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Trophic Interactions among Plants, Herbivores and Natural Enemies

Year 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, 37 - 45, 01.10.2011
https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000052

Abstract

Plants, herbivorous ve natural enemies consist of complex trophic relationships. Both herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use plant volatiles when foraging for food. Herbivorous are attracted by the plant volatiles. Plants emit various compound of chemical against attack by herbivore. In response to herbivory, plants emit a blend that may be quantitatively and qualitatively different from the blend emitted when intact. This induced volatile blend alters the interactions of the plant with its environment. Natural enemies (parasitoids ve predators) of herbivore positively affected the result of herbivore feeding in plants caused chemicals. In addition, these natural enemies are used, the signals directly by herbivore, to find hosts or prey. Tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and natural enemies should be studied for successful applications of biological control

References

  • Bell, W.J. ve Cardé, R.T. 1984. Chemical Ecology of Insects. Chapman and Hall, London, 524 pp.
  • Benrey, B. ve Denno, R.F. 1997. The slow growth-high mortality hypothesis: A test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology, 78: 987-999.
  • Bolve, W., Koch, T., Krumm, T., Piel, J. ve Jux, A. 1999. Induced biosynthesis of insect semiochemicals in plants. In: Insect- Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence, Chadwick, D. J. and Goode, J. (editors), Wiley, Chicester (Novartis Foundation Symposium 223), p. 110-126.
  • Bruin, J., Sabelis, M.W. ve Dicke, M. 1995. Do plants tap SOS signals from their infested neighbours? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 4 : 167–170.
  • Cardé, R.T. ve Bell, W.J. 1995. Chemical Ecology of Insects 2. Chapman and Hall, New York, 435 pp.
  • Cortesero, A. M., De Moraes, C. M., Stapel, J.O., Tumlinson, J.H. ve Lewis, W.J. 1997. Comparison ve contrasts in host- foraging strategies of two larval parasitoids with different degrees of host specificity. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23: 1589-1606.
  • De Moraes, C. M. ve Lewis, W.J. 1999. Analyses of two parasitoids with convergent foraging strategies. Journal of Insect Behavior, 12: 571-583.
  • De Moraes, C. M., Lewis, W.J., Paré, P.W., Alborn, H.T. ve Tumlinson, J. H. 1998. Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids. Nature, 393: 570-573.
  • De Moraes, C.M., Lewis, W.J. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 2000. Examining plant-parasitoid interactions in tritrophic systems. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 29(2): 189-203.
  • DeBach, P. ve Rosen, D. 1991. Biological control by natural enemies, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 440 pp.
  • Dicke, M. ve Groeneveld, A. 1986. Hierarchical structure in kairomone preference of the predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae: dietary component indispensable for diapause induction affects prey location behaviour. Ecological Entomology, 11: 131–138.
  • Dicke, M. ve Sabelis, M.W. 1988. How plants obtain predatory mites as bodyguards. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 38: 148-165.
  • Dicke, M., van Beek, T.A., Posthumus, M.A., Ben Dom, N., van Bokhoven H. ve de Groot, A.E. 1990. Isolation and identification of volatile kairomone that affects acarina predator-prey interactions. Involvement of host plant in its production. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16: 381-396.
  • Dicke, M., Van Baarlen, P., Wessels R. ve Dijkman, H. 1993. Herbivory induces systemic production of plant volatiles that attract herbivore predators: extraction of endogenous elicitor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19: 581-599.
  • Dicke, M., 1994. Local and systemic production of volatile herbivore-induced terpenoids: Their role in plant-carnivore mutualism. Journal of Plant Physiology, 143: 465-472.
  • Dicke, M. ve Vet, L.E.M. 1999. Plant-carnivore interactions: evolutionary and ecological consequences for plant, herbivore and carnivore. In: Herbivores: between plants and predators, Olff, H., Brown V. K., Drent, R. H. (Editors). Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, p. 483–520.
  • Duffey, S.S., Bloem, K.A. ve Campbell, B.C. 1986. Consequences of sequestration of plant natural products in plant-insect- parasitoid interactions, p 31-60. In Interactions of plant resistance and parasitoids and predators of insects, Boethel, J., Eikenbary, R. D. (Editors). John Wiley and Sons, New York, 224 pp.
  • Geervliet, J.B.F., Vet, L.E.M. ve Dicke, M. 1994. Volatiles from damaged plants as major cues in long-range host-searching by the specialist parasitoid Cotesia rubecula. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 73: 289-297. Holopainen, J.K. ve Blande J.D. 2010. Molecular Plant Volatile Communication.
  • (http://www.landesbioscience.com/curie/chapter/4935/).
  • Janssen, A., Bruin, J., Jacobs, G., Schraag, R. ve Sabelis, M.W. 1997. Predators use volatiles to avoid prey patches with conspecifics. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66: 223-232.
  • Kessler, A. ve Baldwin, I. T. 2001. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science, 291:2141–2144.
  • Kester, K.M. ve Barbosa, P. 1991. Behavioral and ecological constraints imposed by plants on insect parasitoids: Implications for biological control. Biolgical Control, 1: 94-106.
  • Kruse, J.J ve Raffa, K.F. 1999. Effect of food plant switching by a herbivore on its parasitoid: Cotesia melanoscela development in Lymantria dispar exposed to reciprocal dietary crosses. Ecological Entomology, 24 (1): 37-45.
  • Lecomte, C. ve Thibout, E. 1984. Etude olfactometrique deliaction de diverse substances allelochimique vegetables dans la recherche de líhute par Diadromus pulchellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 35: 295-303.
  • Llusıà J. ve Peñuelas, J. 2001. Emission of volatile organic compounds by apple trees under spider mite attack and attraction of predatory mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 25: 65-77.
  • Mattiacci, L. ve Dicke, M. 1995. The parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) discriminates between first and fifth larval instars of its host Pieris brassicae on the basis of contact cues from frass, silk, and herbivore-damaged leaf tissue. Journal of Insect Behavior, 8: 485-498.
