary hyperglyceridemic rats. Pharmacological Research 50, 123-130.
  • Sobolova, L., Skottava, N., Vecera, R., Urbanek, K., Vana, P., Walterova, D. and Cvak, L. (2006). Effect of silymarin and its polyphenolic fraction on cholesterol absorbtion in rats Pharmacological Research 53, 104-112.
  • Stoneman, V.E.A. and Bennett, M.R. (2004). Role of apoptosis in atherosclerosis and its therapeutic implications. Clinical Science 107, 343–354.
  • Upston, J.M., Kritharides, L. and Stocker, R. (2003). The role of vitamin E in atherosclerosis. Progress in Lipid Research 42, 405-422.
  • Vinson, J.A., Mandarano, M.A., Shuta, D.L., Bagchi, M. and Bagchi, D. (2002). Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacinbound chromium in a hamster therosclerosis model. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 240, 99-103.
  • Wallace, S., Katherina, V., Bradford, W.S., Viswanathan, T., Clausen, E., Nagarajan, S. and Carrier, D.J. (2008). Milk thistle extracts inhibit the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and subsequent scavenger receptor-dependent monocyte adhesion. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 56, 3966-3972.
  • Waters, D.D. (2005). Safety of high-dose atorvastatin therapy. The American Journal of Cardiology 96(5), 69-75.
  • Yamakoshi, J., Kataoka, S., Koga, T. and Ariga, T. (1999). Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 142, 139-149.
  • Yamakoshi, J., Saito, M., Kataoka, S. and Kikuchi, M. (2002). Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidinrich extract from grape seeds. Food and Chemical Toxicology 40, 599-607.

Yaşam Bilimleri ve Biyoteknoloji

Year 2012, Volume 2, Issue 2, 101 - 117, 30.01.2012

Abstract

Araştırmamızda kolesterolden zengin diyet ile beslenen tavşanlarda hiperkolesterolemi üzerine uzun süreli antioksidanların (üzüm çekirdeği ekstresi ve silymarin) ve antihiperlipidemik ilaçların (simvastatin) kullanımının etkisi incelenmiştir