  • Mattiaci, L., Dicke, M. ve Posthumus, M.A. 1994. Induction of parasitoid attracting synomones in Brussels sprouts plants by feeding of Pieris brassicae larvae: Role of mechanical damage and herbivore elicitor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20: 2229-2247.
  • McAuslane, H.J., Vinson, S.B. ve Williams, H.J. 1991. Stimuli influencing host microhabitat location in the parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58: 267-277.
  • Nathan, S. S., Kalaivani, K., Mankin, R.W. ve Murugan, K. 2006. Effects of Millet, Wheat, Rice, and Sorghum Diets on Development of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae) and Its Suitability as a Host for Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Environmental Entomology, 35 (3): 784-788.
  • Ngi-Song, A.J., Overholt, W.A., Njagi P.G.N., Dicke, M., Ayertey, J.N. ve Lwande, W. 1996. Volatile infochemicals used in host and host habitat location by Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), larval parasitoids of stemborers on Graminae. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22: 307-323.
  • Ozkan, C. 2006. Effect of Host Diet on the Development of the Solitary Egg-Larval Parasitoid Chelonus oculator in superparasitized Ephestia kuehniella. Phytoparasitica, 34(4):338-346.
  • Paré, P. W. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1997. Induced synthesis of plant volatiles. Nature, 385: 30-31.
  • Price P.W., Bouton, C.E., Gross, P., McPheron, B.A., Thompson, J.N. ve Weis, A.E. 1980. Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11:41-65.
  • Roitberg, B. D. ve Isman, M. B. 1992. Insect Chemical Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Chapman and Hall, New York, 345 pp.
  • Röse, U.S.R., Manukian, A., Heath, R.R. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1996. Volatile semiochemicals released from undamaged cotton leaves a systemic response of living plants to caterpillar damage. Plant Physiology, 111: 487-495.
  • Sabelis, M. W., van Balen, M., Bakker, F. M, Bruin, J., Drukker, B., Egas, M.,. Janssen, A.R.M, Lesna, I. K., Pels, B., van Rijn, P.C.J. ve Scutareanu, P. 1999. The evolution of direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods. In: Herbivores: Between Plants and Predators, Olff, H., Brown, V. K., Drent, R. H. (Editors), Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, p. 109-166.
  • Sabelis, M.W. ve van de Baan, H.E. 1983. Location of distant spider mite colonies by phytoseiid predators: demonstration of specific kairomones emitted by Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 33: 303-314.
  • Salt, G., 1964. The ichneumonid parasite Nemeritis canescens (Gravenhorst) in relation to the wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, 116: 1-14.
  • Schoonhoven, L. M., Jermy, T. ve van Loon, J.J.A. 1998. Insect - Plant Biology: from Physiology to Evolution, Chapman and Hall, London. 409 pp.
  • Smith, C. M., 1989. Plant resistance to insects: A fundamental approach, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 286 pp.
  • Smith, G.S., Allison, J.C.S. ve Pammenter, N.W. 1994. Bioassay study of response by parasitoid to frass and feeding substrates of its host, the stalk borer Eldana saccharina. Annals of Applied Biology, 125:439-446.
  • Steinberg, S., Dicke, M. ve Vet, L.E.M. 1993. Relative importance of infochemicals from first and second trophic level in long-range host location by the larval parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19: 47-59.
  • Takabayashi, J., Takahashi, S., Dicke, M. ve Posthumus, M.A. 1995. Developmental stage of herbivore Pseudaletia separata affects production of herbivore-induced synomone by corn plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 21: 273-287.
  • Thaler, J.S. 1999. Jasmonate-inducible plant defences cause increased parasitism of herbivores. Nature, 399: (6737) 686-688.
  • Tumlinson, J.H., Paré, P.W. ve Lewis, W.J. 1999. Plant production of volatile semiochemicals in response to insect-derived elicitors. In: Insect-Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence, Chadwick, D.J., Goode, J. (Editors), Wiley, Chicester (Novartis Foundation Symposium 223), p. 95–105.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J.H ve Lewis, W.J. 1990. Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitic wasps. Science, 250: 1251-1253.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J. H., Eller, F.J. ve Lewis, W.J. 1991. Larval-damaged plants: Source of volatile synomones that guide the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris to the microhabitat of its hosts. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58: 75-82.
  • Turlings, T.C.J. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1992. Systemic release of chemical signals by herbivore injured corn. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 89: 8399-8402.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Wackers, F. L., Vet, L.E.M., Lewis, W. J. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1993a. Learning of host-finding cues by hymenopterous parasitoids, p. 51-78, in Insect Learning, Papaj D. R., Lewis, A.C. (Editors). Chapman and Hall, New York.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Mccall, P.J., Alborn, H.T. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1993b. An elicitor in caterpillar oral secretion that induces corn seedlings to emit chemical signals attractive to parasitic wasps Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19: 411-425
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Loughrin, J.H., McCall, P.J., Röse, U.S.R, Lewis, W.J. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1995. How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92: 4169- 4174.
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  • Udayagiri, S. ve Jones, R.L. 1993. Variation in flight response of the specialist parasitoid Macrocentrus grveii Goidanich to odours from food plants of its European corn borer host Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 69: 183-193.
  • Vet, L.E.M. 1999. Evolutionary aspects of plant-carnivore interactions. In: Insect-Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence, Chadwick D. J., Goode, J. (Editors), Wiley, Chicester (Novartis Foundation Symposium 223), p. 3-13.
  • Vet, L.E.M. ve Dicke, M. 1992. Ecology of infochemical use by natural enemies in a tritrophic context. Annual Review of Entomology, 37: 141–172.
  • Vet, L.E.M., Lewis, W.J., Papaj, D.R. ve van Lenteren, J.C. 1990. A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behavior. Journal of Insect Behavior, 3: 471-490.
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Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler

Year 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, 37 - 45, 01.10.2011
https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000052

Abstract

Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasında karmaşık trofik ilişkiler mevcuttur. Hem herbivorlar hem de doğal düşmanlar, besinlerini bulmada bitkisel kaynaklı kimyasallardan faydalanır. Bitkiler salgılamış oldukları kimyasallarla herbivorları cezbeder. Bitkiler herbivorların saldırısına uğradıklarında da çeşitli bileşimlerde kimyasallar salgılayıp, yayarlar. Bu yayılan kimyasallar, herbivor saldırısı olmadığı durumlarda ortaya çıkan kimyasallardan nitelik ve nicelik olarak farklıdır. Bu şekilde bitkiler tarafından salgılanan uçucu kimyasal bileşikler, bitkinin çevresi ile olan ilişkilerinin değişimine yol açmaktadır. Doğal düşmanlar (parazitoitler ve predatörler), herbivorların beslenmesi sonucu bitkilerin meydana getirdiği kimyasallardan olumlu şekilde etkilenebilmektedir. Ayrıca doğal düşmanlar doğrudan herbivorlar tarafından gelen sinyalleri de, konukçularını ya da avlarını bulmada kullanabilmektedir. Başarılı biyolojik mücadele uygulamaları için bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasında mevcut trofik ilişkilerin çalışılması gerekmektedir