References

  • Agli, M.D., Busciala, A. and Bosisio, E. (1998). Vascular effects of wine polyphenols. Cardiovascular Research. Cardiovascular Research 63, 593-602.
  • Alegret, M., Verd, J.C., Diaz, C., Hernandez, G., Adzet, T., Sanchez, R.M. and Laguna, J.C. (1998). Effect of hypolipidemic drugs on key enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in normolipidemic rabbits. European Journal of Pharmacology 347, 283-291.
  • Al-Zuhair, H., El-Fattah, A.A. and El Latif, H.A. (1997). Efficacy of simvastatin and pumpkin-seed oil in the management of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. Pharmacological Research 35(5), 403408.
  • Amom, Z., Zakaria, Z., Mohamed, J., Azlan, A., Bahari, H., Baharuldin, M.T.H., Moklas, M.A., Osman, K., Asmawi, Z. and Hassan, M.K.N. (2008). Lipid lowering effect of antioxidant alpha-li8poic acid in experimental atherosclerosis. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry Nutrition 43, 88-94.
  • Ariga, T. (2004). The antioxidative function, preventive action on disease and utilization of proanthocyanidins. Biofactors Ios Press 21, 197-201.
  • Ashgar, Z. and Masood, Z. (2008). Evaluation of antioxidant properties of silymarin and its potential to inhibit peroxyl radicals in vitro. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 21(3), 249-254
  • Bagchi, D., Krohn, R.L., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D.J., Balmoori, J. and Stohs, S.J. (1998). Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants againts tpa-ınduced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and dna fragmentation and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. General Pharmacology 144, 771776.
  • Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Stohs, S.J., Das, K.D., Ray, D.S., Kuszynski, C.A., Joshi, S.S. and Preuss, H.G. (2000). Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148, 187-197.
  • Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Stohs, SJ., Ray, S.D., Sen, C.K. and Preuss, H.G. (2002). Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Annals of the New York Academy Science 957, 260-270.
  • Bagchi, D., Sen, K.C., Ray, D.S., Das, K.D., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H.G. and Vinson, J.A. (2003). Molecular mechanism of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutation Research 523-524, 87-97.
  • Ballatyne, C.M., Olsson, A.G., Cook, T.J., Mercuri, M.F., Pedersan, T.R. and Kjekshus, J. (2001). Influence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated triglyceride on coronary heart disease events and response to simvastatin therapy in 4S. Circulation 104, 3046-51.
  • Bellosta, S., Bernini, F., Feri, N., Quarato, P., Canavesi, M., Arnaboldi, L., Fumagalli, R., Paoletti, R. and Corsini, A. (1998). Direct vascular effects of HMG- COA reductase inhibitors. Atherosclerosis 137, 101-109.
  • Bonomini, F., Tengattini, A., Fabiano, R., Bianchi, R. and Rezzani, R. (2008). Atherosclerosis and oxidative stres. Histol Histopathol 23, 381-390.
  • Chien, S. (2003). Molecular and mechanical bases of focal lipid accumulation in arterial wall. Progress In Biophysics&Molecular Biology 83, 131-151.
  • Choy, K.J., Deng, Y.M., Hou, J.Y., Wu, B., Lau, A., Witting, P.K. and Stocker, R. (2003). Coenzim Q10 supplementation inhibits aortic lipid oxidation but fails to attenuate intimal thickening in balon-injured new zealand white rabbits. Free Radical Biology&Medicine 35(3), 300-309.
  • El-Alfy, A.T., Ahmed, A.E. and Fatani, A.J. (2005). Protective effect of red grape seeds proanthocyanidins against induction of diabetes by alloxan in rats. Pharmacological Research 52, 264-270.
  • Feng-Xia, M., Li-Ying, L. and Xiao Ming, X. (2003). Protective effects of lovastatin on vascular endothelium injured by low density lipoprotein. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 24, 1027-103.
  • Fine, A.M. (2000). Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Alternative Medicine Review 5(2), 144-151.
  • Gotto, A.M. (2005). Review of primary and secondary prevention trials with lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. The American Journal of Cardiology 96(59), 34-38.
  • Hasdai, D., Sangiorgi, G., Spagnoli, L., Simari, D., Holmes, J.R., Moon, H.K., Carlson, P., Schwartz, R.S. and Lerman, A. (1999). Coronary artery apoptosis in experimental hypercholesterolemia Atherosclerosis 142, 317-325.
  • Haunstetter, A. and Izumo, S. (1998). Basic mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular disease. Review Apoptosis. Circulation Research 82, 1111–1129.
  • Hecht, H.S. and Harman, S.M. (2003). Comparison of the effects of atorvastatin versus simvastatin on subclinical atherosclerosis in primary prevention as determined by electron beam tomography. American Journal of Cardiology 91, 42-45.
  • Heinecke, J.W. (2003). New approaches to diagnosis and prognosis in atherosclerosis. American Journal of Cardiology 91(suppl), 12-16.
  • Hernandez-Presa, M., Ortego, M., Tunon, J., Martin-Ventura, J.L., Mas, S., Blanco-Colio, L.M., Aparicio, C., Ortega, L., Gomez-Gerique, J. and Vivanco, F. (2003). Simvastatin reduces NFK-Kb activity in peripheral mononuclear and in plaque cells of rabbit atheroma more markedly than lipid lowering diet. Journal of Cardiovascular Research 57, 168-177.
  • Jiang, J., Jiang, D., Tang, Y., Li, N., Deng, H. and Li, Y. (2004). Effect of simvastatin on endotheliumdependent vasorelaxation and endogeneous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 25(7), 893-901.
  • Joshi, S.S., Kuszynski, C.A., Bagchi, M. and Bagchi, D. (2000). Chemopreventive effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on chang liver cells. Toxicology 155(1-3), 83-90.
  • Joshi, S.S., Kuszynski, C.A. and Bagchi, M. (2001). The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Current Pharmacentical Biotecnology 2, 187-200.
  • Katıyar, S.K. (2002). Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, presents ultraviolet lightinduced immune suppression and oxidative stres in mouse skin. International Journal of Oncology 21,1213-1222.