References

  • Bell, W.J. ve Cardé, R.T. 1984. Chemical Ecology of Insects. Chapman and Hall, London, 524 pp.
  • Benrey, B. ve Denno, R.F. 1997. The slow growth-high mortality hypothesis: A test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology, 78: 987-999.
  • Bolve, W., Koch, T., Krumm, T., Piel, J. ve Jux, A. 1999. Induced biosynthesis of insect semiochemicals in plants. In: Insect- Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence, Chadwick, D. J. and Goode, J. (editors), Wiley, Chicester (Novartis Foundation Symposium 223), p. 110-126.
  • Bruin, J., Sabelis, M.W. ve Dicke, M. 1995. Do plants tap SOS signals from their infested neighbours? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 4 : 167–170.
  • Cardé, R.T. ve Bell, W.J. 1995. Chemical Ecology of Insects 2. Chapman and Hall, New York, 435 pp.
  • Cortesero, A. M., De Moraes, C. M., Stapel, J.O., Tumlinson, J.H. ve Lewis, W.J. 1997. Comparison ve contrasts in host- foraging strategies of two larval parasitoids with different degrees of host specificity. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23: 1589-1606.
  • De Moraes, C. M. ve Lewis, W.J. 1999. Analyses of two parasitoids with convergent foraging strategies. Journal of Insect Behavior, 12: 571-583.
  • De Moraes, C. M., Lewis, W.J., Paré, P.W., Alborn, H.T. ve Tumlinson, J. H. 1998. Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids. Nature, 393: 570-573.
  • De Moraes, C.M., Lewis, W.J. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 2000. Examining plant-parasitoid interactions in tritrophic systems. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 29(2): 189-203.
  • DeBach, P. ve Rosen, D. 1991. Biological control by natural enemies, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 440 pp.
  • Dicke, M. ve Groeneveld, A. 1986. Hierarchical structure in kairomone preference of the predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae: dietary component indispensable for diapause induction affects prey location behaviour. Ecological Entomology, 11: 131–138.
  • Dicke, M. ve Sabelis, M.W. 1988. How plants obtain predatory mites as bodyguards. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 38: 148-165.
  • Dicke, M., van Beek, T.A., Posthumus, M.A., Ben Dom, N., van Bokhoven H. ve de Groot, A.E. 1990. Isolation and identification of volatile kairomone that affects acarina predator-prey interactions. Involvement of host plant in its production. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16: 381-396.
  • Dicke, M., Van Baarlen, P., Wessels R. ve Dijkman, H. 1993. Herbivory induces systemic production of plant volatiles that attract herbivore predators: extraction of endogenous elicitor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19: 581-599.
  • Dicke, M., 1994. Local and systemic production of volatile herbivore-induced terpenoids: Their role in plant-carnivore mutualism. Journal of Plant Physiology, 143: 465-472.
  • Dicke, M. ve Vet, L.E.M. 1999. Plant-carnivore interactions: evolutionary and ecological consequences for plant, herbivore and carnivore. In: Herbivores: between plants and predators, Olff, H., Brown V. K., Drent, R. H. (Editors). Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, p. 483–520.
  • Duffey, S.S., Bloem, K.A. ve Campbell, B.C. 1986. Consequences of sequestration of plant natural products in plant-insect- parasitoid interactions, p 31-60. In Interactions of plant resistance and parasitoids and predators of insects, Boethel, J., Eikenbary, R. D. (Editors). John Wiley and Sons, New York, 224 pp.
  • Geervliet, J.B.F., Vet, L.E.M. ve Dicke, M. 1994. Volatiles from damaged plants as major cues in long-range host-searching by the specialist parasitoid Cotesia rubecula. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 73: 289-297. Holopainen, J.K. ve Blande J.D. 2010. Molecular Plant Volatile Communication.
  • (http://www.landesbioscience.com/curie/chapter/4935/).
  • Janssen, A., Bruin, J., Jacobs, G., Schraag, R. ve Sabelis, M.W. 1997. Predators use volatiles to avoid prey patches with conspecifics. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66: 223-232.
  • Kessler, A. ve Baldwin, I. T. 2001. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science, 291:2141–2144.
  • Kester, K.M. ve Barbosa, P. 1991. Behavioral and ecological constraints imposed by plants on insect parasitoids: Implications for biological control. Biolgical Control, 1: 94-106.
  • Kruse, J.J ve Raffa, K.F. 1999. Effect of food plant switching by a herbivore on its parasitoid: Cotesia melanoscela development in Lymantria dispar exposed to reciprocal dietary crosses. Ecological Entomology, 24 (1): 37-45.
  • Lecomte, C. ve Thibout, E. 1984. Etude olfactometrique deliaction de diverse substances allelochimique vegetables dans la recherche de líhute par Diadromus pulchellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 35: 295-303.
  • Llusıà J. ve Peñuelas, J. 2001. Emission of volatile organic compounds by apple trees under spider mite attack and attraction of predatory mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 25: 65-77.
  • Mattiacci, L. ve Dicke, M. 1995. The parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) discriminates between first and fifth larval instars of its host Pieris brassicae on the basis of contact cues from frass, silk, and herbivore-damaged leaf tissue. Journal of Insect Behavior, 8: 485-498.
  • Mattiaci, L., Dicke, M. ve Posthumus, M.A. 1994. Induction of parasitoid attracting synomones in Brussels sprouts plants by feeding of Pieris brassicae larvae: Role of mechanical damage and herbivore elicitor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20: 2229-2247.
  • McAuslane, H.J., Vinson, S.B. ve Williams, H.J. 1991. Stimuli influencing host microhabitat location in the parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58: 267-277.
  • Nathan, S. S., Kalaivani, K., Mankin, R.W. ve Murugan, K. 2006. Effects of Millet, Wheat, Rice, and Sorghum Diets on Development of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae) and Its Suitability as a Host for Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Environmental Entomology, 35 (3): 784-788.
  • Ngi-Song, A.J., Overholt, W.A., Njagi P.G.N., Dicke, M., Ayertey, J.N. ve Lwande, W. 1996. Volatile infochemicals used in host and host habitat location by Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), larval parasitoids of stemborers on Graminae. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22: 307-323.
  • Ozkan, C. 2006. Effect of Host Diet on the Development of the Solitary Egg-Larval Parasitoid Chelonus oculator in superparasitized Ephestia kuehniella. Phytoparasitica, 34(4):338-346.
  • Paré, P. W. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1997. Induced synthesis of plant volatiles. Nature, 385: 30-31.
  • Price P.W., Bouton, C.E., Gross, P., McPheron, B.A., Thompson, J.N. ve Weis, A.E. 1980. Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11:41-65.
  • Roitberg, B. D. ve Isman, M. B. 1992. Insect Chemical Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Chapman and Hall, New York, 345 pp.
  • Röse, U.S.R., Manukian, A., Heath, R.R. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1996. Volatile semiochemicals released from undamaged cotton leaves a systemic response of living plants to caterpillar damage. Plant Physiology, 111: 487-495.
  • Sabelis, M. W., van Balen, M., Bakker, F. M, Bruin, J., Drukker, B., Egas, M.,. Janssen, A.R.M, Lesna, I. K., Pels, B., van Rijn, P.C.J. ve Scutareanu, P. 1999. The evolution of direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods. In: Herbivores: Between Plants and Predators, Olff, H., Brown, V. K., Drent, R. H. (Editors), Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, p. 109-166.
  • Sabelis, M.W. ve van de Baan, H.E. 1983. Location of distant spider mite colonies by phytoseiid predators: demonstration of specific kairomones emitted by Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 33: 303-314.
  • Salt, G., 1964. The ichneumonid parasite Nemeritis canescens (Gravenhorst) in relation to the wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, 116: 1-14.
  • Schoonhoven, L. M., Jermy, T. ve van Loon, J.J.A. 1998. Insect - Plant Biology: from Physiology to Evolution, Chapman and Hall, London. 409 pp.
  • Smith, C. M., 1989. Plant resistance to insects: A fundamental approach, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 286 pp.
  • Smith, G.S., Allison, J.C.S. ve Pammenter, N.W. 1994. Bioassay study of response by parasitoid to frass and feeding substrates of its host, the stalk borer Eldana saccharina. Annals of Applied Biology, 125:439-446.
  • Steinberg, S., Dicke, M. ve Vet, L.E.M. 1993. Relative importance of infochemicals from first and second trophic level in long-range host location by the larval parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19: 47-59.
  • Takabayashi, J., Takahashi, S., Dicke, M. ve Posthumus, M.A. 1995. Developmental stage of herbivore Pseudaletia separata affects production of herbivore-induced synomone by corn plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 21: 273-287.
  • Thaler, J.S. 1999. Jasmonate-inducible plant defences cause increased parasitism of herbivores. Nature, 399: (6737) 686-688.
  • Tumlinson, J.H., Paré, P.W. ve Lewis, W.J. 1999. Plant production of volatile semiochemicals in response to insect-derived elicitors. In: Insect-Plant Interactions and Induced Plant Defence, Chadwick, D.J., Goode, J. (Editors), Wiley, Chicester (Novartis Foundation Symposium 223), p. 95–105.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J.H ve Lewis, W.J. 1990. Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitic wasps. Science, 250: 1251-1253.
  • Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J. H., Eller, F.J. ve Lewis, W.J. 1991. Larval-damaged plants: Source of volatile synomones that guide the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris to the microhabitat of its hosts. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 58: 75-82.
  • Turlings, T.C.J. ve Tumlinson, J.H. 1992. Systemic release of chemical signals by herbivore injured corn. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 89: 8399-8402.
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Details