  • Kockx, M.M., De Meyer, G.R., Muhring, J., Bult, H., Bultinck, J. and Herman, A.G. (1996). Distrubition of cell replication and apoptosis in atheroclerotic plaques of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 120, 115-24.
  • Krecman, V., Skottava, N., Walterova, D., Ulrichhova, J. and Simanek, V. (1998). Silymarin inhibits the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Planta Medica 64, 138-142.
  • Lefer, D.J. and Granger, D.N. (1999). Monocytes rolling in early atherogenesis. Circulation Research 84, 1353-1355.
  • Li, L.H., Wu, L.J., Tashiro, S., Onodera, S., Uchiumi, F. and Ikejima, T. (2004). The roles of Akt and MAPK family members in silymarin’s protection against UVinduced A375-S2 cell apoptosis. International Immunopharmacology 6, 190-97.
  • Mayr, M. and Xu, Q. (2001). Smooth muscle cell apoptosis in arteriosclerosis. Experimental Gerontology 36, 969-987.
  • Nishimura, T., Vaszar, L.T., Faul, J.L., Zhao, G., Berry, G.J., Shi, L., Qiu, D., Benson, G., Pearl, R.G. and Kao, P.N. (2003). Simvastatin rescues rats from fatal polmonary hypertension by inducing apoptosis of neointimal smooth muscle cells. Circulation 108, 1640-1645.
  • Noguchi, N. (2002). Novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antiatherosclerotic properties of antioxidants: the alternatives to radical scavenging. Free Radical Biology&Medicine. 33(11), 14801489.
  • Ozçelikay, T., Tay, A., Dinçer, D., Meral, S., Yıldızoğlu, N., Altan, A. and Altan, V.M. (1999). The effects of chronic L-arginine treatment on vascular responsiveness of streptozosindiabetic rats. General Pharmacology 33, 299-306.
  • Pataki, T., Bak, I., Kovacs, P., Bagchi, D., Das, D.K. and Tosaki, A. (2002). Grape seed proanthocyanidins ımproved cardiac recovery during reperfusion after ischemia in isolated rat hearts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75(5), 894-899.
  • Prasadi, K. (2005). Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of flax lignan complex isolated from flaxseed. Atherosclerosis 179, 269-275.
  • Rosenson, R.S. (2004). Statins in atherosclerosis. Lipid-lowering agents with antioxidant capabilities. Atherosclerosis 173(1),1-12.
  • Sakai, M., Kobori, S., Matsumura, T., Biwa, T., Sato, Y., Takemura, T., Hakamata, H., Horiuchi, S. and Shichiri, M. (1997). HMG-COA Reductase ınhibitors suppress macrophage growth ınduce by oxidized low density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 133, 51-9.
  • Satoi, M., Maulik, G., Ray, P.S., Bagchi, D. and Das, D. (1999). Cardioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin against ischemic reperfusion injury. Journal of Mollecular and Cellular Cardiology 31, 1289-1297.
  • Shabanzadehi, A.P., Shuaib, A. and Wang, C.X. (2005). Simvastatin reduced ischemic brain ınjury and perfusion deficits in an embolic model of stroke. Brain Research 1042, 1-5.
  • Shaoi, Z.H., Becker, L.B., Hoek, T.L., Schumacker, P.T., Li, C.Q., Zhao, D., Wojcik, K., Anderson, T., Qin, Y., Dey, L. and Yuan, C.S. (2003). Grape seed proanthocyaniiin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological Research 47, 463-469.
  • Shiomi, M., Yamada, S. and Ito, T. (2005). Atheroma stabilizing effects of simvastatin due to depression of macrophages or lipid accumulation in the atheromatous plaques of coronary plaque-prone whhl rabbits. Atherosclerosis 178, 287-294.
  • Simionescu, M., Stancu, C., Costache, G. and Sima, A. (2002). Endothelial cell response to hyperlipemia activation-dysfunctioninjury, the protective role of simvastatin. Vascular Pharmacology 38, 275-282.
  • Singh, R., Shinde, S., Chopra, R., Niaz, M., Thakur, A. and Onouchi, Z. (2000). Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on experimental atherosclerosis and chemical composition and quality of atheroma in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 148, 275-282.
  • Skottava, N., Krecman, V., Walterova, D., Ulrichhova, J., and Simanek, V. (1997). Effects of silymarin and silybin on lipoprotein cholesterol levels and oxidatibility of low density lipoprotein in rats. Atherosclerosis 134, 134.
  • Skottava, N., Krecman, V. and Simanek, V. (1999). Activities of silymarin and its flavanolignans upon low density lipoprotein oxidizability in vitro. Photother Research 13, 535-537.
  • Skottova, N. and Krecman, V. (1998). Dietary silymarin improves of low density lipoproteins by the perfused rat liver. Acta Universitasis Palackianase Olomucensis Facultasis Medicae 141, 39-40.
  • Skottova, N., Vecera, R., Urbanek, K., Vana, P., Walterová, D. and Cvak, L. (2003). Effects of polyphenolic fraction of silymarin on lipoprotein profile in rats fed cholesterol-rich diets. Pharmacological Research 47, 17-23.
  • Skottava, N., Kazdova, L., Olyarnk, O., Vecera, R., Sobolova, L. and Ulrichhova, J. (2004). Phenolicsrich extracts from Silybum marianum and Prunella Vulgaris reduca a high-sucrosw diet induced oxidative stres in hereditary hyperglyceridemic rats. Pharmacological Research 50, 123-130.
  • Sobolova, L., Skottava, N., Vecera, R., Urbanek, K., Vana, P., Walterova, D. and Cvak, L. (2006). Effect of silymarin and its polyphenolic fraction on cholesterol absorbtion in rats Pharmacological Research 53, 104-112.
  • Stoneman, V.E.A. and Bennett, M.R. (2004). Role of apoptosis in atherosclerosis and its therapeutic implications. Clinical Science 107, 343–354.
  • Upston, J.M., Kritharides, L. and Stocker, R. (2003). The role of vitamin E in atherosclerosis. Progress in Lipid Research 42, 405-422.
  • Vinson, J.A., Mandarano, M.A., Shuta, D.L., Bagchi, M. and Bagchi, D. (2002). Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacinbound chromium in a hamster therosclerosis model. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 240, 99-103.
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Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Dilek BURUKOĞLU>