Other ID JA46DS38BZ
Journal Section Article
Authors

Hilal TUNCA This is me


Neşet KILINÇER This is me


Cem ÖZKAN This is me

Publication Date October 1, 2011
Published in Issue Year 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @ { aucevrebilim477083, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2146-1562}, address = {csaum@ankara.edu.tr}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2011}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {37 - 45}, doi = {10.1501/Csaum\_0000000052}, title = {Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler}, key = {cite}, author = {Tunca, Hilal and Kılınçer, Neşet and Özkan, Cem} }
APA Tunca, H. , Kılınçer, N. & Özkan, C. (2011). Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler . Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi , 3 (2) , 37-45 . DOI: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000052
MLA Tunca, H. , Kılınçer, N. , Özkan, C. "Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler" . Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 (2011 ): 37-45 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aucevrebilim/issue/40109/477083>
Chicago Tunca, H. , Kılınçer, N. , Özkan, C. "Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler". Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 (2011 ): 37-45
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler AU - Hilal Tunca , Neşet Kılınçer , Cem Özkan Y1 - 2011 PY - 2011 N1 - doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000052 DO - 10.1501/Csaum_0000000052 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 37 EP - 45 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2146-1562 M3 - doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000052 UR - https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000052 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler %A Hilal Tunca , Neşet Kılınçer , Cem Özkan %T Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler %D 2011 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-1562 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000052 %U 10.1501/Csaum_0000000052
ISNAD Tunca, Hilal , Kılınçer, Neşet , Özkan, Cem . "Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler". Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 / 2 (October 2011): 37-45 . https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000052
AMA Tunca H. , Kılınçer N. , Özkan C. Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi. 2011; 3(2): 37-45.
Vancouver Tunca H. , Kılınçer N. , Özkan C. Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi. 2011; 3(2): 37-45.
IEEE H. Tunca , N. Kılınçer and C. Özkan , "Bitkiler, herbivorlar ve doğal düşmanlar arasındaki trofik ilişkiler", Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 37-45, Oct. 2011, doi:10.1501/Csaum_0000000052