Emine SUNAL This is me


Fatma KILIÇ>


Sema USLU>


Setenay ÖNER>


Ayla EKER SARIBOYACI This is me


Dilek BURUKOĞLU>


Murat KILIÇOĞLU This is me

Publication Date January 30, 2012
Published in Issue Year 2012, Volume 2, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @ { aubtdc42395, journal = {Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology}, issn = {2146-0264}, eissn = {2146-0213}, address = {}, publisher = {Eskisehir Technical University}, year = {2012}, volume = {2}, number = {2}, pages = {101 - 117}, title = {GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS}, key = {cite}, author = {Burukoğlu, Dilek and Sunal, Emine and Kılıç, Fatma and Uslu, Sema and Öner, Setenay and Eker Sarıboyacı, Ayla and Burukoğlu, Dilek and Kılıçoğlu, Murat} }
APA Burukoğlu, D. , Sunal, E. , Kılıç, F. , Uslu, S. , Öner, S. , Eker Sarıboyacı, A. , Burukoğlu, D. & Kılıçoğlu, M. (2012). GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS . Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology , 2 (2) , 101-117 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aubtdc/issue/3053/42395
MLA Burukoğlu, D. , Sunal, E. , Kılıç, F. , Uslu, S. , Öner, S. , Eker Sarıboyacı, A. , Burukoğlu, D. , Kılıçoğlu, M. "GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS" . Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology 2 (2012 ): 101-117 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aubtdc/issue/3053/42395>
Chicago Burukoğlu, D. , Sunal, E. , Kılıç, F. , Uslu, S. , Öner, S. , Eker Sarıboyacı, A. , Burukoğlu, D. , Kılıçoğlu, M. "GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS". Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology 2 (2012 ): 101-117
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS AU - DilekBurukoğlu, EmineSunal, FatmaKılıç, SemaUslu, SetenayÖner, AylaEker Sarıboyacı, DilekBurukoğlu, MuratKılıçoğlu Y1 - 2012 PY - 2012 N1 - DO - T2 - Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 101 EP - 117 VL - 2 IS - 2 SN - 2146-0264-2146-0213 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS %A Dilek Burukoğlu , Emine Sunal , Fatma Kılıç , Sema Uslu , Setenay Öner , Ayla Eker Sarıboyacı , Dilek Burukoğlu , Murat Kılıçoğlu %T GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS %D 2012 %J Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology %P 2146-0264-2146-0213 %V 2 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Burukoğlu, Dilek , Sunal, Emine , Kılıç, Fatma , Uslu, Sema , Öner, Setenay , Eker Sarıboyacı, Ayla , Burukoğlu, Dilek , Kılıçoğlu, Murat . "GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS". Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology 2 / 2 (January 2012): 101-117 .
AMA Burukoğlu D. , Sunal E. , Kılıç F. , Uslu S. , Öner S. , Eker Sarıboyacı A. , Burukoğlu D. , Kılıçoğlu M. GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS. Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology. 2012; 2(2): 101-117.
Vancouver Burukoğlu D. , Sunal E. , Kılıç F. , Uslu S. , Öner S. , Eker Sarıboyacı A. , Burukoğlu D. , Kılıçoğlu M. GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS. Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology. 2012; 2(2): 101-117.
IEEE D. Burukoğlu , E. Sunal , F. Kılıç , S. Uslu , S. Öner , A. Eker Sarıboyacı , D. Burukoğlu and M. Kılıçoğlu , "GPSE (GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT) SIMVASTATIN AND SILYMARIN EFFECT ON HIGH CHOLESTEROL-FED ANIMALS", Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology C - Life Sciences and Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 101-117, Jan. 2012